Advertising & IMC: Principles and Practice, 9e (Moriarty)

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Advertising & IMC: Principles and Practice, 9e (Moriarty)
Chapter 19 Evaluation of Effectiveness
1) Which of the following is NOT a category of work that gets evaluated in advertising and
marketing communication programs?
A) message execution
B) media
C) campaign
D) other marketing communication areas and their synergistic effect
E) media buyers
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 579
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
2) According to the text, which of the following is NOT a reason for evaluating the effectiveness
of the marketing communication program or campaign?
A) The stakes in making an advertising misstep are high.
B) Evaluation helps advertisers reduce their risks.
C) Evaluation helps advertisers identify best practices.
D) Federal regulation requires campaigns to be analyzed for effectiveness.
E) Advertisers want to learn what works and what doesn't.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 580
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
3) Evaluation is done through testing, monitoring, and measurement. Testing is used to
________.
A) track performance
B) predict results
C) evaluate results
D) evaluate competitors
E) identify target audiences
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 580
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
1
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
4) Evaluation is done through testing, monitoring, and measurement. Monitoring ________.
A) tracks performance
B) is used to predict results
C) evaluates results
D) is required by all advertisers
E) is completed before the ad runs
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 580
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
5) Evaluation is done through testing, monitoring, and measurement. Measurement ________.
A) tracks performance
B) is used to predict results
C) evaluates results
D) is required by all advertisers
E) is completed before the ad runs
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 580
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
6) Which of the following is NOT a type of research used in evaluation?
A) developmental research
B) concurrent research
C) post-testing research
D) consistency research
E) diagnostic research
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-1
7) Which type of evaluation research uses pretesting to estimate the likelihood that an ad idea
will work or that one idea is better than another?
A) developmental research
B) concurrent research
C) post-testing research
D) consistency research
E) diagnostic research
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
2
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
8) Which type of evaluation research uses tracking studies and test marketing to monitor the way
the campaign is unfolding and how the messages and media are working?
A) developmental research
B) concurrent research
C) post-testing research
D) consistency research
E) diagnostic research
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
9) Which type of research evaluates the impact after the campaign is over or after the ad has run?
A) developmental research
B) concurrent research
C) post-testing research
D) consistency research
E) diagnostic research
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
10) Which type of research deconstructs an ad to see what elements are working or not working?
A) developmental research
B) concurrent research
C) post-testing research
D) consistency research
E) diagnostic research
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
3
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
11) Which of the following statements regarding the evaluation of advertising is false?
A) Good evaluation plans, and the objectives found in them, are based on a model of return on
investment for an advertisement.
B) There are factors other than the advertising that affect sales, and that makes it hard to isolate
advertising in order to determine its impact.
C) Advertising effects tend to be delayed, so it's difficult to link the advertising seen at one time
to a purchase made days or weeks later.
D) Evaluation objectives are based on a model of human response to an advertisement that
identifies key effects.
E) Usually advertising is measured in terms of its communication effects, or the mental
responses to a message.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
12) ________ is a general term that describes various kinds of research used at different stages in
the advertising development process - before, during, and after an ad or campaign has run.
A) Copytesting
B) Ad monitoring
C) Concept testing
D) Tracking
E) Ad evaluation
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 582
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
13) Which of the following could be a research question assessing an ad's effectiveness in
enhancing consumers' perceptions of the brand?
A) What brand do you prefer?
B) Do you want to try or buy this product/brand?
C) Have you seen this ad/this campaign?
D) What emotions did the ad stimulate?
E) What brand is being advertised in this ad?
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 583
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
4
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14) Which of the following is NOT a research question assessing an ad's effectiveness in
influencing consumers' cognition?
A) What did you like or dislike in the ad?
B) Did the ad engage your interest or curiosity?
C) Did you read/watch most of it? How much?
D) Do you have a need for this brand or can it fulfill a need for you?
E) What's the difference between Brand X and Y?
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 583
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
15) Which of the following allows the advertiser to tell whether a particular advertisement is
above or below the average score for the brand or its product category?
A) industry ratios
B) averages
C) norms
D) confidence intervals
E) industry standards
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
16) Which of the following companies does NOT provide copytesting services?
A) Ameritest
B) COMSCORE ARSgroup
C) RoperASW
D) Mapes & Ross
E) A.C. Nielsen
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
5
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
17) Which of the following compares the effectiveness of various message strategies and their
creative ideas?
A) copy testing
B) concept testing
C) pretesting
D) diagnostics
E) post-testing
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
18) An artist's drawing of the visual idea with a sentence underneath that captures the essence of
the idea is called a(n) ________.
A) storyboard
B) photoboard
C) animatic
D) key concept card
E) snap shot
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
19) ________ helps marketers to make final go/no-go decisions about finished or nearly finished
ads by assessing the strength of the finished message and predicting how well it will perform.
A) Pretesting
B) Tracking
C) Diagnostic testing
D) Moment-by-moment testing
E) Wave analysis
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 584-585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
6
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
20) Still photos arranged as a storyboard used in pretesting a television commercial are known as
________.
A) photoboards
B) animatics
C) test shots
D) answer prints
E) picture sorts
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
21) Drawings or still photos shot on videotape synchronized with a rough version of the audio
track are called ________.
A) photoboards
B) storyboards
C) animatics
D) test shots
E) answer prints
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
22) Which type of test provides an analysis of the impact of the internal logic of a commercial?
A) moment-by-moment tests
B) frame-by-frame tests
C) theater testing
D) coincidental tests
E) tracking tests
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
23) A group of commercials that includes the test commercial, competitors' commercials, and
other ads as well is called a(n) ________.
A) animatic
B) commercial sort
C) picture sort
D) clutter reel
E) key concept reel
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
7
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
24) In the ________ method, viewers receive a deck of key frames from the commercial and sort
them into images they remember seeing and ones they don't. They then sort the images they
remembered into five categories, from strong positive to strong negative.
A) picture sort
B) key concept reel
C) clutter reel
D) photoboard
E) animatic
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
25) Which type of testing takes place while the advertising is actually running?
A) diagnostic
B) concept testing
C) moment-by-moment tests
D) optimization testing
E) concurrent testing
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
26) A technique most often used with broadcast media in which random calls are made to
individuals in the target market is known as a(n) ________.
A) picture sort
B) coincidental survey
C) wave analysis
D) pantry check
E) inquiry test
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
8
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
27) A favorable or unfavorable disposition toward a person, thing, idea, or situation is known as
a(n) ________.
A) viewpoint
B) behavior
C) cognition
D) attitude
E) intention
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
28) A(n) ________ involves researchers surveying individuals who were exposed to the ad,
asking questions about the spokesperson, the tone of the ad, its wording, and so forth.
A) pantry check
B) concept test
C) diagnostic test
D) attitude test
E) tracking study
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
29) Studies that periodically measure top-of-mind brand awareness are called ________.
A) diagnostic tests
B) concept tests
C) tracking studies
D) test market studies
E) inquiry tests
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
30) What do tracking studies show?
A) performance of a marketer's brand over time
B) attitude toward the advertisement
C) return on investment for the campaign
D) past performance of a brand
E) inquiries from an advertisement
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 587
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
9
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
31) ________ is the number of customers who purchase the brand relative to the total population
in the market.
A) Unaided recall
B) Payout
C) Wave analysis
D) Brand penetration
E) Conversion rate
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 587
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
32) Which of the following is NOT a method used by account planners to collect tracking data?
A) attitude tests
B) wave analysis
C) recognition tests
D) pantry tests
E) consumer diaries
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 587
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
33) ________ looks at a series of interviews during a campaign.
A) Attitude testing
B) Wave analysis
C) Consumer diary analysis
D) Pantry checking
E) Test marketing
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 587
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
34) With which method of collecting tracking data are consumers asked to record activities such
as brands purchased, brands used for various activities, brand switches, media usage, exposure to
competitive promotion, and the use of coupons?
A) pantry checks
B) test marketing
C) consumer diaries
D) wave analysis
E) scanner data
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 587-588
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
10
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
35) Using which method of collecting tracking data does a researcher go to consumers' homes in
the target market and ask what brands or products they have purchased or used recently, and in
some cases, count the products or brands currently stocked by the consumer?
A) wave analysis
B) consumer diaries
C) pantry checks
D) test marketing
E) coincidental surveys
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 588
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
36) Which of the following is conducted in two or more markets, with the same number of
similar markets serving as controls while the others are the test?
A) wave analysis
B) test market
C) moment-by-moment tests
D) city-by-city tests
E) field tests
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 588
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
37) Which type of research occurs after the ad has been used to determine if it met its objectives?
A) after-only test
B) strategic research
C) concept testing
D) post-testing
E) completion testing
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 588
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
11
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
38) Eye-tracking research is a mechanical technique that traces ________ eye movement, the
path the eye takes in scanning an ad.
A) sporadic
B) cognitive
C) saccadic
D) heuristic
E) intentional
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 588-589
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
39) One way to measure memory is to show an advertisement to people and ask them whether
they remember having seen it before. This is known as a(n) ________ test.
A) aided recall
B) recognition
C) persuasion
D) likability
E) attitude
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 589
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
40) A type of memory test in which respondents are asked to report what they remember from
the ad about the brand is known as a(n) ________ test.
A) recall
B) recognition
C) persuasion
D) likability
E) attitude
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 589
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
12
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
41) A researcher asks a consumer who watched a particular television program whether she
remembers any commercials for a certain type of product, without using a brand name. What
type of question is this?
A) unaided recall
B) aided recall
C) recognition
D) prompted recall
E) open-ended
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 589
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
42) A researcher asks a consumer who watched a particular television program whether she
remembers any commercials for a certain brand-name product. What type of question is this?
A) unaided recall
B) aided recall
C) recognition
D) unprompted recall
E) open-ended
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 589
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
43) Questions that try to evaluate ________ investigate factors such as personally relevant,
important to me, stimulate interest or curiosity, create warm feelings, enjoyable, entertaining,
and fun.
A) memory
B) persuasion
C) likability
D) inquiry
E) intention
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
13
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
44) A test to assess attitude change is known as a(n) ________.
A) unaided recall test
B) aided recall test
C) recognition test
D) persuasion test
E) likability test
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
45) Which type of evaluative test asks consumers how likely they are to buy a specific brand,
then exposes them to an advertisement for that brand, usually as part of a collection of brands,
and then asks them again what they intend to purchase?
A) persuasion test
B) inquiry test
C) single-source research
D) memory test
E) concept test
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
46) ________ measure the number of responses to an advertisement.
A) Memory tests
B) Persuasion tests
C) Likability tests
D) Inquiry tests
E) Single-source tests
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
47) Which of the following is the primary measurement tool for assessing the effectiveness of
direct-response communication?
A) memory tests
B) persuasion tests
C) likability tests
D) inquiry tests
E) single-source tests
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
14
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
48) In which type of evaluative research are consumers asked to join a panel and allow their
actual purchases to be tracked?
A) memory tests
B) persuasion tests
C) likability tests
D) inquiry tests
E) scanner research
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 591
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
49) Which type of evaluative research involves arranging to have test commercials delivered to a
select group of households within a market, and then comparing the purchase behavior of the
select group to that of a control group of households?
A) scanner research
B) persuasion tests
C) likability tests
D) inquiry tests
E) single-source research
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 591
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
50) Which of the following is a service that measures audiences for print media?
A) RADAR
B) Ameritest
C) Mediamark (MRI+)
D) Arbitron
E) A.C. Nielsen
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 592
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-3
15
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
51) The costs of creating and running the advertisement versus the revenue it generates is known
as ________.
A) reach
B) frequency
C) gross rating point
D) advertising ROI
E) optimization
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-3
52) Another way to look at advertising ROI is the ________.
A) cost-to-sales ratio
B) reach-to-frequency ratio
C) GRP ratio
D) CPM ratio
E) RPM ratio
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-3
53) The point at which the advertising, because it has been seen multiple times, no longer
stimulates much of a response is called ________.
A) burnout
B) wearout
C) hiatus
D) decay point
E) point of diminishing return
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
16
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
54) The point at which recall stabilizes or declines and irritation levels increase because people
are tired of hearing or seeing the same ad replayed is known as ________.
A) burnout
B) wearout
C) hiatus
D) decay point
E) point of diminishing return
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
55) The more intrusive or the less interesting the creative technique, the higher the level of
________.
A) persuasion
B) recall
C) likability
D) irritation
E) sales
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
56) What is the biggest challenge in media planning?
A) developing impact
B) timing
C) efficiency
D) availability
E) targetability
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-3
17
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
57) Media planners operate with computer models of ________ that are used in decisions about
media selection, scheduling, and weights (amount of budget).
A) animatics
B) media efficiency
C) heuristics
D) media optimization
E) wave analysis
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-3
58) The goal of media optimization is always to ________.
A) optimize the budget
B) optimize reach
C) optimize frequency
D) optimize GRPs
E) optimize effectiveness
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
59) A ________ will assess the campaign's performance in terms of its message and media
objectives.
A) concept test
B) persuasion test
C) campaign evaluation
D) diagnostic evaluation
E) media optimization test
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 594
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
18
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
60) ________ drives a transaction or generates immediate behavioral response, which makes it
easily measurable.
A) Interactivity
B) Sales promotion
C) Retail advertising
D) Media optimization
E) Direct-response communication
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 594-595
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
61) The efficiency of a direct-reponse offer is measured in terms of ________.
A) return on investment (ROI)
B) cost-per-lead
C) responses per thousand (RPM)
D) pay-per-click (PPC)
E) intent-to-buy
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 595
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
62) Which of the following is the most common measure used to evaluate the effectiveness of
sales promotion?
A) sales
B) response rates
C) awareness
D) redemption rates
E) response per thousand
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
19
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
63) For evaluating sales promotion, ________ is the second most popular evaluation measure.
A) sales
B) response rate
C) redemption rate
D) awareness
E) conviction
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
64) A comparison of the costs of promotion to the forecasted sales generated by the promotion is
called a ________.
A) cost per thousand
B) payout analysis
C) response count
D) response per thousand
E) redemption assessment
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
65) Which type of payout plan seeks to determine the point at which the total cost of the
promotion exceeds the total revenues?
A) inflection point
B) crossover point
C) point of no return
D) break-even analysis
E) optimization point
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
20
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
66) Which of the following public relations outputs measures coverage?
A) number of PR products, such as news releases or brochures, generated
B) number of media outlets receiving PR products
C) number and size of clips, column inches, seconds, or minutes of time or space
D) media placements multiplied by circulation or broadcast reach
E) equivalent ad costs for time or space
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
67) Some online advertising uses a ________ metric that records how well the click-through
generates prospects.
A) pay-per-click (PPC)
B) cost-per-lead
C) click-through rate
D) conversion rate
E) page view
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 19-4
68) The most important metric for Internet advertising is ________, which is the percentage of
visitors to a site who complete a desired action.
A) click-through rates
B) page views
C) cost-per-lead
D) pay-per-click (PPC)
E) conversion rate
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 19-4
21
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
69) In business-to-business advertising, the number of leads that turn into customers who make a
purchase is called ________.
A) conversion
B) recruitment
C) turnover
D) attrition
E) advocacy
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-4
70) The problem with evaluating campaigns, particularly IMC campaigns, is estimating the
impact of ________ since it's difficult to prove that multichannel communication with messages
that reinforce and build on one another has more impact than single messages from a single
source.
A) efficiency
B) conversion
C) synergy
D) advocacy
E) brand penetration
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 599
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
71) The categories of work that get evaluated in advertising and marketing communication
programs are the message execution, the media, the campaign, and the other marketing
communication areas and their synergistic effect as part of an IMC program.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 579
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
72) The four types of research used in advertising evaluation are developmental research,
concurrent research, consumer research, and psychological research.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-1
22
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
73) Good evaluation plans are based on a model of human response to an advertisement.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-1
74) Copytesting is a general term that describes various kinds of research used at different stages
in the advertising process
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 582
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
75) Standards allow the advertiser to tell whether a particular advertisement is above or below
the average score for the brand or its product category.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Concept
Objective: 19-2
76) Idea testing compares the effectiveness of various creative ideas.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
77) Moment-by-moment tests are used to assess eye movement among respondents exposed to a
print ad.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
78) The coincidental survey technique is most often used with broadcast media and is conducted
by randomly calling respondents in the target market to gain insight on whether the target
audience is getting the message and, if so, what information or meaning the audience members
receive.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
23
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
79) Tracking studies evaluate copy and media against changes in attitudes.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
80) Studies that periodically measure top-of-mind brand awareness are tracking studies.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
81) Account managers use several methods to collect tracking data, such as attitude tests, wave
analysis, consumer diaries, pantry checks, and single-source tracking.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 587
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
82) One method for collecting tracking data is to ask consumers to record in a diary activities
such as brands purchased, brands used for various activities, brand switches, media usage,
exposure to competitive promotions, and use of coupons.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 587-588
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
83) One method for collecting tracking data is called a recognition check, in which a researcher
goes to homes in the target market and asks what brands or products the family has purchased or
used recently, sometimes counting the products or brands currently stocked by the consumer.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 588
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
84) One way to measure memory is to show the advertisement to people and ask them whether
they remember having seen it before; this is known as a recall test.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 589
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
24
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
85) According to a study by the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF), likability tests were
better able to predict sales impact than awareness, recall, communication, or persuasion
measures.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
86) A form of action response, inquiry tests measure the number of responses to an
advertisement and are the primary measurement tool for direct-response communication.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
87) Single-source research is allowing researchers to come closer to showing a causal
relationship between advertising and sales.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 591
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-2
88) Media-planning oversight is usually handled by the account planner, but it can also be
contracted by the advertiser to independent companies who specialize in conducting media audits
of the agency's media-planning and -buying operations.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 592
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
89) Another way to look at advertising return on investment (ROI) is to use the cost-to-sales
ratio.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
25
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
90) The point at which the advertising gets tired and there is no response or less response than at
the launch is called the hiatus point.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
91) The biggest challenge in media planning is timing.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-3
92) Advertising is particularly effective in accomplishing exposure, awareness, and brand image,
as well as delivering brand reminders.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 594
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
93) Direct-response communication is meant to drive a transaction or generate some other type
of immediate behavioral response, and this is easily measurable.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 594-595
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
94) The evaluation of public relations examines the success of the program in getting the
message out to the target audience in terms of output and outcomes, as well as public opinion
and relationship tracking.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
95) In public relations evaluation, tracking studies help us determine the favorability of the
coverage, share of voice, and competitor coverage.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
26
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96) Research methods and analytical techniques are available to demonstrate ROI for public
relations activities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
97) Direct-response communication is measured in terms of cost-per-lead.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
98) With respect to retail advertising, the results of traffic-building promotions and advertising
are simple counts of transactions as well as the change in sales volume of brands receiving
promotional support.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
99) A common objective of business-to-business advertising is called conversion, which refers to
the number of leads that turn into customers who make a purchase.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Concept
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
100) Currently, there are no standard and widely accepted guidelines for communication
evaluation for the nonprofit sector.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 598
Skill: IMC Evaluation
AACSB: Communication abilities
Objective: 19-4
101) Even though advertising is complex, most practitioners believe that advertising effects can
be reduced to a single score.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
27
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
102) One problem with test marketing for collecting tracking data is that the possibilities for
isolating variables in test markets are very limited.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 588
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
103) "Do you remember seeing a commercial for wireless communication?" is an example of an
aided recall question.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 589
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
104) Although fairly inexpensive and widely used, single-source data should be used with
caution because the data tend to be unreliable and weak in external validity.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 591
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
105) Accurately measuring the mobile audience of outdoor advertising is fairly easy as one
would merely have to count passing cars.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 592
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-3
28
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
106) Name and describe the four types of research used in evaluating the effectiveness of
advertising and other elements of an IMC campaign.
Answer: There are four types of research used in evaluation:
(1) Developmental research –Pretesting estimates the likelihood that an ad idea will work or that
one idea is better than another.
(2) Concurrent research –Using tracking studies and test marketing to monitor the way the
campaign is unfolding and how the message and media are working.
(3) Post-testing research –Evaluates the impact after the campaign is over or after the ad has run.
To be useful, benchmark or baseline studies are needed to gauge movement. These can be
research company norms or they can be based on previous campaigns by this brand.
(4) Diagnostic research –Deconstructs an ad to see what elements are working or not working.
Researchers who evaluate commercials use frame-by-frame or moment-by-moment analysis to
identify strengths and weaknesses in a commercial.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-1
107) Describe the type of copytesting that occurs during the message development research stage
of IMC planning.
Answer: During this stage, several types of research can occur:
(1) Concept testing –Compares the effectiveness of various creative ideas. This testing often
relies on a key concept card (or cards), which is an artist's drawing of the visual idea with a
sentence underneath that captures the essence of the idea.
(2) Pretesting –Helps marketers to make final go/no-go decisions about finished or nearly
finished ads. It differs from concept testing or message strategy research, which reveals the
strengths and weaknesses of different versions of a concept or approach as marketers develop
them. Pretesting assesses the strength of the finished message and predicts how well it will
perform. The ideas to be tested are often full mockups of the ad. In television, advertisers can test
the commercials as storyboard ideas or photoboards, but more often commercials are in the form
of animatics.
(3) Diagnostics –More focused on diagnosing strengths and weaknesses than other methods.
Moment-by-moment tests of commercials provide an analysis of the impact of the internal logic
of the commercial. The procedure includes showing a clutter reel or using a picture sort.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 584-585
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
29
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
108) Explain tracking studies and the practice of brand tracking.
Answer: Studies that periodically (generally every three or six months) measure top-of-mind
brand awareness (first brand mentioned) are called tracking studies. These studies can also
measure unaided and aided awareness of an ad and trial and repeat purchases. They sometimes
ask the same questions of competing brands. Tracking studies show how a marketer's brand is
performing over time, especially after changes are made in the marketing communication. Brand
tracking is an approach that tracks the performance of the brand rather than or in addition to the
advertising. The assumption is that with fragmented media and an abundance of high-quality but
similar products, it is more important to track the brand because it reflects the quality of the
customer's brand relationship. Instead of focusing on attributes and claims about a product, this
research identifies how customers are involved with the brand and whether they are more
favorably disposed toward it than toward other brands. Methods used to collect tracking data
include attitude tests, wave analysis, consumer diaries, and pantry checks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585,587
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
109) Discuss the use of scanners and scanner research.
Answer: Many retail outlets use electronic scanners to tally up purchases and collect consumer
buying information. The brand name, the product code, and the price is on the bar code of each
product. Some stores have a frequent buyer program and have a membership card that entitles
consumers to special promotional offers. The store can track an enrolled consumer's purchases.
Scanner research is also used to see what type of sales spikes are created when certain ads and
promotions are used in a given market. Both the retailer and the manufacturers of the brands are
interested in this data. Stores may establish a consumer panel to track sales among various
consumer groups. In scanner research, customers are asked to join a panel, which might contain
hundreds of other customers. They complete a fairly extensive questionnaire and are assigned an
ID number. They might receive a premium or a discount on purchases for their participation.
Each time they make a purchase, they also submit their ID number. Various manufacturers who
sell products to the stores can do the same kind of testing. The panel questionnaire also contains
a list of media that each member reported using, so media performance can also be evaluated.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 590-591
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Use of information technology
Objective: 19-2
30
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
110) Public relations programs are evaluated in terms of output and outcomes. Explain what this
means and discuss three measures of each.
Answer: The evaluation of public relations examines the success of the program in getting the
message out to the target audience in terms of output (materials produced and distributed) and
outcomes (acceptance and impact of the materials), as well as public opinion and relationship
tracking.
Output measures (students can answer any three of the following):
(1) Production –Number of public relations products, such as news releases or brochures,
generated.
(2) Distribution –Number of media outlets receiving public relations products.
(3) Coverage –number and size of clips, column inches, and seconds or minutes of time or space.
(4) Impressions –Media placements multiplied by circulation or broadcast reach.
(5) Advertising value –Equivalent ad costs for time or space.
(6) Content analysis –Positive or valence (whether the story or mention seems to be more
positive or negative), key messages (the idea in the story), sources, and prominence.
The three outcome measures are:
(1) Awareness –Aided and unaided recall in the target audience.
(2) Attitudes –Perceptions, preferences, and intent to buy.
(3) Behavior –Did members of the target audience do what you wanted them to do?
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
111) Which of the following was an objective of the Vail Resorts campaign as described in the
chapter's opening vignette?
A) attract more first-time visitors
B) market toward a younger age group
C) increase the resort's revenue by 20 percent
D) reinvent the resort's brand
E) effectively sell season passes in a competitive market
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 577
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-1
31
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
112) As described in the chapter's opening vignette, what research advantage did Vail Resorts
have?
A) more monetary resources than its competitors
B) access to better consumer resource data
C) more one-on-one consumer surveys
D) a robust customer database of transactional and traditional marketing information
E) a well-equipped marketing team with twice the research capability of most competitors
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 577
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-1
113) Mars, Inc., the makers of M&M's candy, was recently running television ads featuring the
colorful nature of its candy with the tagline, "Chocolate is better in color." What type of research
is used to evaluate these commercials right now, that is, monitoring the way the campaign is
unfolding and how the message is working?
A) development research
B) concurrent research
C) post-testing research
D) concept testing
E) inquiry test
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 581
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-1
114) One of AT&T's requirements of its advertising is that everything must be pretested and
proven to be effective before it goes on the air or appears in print. Which of the following is
NOT a company listed in the text that AT&T might hire to help test the strong and weak points
of its advertising?
A) Ameritest
B) COMSCORE ARSgroup
C) Ogilvy
D) Mapes & Ross
E) RoperASW
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
32
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
115) ________ is a company that specializes in persuasion, brand/ad recall, and communication.
A) Ameritest
B) Mapes & Ross
C) Ogilvy
D) COMSCORE ARSgroup
E) RoperASW
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
116) For the Volvo GLBT campaign described in the text, the company managers selected their
top three choices from the group of proposed ad ideas. The ________ was run to assess the
constructs of branding, communication, and persuasion.
A) pretesting
B) diagnostic
C) concept testing
D) flow of attention
E) alert test
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
117) Tom is conducting research with the target audience to test the relative effectiveness of
various message strategies and creative ideas for his client's automobile advertising. He is testing
the Big Idea. What type of message development research is he conducting?
A) concept testing
B) coincidental survey
C) pretesting
D) diagnostics
E) tracking studies
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
33
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
118) Leslie was paid $50 to watch a commercial and then sort a deck of pictures from the
commercial into images she remembered seeing and ones she didn't remember seeing. Then she
was asked to sort them into five categories from strong positive to strong negative. What type of
research did she participate in?
A) diagnostics
B) pretesting
C) tracking study
D) wave analysis
E) order of presentation analysis
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
119) Sam had just finished watching his favorite television show, American Idol, when he
received a phone call asking him a series of questions about an ad he saw during the program.
The researcher asked him what information he got from the ad. What type of research is this an
example of?
A) moment-by-moment test
B) coincidental survey
C) post-testing
D) concept testing
E) tracking study
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
120) Which of the following is a measurement dimension that reveals the hidden structure of
audience attention to moving pictures?
A) eye tracking
B) concept testing
C) content analysis
D) wave analysis
E) flow of attention
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 586
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
34
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
121) You received a phone call one evening from a research company asking about your
television viewing the night before. After confirming that you did watch the program, the
researcher then asked you, "Do you remember seeing a commercial for any fast food
restaurants?" You didn't remember any, so then she asked you, "Do you remember seeing a
commercial for Wendy's?" Once she said that, you did remember seeing a Wendy's commercial.
What type of question got you to remember seeing the ad?
A) recognition
B) unaided recall
C) aided recall
D) unprompted recall
E) prompted recall
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 589
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
122) You and your family are part of a consumer panel, and each time you go to the grocery
store, you give the sales clerk your ID number. The research company tracks your purchases, as
well as several other households' purchases, to determine the extent to which its clients'
advertising works. What type of research are you participating in?
A) inquiry test
B) scanner research
C) concurrent research
D) optimization research
E) test marketing
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 590-591
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
123) Jana is a public relations specialist, and one way she evaluates the campaigns she develops
for clients is to count the number of news releases her staff generates for a client's account. What
type of measure of effectiveness does this illustrate?
A) awareness
B) attitude
C) distribution
D) production
E) coverage
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-4
35
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
124) Betty is the marketing communications director for a major consumer packaged goods
company, and one of her responsibilities is to ensure consistency among all marketing
communication elements used for a specific brand. Her staff is conducting the first step of an
IMC audit for one of their brands, and they are collecting all the materials produced by the
company or their agencies and coding the use of agreed-upon consistency elements, such as
brand identity cues, slogans, design format, tone of voice, colors, the expression of core values,
and positioning cues. This analysis also looks for materials that are coded as off-strategy and
diagnoses the ways in which deviant messages are being sent. What type of analysis is Betty's
staff conducting?
A) input assessment
B) output assessment
C) outcome analysis
D) content analysis
E) audience perspective analysis
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-4
125) As discussed in the "It's a Wrap" section at the end of the chapter, what was the key to the
success of Vail Resorts increasing its revenue?
A) more out-of-state visitors
B) dramatic increase in retail sales
C) a campaign that attracted many more visitors under thirty
D) the strength of the pass program with a nine percent increase in season passes sold
E) increasing sales to first-time visitors
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 602
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
126) Frank is a senior account planner and is in charge of copytesting research. At which stage of
a campaign is copy testing performed?
A) before an ad or campaign runs
B) while an ad or campaign runs
C) after an ad or campaign has run
D) before and after a campaign runs
E) before, during, and after a campaign runs
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 582
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
36
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Refer to the passage below to answer the questions that follow.
You are having dinner with your former college roommate, who is a neurosurgeon. You are an
account planner at an advertising agency, and you do a lot of ad testing. You're trying to get him
to help you with some neurological tests to determine the effectiveness of some of your clients'
ads, especially those that attempt to evoke strong emotional responses. He asks you, "If
advertising is done to sell a product, why don't you just measure sales to determine the
effectiveness of an ad?" You try to explain to him that it is not that simple, and you tell him
about all the types of research you conduct at various stages of a campaign.
127) Which of the following is a reason that advertisers use other measures in addition to sales as
a measure of advertising effectiveness?
A) Sales are never an accurate measurement of advertising effectiveness.
B) Measuring other data is far cheaper than measuring sales.
C) Manufacturers, and therefore their advertising agencies, do not have access to sales data
because it is collected by retailers who don't make that available to them.
D) Creating higher levels of brand recognition is one of the major objectives of advertising and
isn't necessarily reflected in sales.
E) Advertisers don't normally measure advertising effectiveness with other measures besides
sales.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 580
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-1
128) Which of the following is NOT a main communication effect that is assessed in various
types of advertising research?
A) persuasion
B) opinion
C) cognition
D) perception
E) emotion
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 580
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-1
37
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
129) You tell your friend about the research you do before an ad even appears in any medium.
This research assists in the go/no-go decision about finished or nearly finished ads. This type of
testing that assesses the strengths of the finished message and predicts how well it will perform is
known as ________.
A) message strategy testing
B) concept testing
C) tracking studies
D) pretesting
E) test marketing
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 584-585
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
130) You also conduct a significant amount of research after the ad has been run to determine if
it met its objectives. Which of the following is NOT a post-testing technique?
A) memory tests
B) persuasion tests
C) tracking studies
D) inquiry tests
E) likability tests
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 588-590
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
131) What were the marketing objectives of Vail Resorts' Colorado Pass campaign, as described
in the chapter's opening?
Answer: There were three objectives:
(1) Loyal pass holders stay loyal and renew.
(2) Previous pass holders return.
(3) Individuals with competitor passes convert to Colorado Pass.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 578
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-1
38
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
132) Cheryl is an account planner at a major advertising agency, and one of her responsibilities
is to evaluate ads and campaigns through testing, monitoring, and measurement. Explain these
three terms.
Answer: Testing is used to predict results, monitoring tracks performance, and measurement
evaluates results. In other words, advertisements typically are tested before they run as a way to
predict their effectiveness. As a campaign unfolds, the performance is tracked to see whether any
elements need to be changed. The results, the actual effects, are measured after the ad or
campaign runs.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 580-581
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-1
133) As described in the text, explain how Volvo used concept testing in developing the GLBT
campaign.
Answer: For the Volvo GLBT campaign described in the text, various concepts were developed,
and Ford and Volvo managers selected their top three choices from a group of proposed ideas.
The messages were tested to assess the constructs of branding, communication, and persuasion,
including the concept of consumer connection.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
134) Identify and briefly explain the three sorting exercises described in "A Matter of Practice"
that enable the advertiser to see an ad through the eyes of its target audience.
Answer:
(1) Flow of attention is like a visual spell-checker used to analyze whether an ad film or Web
video is put together well according to principles of proper film syntax or good visual grammar.
(2) Flow of Emotion measures not only the volume of emotions pumping through an ad film but
also which of the four archetypal dramatic structures is being used in the creative design.
(3) Flow of Meaning shows the researcher where key communication points or brand values are
being cued visually. Meaning is created when thought and emotion come together.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 586
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-3
135) What is the name of the Advertising Research Foundation's research award, which was
mentioned in the Volvo GLBT campaign?
Answer: The ARF's research award is named the David Ogilvy Award.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 584
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
39
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
136) Gina and her family participated in a marketing study in which the researcher came to their
home and asked a series of questions about the brands and products that they use. The researcher
then asked if she could look at the products they have around the house and asked if Gina would
keep the empty packages of products they used over the next month. What type of research is
this?
Answer: This in an example of a pantry check, a type of tracking study.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 588
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-2
137) You are interning at an advertising research company this summer, and you will be learning
how to implement persuasion tests. Explain what these are, at what stage of copy testing they are
performed, how they are implemented, and what determines the validity of the test.
Answer: Persuasion tests are a type of post-testing evaluation after an ad has been run to
determine if it met its objectives. A persuasion test (a.k.a. attitude change test) asks consumers
how likely they are to buy a specific brand. Next they are exposed to an advertisement for that
brand, usually as part of a collection of brands. After exposure, researchers again ask them what
they intend to purchase. The researcher analyzes the results to determine whether intention to
buy has increased as a result of exposure to the advertisement. This test is sometimes referred to
as an intend-to-buy or motivation test. The validity of a persuasion test depends in part on
whether participants in the experiment represent a good sample of the prospects the advertiser is
trying to reach.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 590
Skill: Message Evaluation
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
138) Hector is a media buyer, and one of his responsibilities is to evaluate the media vehicles he
will purchase for his clients. Name the companies that he most likely uses to give him
information on print and broadcast media audiences.
Answer: The Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC), Experian Simmons (formerly known as
SMRB), and MediaMark (MRI+) provide audience data for print media. For broadcast, Arbitron,
RADAR, and A.C. Nielsen provide audience monitoring.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 592
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-3
40
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139) Charles is going to be a member of a discussion panel at an upcoming conference on issues
facing media planners and buyers. The topic of his panel's discussion will be the biggest
challenge facing media planners and what is currently being done in the industry to address this
challenge. Briefly describe what will be discussed during this session.
Answer: The biggest challenge in media planning is media efficiency. Advertisers want to know
their dollars are being spent in the most efficient way and for the greatest impact. Media planners
use computer media
media selection, scheduling, and weights (amount of budget). Models are always theoretical, so
one result of post-evaluation is that the actual performance of a plan can be compared with the
results projected by the media planner's model. The goal in testing media planning is always to
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-3
140) RoC Retinol Correxion is a skin creme product that says you can "Get 10 Years Back." The
print ad doesn't really give much information regarding the product, but it does say, "For more
about the science behind RoC, visit rocskincare.com." How can the effectiveness of this ad be
measured?
Answer: Ads containing elements that can be returned (i.e., web address) are evaluated by using
direct-response counts. Because this ad contains a direct-response element, RoC can simply
count the number of readers who visit the website.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 594-595
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
141) Maria is a public relations specialist who works primarily on writing news releases and
feature stories for the clients of the agency in which she works. On the most basic level, how can
her efforts be evaluated?
Answer: The evaluation of public relations examines the success of the program in getting the
message out to the target audience in terms of output (materials produced and distributed) and
outcomes (acceptance and impact of the materials), as well as public opinion and relationship
tracking. It would seem that the most basic level of analysis for evaluating Maria's efforts would
be to look at output measures.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Application
AACSB: Analytic skills
Objective: 19-4
41
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
142) The Kitchen Table is a specialty kitchen store that tries to get customers to make repeat
visits. To do that, the Kitchen Table holds cooking demonstrations hosted by various chefs from
restaurants around town. To promote these events, the store advertises in the newspaper for two
weeks leading up to each event. How can the store know if the ads are successful?
Answer: A simple way to assess the effectiveness of the ads is to count how many people show
up for the cooking demonstration that was advertised.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
143) BFDG Advertising specializes in business-to-business advertising. Discuss the primary
objectives of B2B advertising and how its effectiveness is typically evaluated.
Answer: The primary objective of B2B advertising is to generate a response, particularly sales
leads. Therefore, a common form of evaluation is a lead count based on calls, e-mails, and cards
returned to the advertiser. Another common objective is called conversion, which refers to the
number of leads that turn into customers who make a purchase. Conversion rates, which are
percentages of the leads, are also calculated for most marketing communication tools used in
B2B programs.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 597
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
144) Coca-Cola is a global brand that advertises all over the world. Discuss the special problems
managers face that make evaluation of international programs difficult.
Answer: First, many markets with distinctive characteristics must be analyzed, not just the
markets in one country. Furthermore, the costs of running evaluation programs in smaller
markets may not be cost effective. There may also be incompatibilities among various
measurement systems and data analysis techniques that make it difficult to compare the data
from one market to similar data from another market.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 598
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Dynamics of the global economy
Objective: 19-4
145) What were the three objectives of the UPS campaign described in the chapter?
Answer:
(1) Breaking through awareness.
(2) Breaking through the inertia trance.
(3) Breaking the relevance trance.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 600-601
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
42
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Refer to the passage below to answer the questions that follow.
Dell Computers has dramatically increased its consumer advertising in the past five years, which
has resulted in Dell becoming the top-selling personal computer. Consumers can purchase a Dell
computer only directly from Dell, either by calling the toll-free number or visiting Dell's website.
One of Dell's popular television commercials included Steve, a young man who would usually
say, "Dude, you're gettin' a Dell." Audiences really liked Steve and the ads he appeared in, and in
fact, that's when Dell's sales started to skyrocket. However, Dell has stopped that campaign and
has moved on to others.
146) One procedure that was used to evaluate the commercials used a clutter reel to test the ads.
Explain what a clutter reel is.
Answer: A clutter reel is a group of commercials that includes the test commercial and
competitors' commercials as well as others. It is a procedure used in the moment-by-moment
type of tests.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 585
Skill: Synthesis
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-2
147) Dell discontinued the "Dude, you're gettin' a Dell" campaign because the company felt it
had "run its course." Really, it was discontinued because it wasn't effective anymore and tests
showed that consumers were getting rather irritated with Steve. Explain why this can be.
Answer: The point at which advertising gets tired and there is no response or less response than
at the launch is called wearout. This is also the point where recall stabilizes or declines and
irritation levels increase because people are tired of hearing or seeing the same ad replayed.
Wearout is a combination of creative impact and media buying.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 593
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-3
148) Dell uses a combination of media, one of which is direct mail. How can Dell evaluate the
efficiency and effectiveness of the direct-mail ads?
Answer: In this case, Dell can measure effectiveness by using direct-response counts. In some
ways, direct-response mechanisms are the easiest marketing communication tool to evaluate,
both in terms of the message effectiveness and in terms of ROI efficiency
-to-cost
ratio. The efficiency of the direct-response offer is measured in terms of response per thousand
(RPM). To calculate the RPM, the formula is (total responses/total mailed) × 1,000.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 594-595
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
43
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
149) It seems like every week Dell has a special offer for consumers. For example, one offer
included a free printer and digital camera with the purchase of a desktop computer. How do
marketers typically evaluate the effectiveness of sales promotion offers such as this?
Answer: One survey found that marketers use sales as the leading evaluation measure. Other
measures in order of use were response rates, awareness, other mix, and redemption rates.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 596
Skill: Application
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
150) Dell wants to use its "Dude, you're gettin' a Dell" campaign in other countries. At the very
least, what type of research should Dell conduct before using this ad?
Answer: The effectiveness of an international evaluation program for advertising should focus,
at least initially, on pretesting. Unfamiliarity with the culture, language, and consumer behavior
can result in major miscalculations. Pretesting helps the advertiser correct major problems before
miscommunication occurs.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 599
Skill: Critical Thinking
AACSB: Reflective thinking skills
Objective: 19-4
44
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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