# Quiz A(答案直接寫於題目後,不夠寫在後面) 姓名: ```Cryptography HW#1
 We describe a special case of a Permutation Cipher. Let m, n be positive integers.
Write out the plaintext, by rows, in m&times;n rectangles. Then form the ciphertext by taking
the columns of these rectangles. For example, if m=3, n=4, then we would encrypt the
plaintext “cryptography is interesting …” by forming the following rectangle:
cryp isin g…
togr tere
aphy stin
The ciphertext would be “CTAROPYGHPRYITSSETIRINENG…” Decrypt the
following ciphertext, which was obtained by using this method of encryption and find
CNROGATLTUAIOTANHTYUAOHVERKBOENHSTIMESGSAE
(42 digits in total.) (12 points)
 The Autokey Cipher is the simple type of non-synchronous stream cipher.
Autokey Cipher :
P = C = K = L = Z26
z1 = K, zi = xi-1 for all i&gt;1
For x, y, z  Z26
ez(x)=(x+z) mod 26
dz(y)=(y-z) mod 26
Decrypt the following ciphertext, obtained from the Autokey Cipher and find key K
DHVDZVJABR (12 points)
(平心靜氣,從 K=0 猜起,發現不像就 K+1, good luck!)
 (a)Find the number of positive integers  3600 that have a factor greater than 1 in
common with 3600.(5 points)
(b)Describe a finite field of 7 elements and indicate the multiplicative inverse of
each nonzero element. (5 points)
(c)Describe a finite field of 8 elements and indicate the multiplicative inverse of
each nonzero element.(You may use h(x)=x3+x+1 as your irreducible polynomial.)
(7 points)
 (a)In DES, what is the round function gKi (Li-1, Ri-1) and what is the inverse g Ki -1(Li,
Ri), where Ki is ith round key. (You may express gKi by using f, Li-1, Ri-1, Ki and express
1
gKi-1 by using f, Li, Ri, Ki.) (6 points)
(b) S3 below is the 3rd S-box of DES
S3
10
0
9
14
6
3
15
5
1
13
12
7
11
4
2
8
13
7
0
9
3
4
6
10
2
8
5
14
12
11
15
1
13
6
4
9
8
15
3
0
11
1
2
12
5
10
14
7
1
10
13
0
6
9
8
7
4
15
14
3
11
5
2
12
What is the output of S3 if the input is 101001?
And what is the output of S3 if the input is 011011 (6 points)
(c) In DES, you are given any pair (x, y), where x and y are of 64 bits.
What is the probability that there exists a key K such that DESK(x)=y?
(5 points)
(d) In DES, you are given two plaintext-ciphertext pairs (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)
for some unknown real key K*. And if you find some key K in the exhaustive
key search with DESK(x1)=y1 and DESK(x2)=y2, what is the probability that
K=K*? (6 points)
 Give a high-level description of AES to indicate how a plaintext x in AES is
transformed to a ciphertext y. (Your answer should be limited in one page.)(12 points)
 Suppose that the S-box is replaced by the following substitution  S (x) .
x
0
 S (x) E
1
1
2
D
3
4
4
2
5
F
6
B
7
8
8
A
9
3
A
6
B
C
C
9
D
5
E
0
F
7
The linear approximation table of values NL(a,b)-8 for this S-box is computed in
the following table except A, B.
2
a\b 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0 +8 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0 +2 -2 -4 +2 0
0 +2 -2 +4
2
0 -2 -2 -4 +2 0
0 -2 0 -2
3
0 +4 0
0
0
0
0 -4 -2 -2
4
0 +2 0 -2 -2 -4 -2 0
0 -2
5
0
0 -2 -2 -4 +4 +2 +2 -2 -2
6
0
0 -2 +2 +4 0 +2 +2 0 -4
7
0 +2 0 +2 -2 0 -2 0 -2 0
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 -2 +2
9
0 -2 -2 0 -2 0 -4 +2 0 -2
A 0 +2 -2 0 -2 0 +4 -2 +2 0
B 0 +4 0
0
0
0
0 +4 +4 0
C 0 -2 +4 -2 B 0 +2 0 +2 0
D 0
0 +2 +2 0
0 +2 +2 -4 0
E 0
0 +2 -2 0 -4 +2 +2 -2 -2
F
0 -2 -4 +2 -2 -4 +2 0
0 +2
A
0
0
+2
-2
0
0
+2
B
0
+2
0
+2
+2
0
+2
A 0
+2 -2
-2 0
0 -2
0
0
+2 +4
-2 +2
0 -4
0 +2
C
0
0
+2
-2
+2
-2
0
0
+2
+2
+4
0
0
+4
-2
-2
D
0
+2
0
+2
-4
-2
0
+2
-2
+4
+2
0
+2
0
+2
0
E F
0
0
+2 0
-4 +2
-2 -2
+2 0
0
0
+2 -2
0 +2
-2 -6
0 -2
+2 0
-4 0
0 -2
-2 +2
0
0
-2 0
(a) Calculate A and B by the corresponding truth tables (you may use the following
presentation of  S (x) ). (6 points)
X1 X2 X3 X4 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
(b) The trail we choose in the linear attack is shown in the following figure.
What is the total bias of this trail? (Show your steps.) (10 points)
3
plaintext
P1 P2
…
P16
Subkey K1 mixing
1
U
S11
S21
S31
S41
V1
W1
Subkey K2 mixing
U2
S12
S22
S32
S42
V2
W2
Subkey K3 mixing
U3
S13
S23
S33
S43
V3
W3
Subkey K4 mixing
U4
S14
S24
S34
S44
4
V
Subkey K5 mixing
C1C2
…
C16
ciphertext
(c) From the above figure, list all the random variables of plaintext bits, bits of U4
and key bits, which are involved in this attack. (8 points)
4
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