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Some Frequently Used Symbols in Mathematics is an element or member of the set is not an element of implication p q is read ‘ if p, then q’ if and only if p q is read ‘ p if and only if q’ for all ‘ x’ is read as ‘for all x’ there exists ‘ x’ is read as ‘ there exists an x’ there does not exist ! there exists uniquely such that approximately equal to therefore the empty set Note: This is not a zero or an O {x | …} Set builder notation read as ‘the set of all x such that … ?? what the bleep what are you doing? Hello! Say something. JDarck 2005 ‘x R’ reads as ‘x is an element of the Real numbers’ ‘! x’ is read as ‘ there exists a unique x’ ‘ x x R’ reads as ‘for all x such that x is an element of the Real numbers’ ‘e 2.718281828459’ reads ‘‘e’ is approximately equal to the rational number 2.718281828459’