ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP MATTER Dr. Said Malki Faculty School of Business Administration Al Akhawayn University Ifrane, Morocco Phone: 1 (646)-641-6555 Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT This paper will focus on the characteristics and roles of effective leadership. This latter should not be confused with management roles and tasks. A special attention will be given to the roles of leaders with respect to organizational change and development. CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLES OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP Leadership is an influence process involving two or more people. The person who is the target of the influence effort must attribute that effort to a specific person and consider it acceptable. Leaders and managers play different roles in organizations. Leaders seek to change organizations, while managers sustain and control them. Organizations also have diverse needs for those roles at different levels and at different times in their history. An effective leader has the following skills: (i) listen more than talk, (ii) cooperate more than compete; (iii) value talent more than title; (iv) value teamwork more than individual glory; (v) pursue purpose beyond profit; (vi) fix things than are not broken; (vii) take appropriate risks; generate new ideas; (vii) embrace change. Moreover, effective leadership requires a focus on VABEs (values, assumptions, believes, and expectations) at the organizational level. Challenges and issues related to organizational change translate the importance of the leadership point of view: (1) seeing what needs to be done; (2) understanding the underlying forces at play in a situation; and (3) initiating action to make things better. Effective leaders aim organizational change because the success--even the mere survivalof organizations depends on their ability to adapt to change. There are many trait theories that describe traits consistently associated with leadership, such as intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, energy, the desire to lead, honesty, and task-relevant knowledge. In addition, behavioral theories of leadership describe task- and peopleoriented behavior as stable dimensions of leader behavior. Two contingency theories give different views of how situations affect leader behavior. Concerning Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership, it says that leaders have a predisposition to focus on people or a task. With respect to House’s path-goal theory of leadership, it states that leaders can choose from four behaviors and combine them according to the needs of the situation. Those behaviors are directive, supportive, participative, and achievementoriented. The alternative leadership theories are the leadership mystique, transformational leadership, and charismatic leadership. Each theory emphasizes the role of charisma and vision in effective leadership. It is vital to mention though that the growing use of self-managing work teams particularly in American and Canadian organizations is changing the role of leaders inside and outside the teams. Many observations apply to such teams and can guide team leaders and those who coordinate activities of several teams. This said and done, it is vital to note that situations surrounding leaders have many factors that substitute for leader behavior, neutralize the behavior, or enhance the behavior. Understanding a situation’s characteristics is an essential step in being an effective leader in an organization. Furthermore, the core values that define the relationships between leaders and followers or managers and subordinates vary across cultures. People in nations with values that specify hierarchical relationships in organizations react more positively to directive approaches than to participative approaches. Besides this cultural dimension, the ethical leader should consider moral dilemmas, reward ethical behavior, and build an ethical organizational culture. Such qualities are especially significant to consider for leaders who have strong effects on their followers. In general, the role of a leader is different than a manager. Indeed a manager needs to know what objectives must be achieved within a specific timeframe and be able to communicate them effectively to other people. He/she should be capable of building a plan in order to meet objectives. Other management characteristics are: (i) Actionoriented; (ii) Able to deal with ambiguity; (iii) Approachable; (iv) empower others; (v) intelligent; (vi) organizational ability; (vii) educated; (viii) organizational power and influence. A good manager reinforces organizational ethics by being a good example for employees and also considers interests of different stakeholders (customers, distributors, suppliers, regulators, etc). While managers think incrementally (case by case), leaders usually think radically considering the whole picture and the overall organizational vision and purpose. LEADERS AND CHALLENGES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT Regarding the organizational change, it includes both unplanned and planned change. Unplanned change occurs when forces for change overwhelm the organization. Planned organizational change is deliberate and clarifies series of phases that are not always different from each other. Planned change efforts can have different aims, including the organization’s culture, decision processes, task design, and organizational design. It can proceed in incremental steps (evolutionary change) or at a fast pace (revolutionary change). People resist change for many reasons. Some people may see the change as causing them to lose something valued. Additionally, misunderstandings about the intended change goal can lead to resistance reactions. Other reasons for resistance change are lack of trust, lack of a common perception about the value of the change, low tolerance for change and the uncertainty associated with it. Managers and leaders should view resistance to change as a problem to overcome or as a new source of information about the organization. There are ways to manage the change process and to reduce resistance. Using dramatic ceremonies and symbols to signal disengagement from the past can move a system forward with little resistance. The ceremony may consist of recognition of job well done on some finished programs. Ceremoniously burying the old program and launching the new one can go together with reducing resistance to change. In addition, it is useful to communicate information about the change in order to reduce resistance to change. Leadership and management should be ready to answer the question: What it is for me? Why the change happens? How it will happen? What are the effects of the change on various groups of the organization? Involving the key people who will be affected with the suggested change also helps decrease resistance. Moreover, managers can support an important change by committing sufficient resources to make the change easier on those affected. Furthermore, an indirect and politically based approach involves different forms of manipulation of those who are the target of change (e.g. Co-optation). It goes without saying that managers and change agents sometimes have no choice than to force coercively change onto the target system especially when change must come quickly. One should keep in mind though that pressing or forcing a system to change can increase resistance to change. Another important aspect of the organizational setting is organizational development. It is a systematic approach to planned change using social and behavioral science theories and concepts. It occurs in a series of stages and often uses data to assess the current state of the organization and to diagnose the organization to identify needed changes. Managers and consultants can choose from four classes of organizational development interventions: (1) human process interventions, (2) structural and technological interventions, (3) human resource management interventions, and (4) strategy interventions. Organizational development has its intellectual roots mainly in the United States with some branches in England, Northern Europe, and Scandinavia. The assumptions and values of consultants, and the nature of many interventions, reflect the values of those cultures. Those assumptions and values are different from the assumptions and values found in many other nations. The ethics issues in organizational change and development center on misrepresentation by a client or consultant, data confidentiality, and full awareness and consent to behavioral changes by people who will experience the changes. CONCLUSION The concept of leadership is not static since it is constantly influenced both by internal dynamics of organizations and the external environment. While power-with, effective communication, and coordination are vital elements, it is important to develop awareness for cultural diversity and ethics especially in international settings. Other aspects of leadership are connected to socialization, organizational culture, motivation, and conflicts management. REFERENCES Beckhard, R., & Pritchard, W. (1992). Changing the Essence: The Art of Creating and Leading Fundamental Change in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Champoux, J.E. (2003). Organizational Behavior: Essential Tenets. Thomson SouthWestern. Jennings, E.E. 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