Feeding behaviors have played a major role in the leading

We have followed the taxonomy proposed by Groves (2005) for extant species and
Fleagle (1999) and Hartwig (2002) for fossil species. For extant species, we have
considered Primates formed by two suborders, Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini.
Strepsirrhini is divided into three infraorders (Lemuriformes, Chiromyiformes and
Lorisiformes), whereas Haplorhini is divided into two infraorders (Tarsiiformes and
Simiiformes). Lemuriformes is divided into four families (Cheirogaleidae, Lemuridae,
Lepilemuridae and Indridae). Chiromyiformes is composed of one family
(Daubentoniidae) and Lorisiformes is composed of two families (Lorisidae and
Galagidae). Tarsiiformes is formed of one family (Tarsiidae) and Simiiformes is
comprised of six families (Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, Atelidae, Cercopithecidae,
Hylobatidae and Hominidae).
For extinct primates, we have considered the mirorder Primatomorpha to be
composed of two closely related orders, Plesiadapiformes and Euprimates. We have
included in our study both orders, since the taxonomic status and phylogenetic
relatedness is still controversial. We have considered nine families in the order
Plesiadapiformes (Micromomyidae, Paromomyidae, Picromomyidae, Paleochthonidae,
Microsyopidae, Chronolestidae, Plesiadapidae and Carpolestidae). For Euprimates, in
addition to the groups indicated above, we have also included one more Strepsirrhini
infraorder, Adapiformes, with three families (Notharctidae, Sivaladapidae and
Adapidae), and several extinct families in the rest of the infraorders.
Groves C.P. 2005. Order Primates, 3rd edition. Mammal Species of the World: A
Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Johns Hopkins.
Fleagle J .1999. Primate evolution and adaptation, 2nd Edition. State University of New
York, NY.
Hartwig W.C. 2002. Primates Fossil Record. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Model Selection Procedure.
To select the best fitting model(s), we performed an information-theoretic approach
(Burnham and Anderson 2002) (See Supplementary Method). From the set of candidate
models, we calculated the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), the second-order BIC
(BICc = BIC + [(2k (k + 1)) / n–k–1]), the BICc differences (DBICc), the likelihood of
each model, given data (x(i|x) = exp(-0.5DBICc)) and the weights of each model i of
the R candidate models as:
wi is taken as the weight of the evidence in favor of a given model i from a set of R
candidate models, taking into account that the wi sum to 1. All models having wi >0.7
were considered an appropriate representation of the raw data (Burnham and Anderson
Online Figure Legends
Figure S1. Saturared structural equation models for data using both extant (A) and extinct (B)
Figure S2. Ecological role evolution along the Cenozoic. (A) Temporal change in the proportion
of fossil primates being antagonistic or mutualistic. (B) Temporal change in the proportion of
fossil primates with different diet during the Cenozoic period. The proportion of primates
belonging to each ecological role or diet category is found at each time as the vertical width of
the region covered by it. As observed, the proportion of mutualistic primates was gradullay
increasing throughout Cenozoic period.
Figure S3. Ecological role and species duration (A) Temporal duration of mutualistic and
antagonistic fossil primates, quantified as the stratigraphic range in Ma. (B) Temporal duration
of extinct primate genera belonging to different diet. As observed in the figure, primates
belonging to different diet categories had different temporal duration. However, this
difference was exclusively due to a longer duration of frugivorous primates consuming fleshy
fruits and putatively behaving as seed dispersers and to a shorter duration of frugivorous
primates consuming mostly seeds and hard fruits and behaving as antagonistics. When
comparing only within frugivores, the stratigraphic range of antagonistic primates was
significantly smaller than that of mutualistic ones. In contrast, the temporal duration of
faunivorous, nectarivorous/gumnivorous and folivorous primates was statistically identical.
The SEs of the reported averages are shown as error bars.
Figure S4. Relationship between diet category and geographic range of extant primates.
Figure S5. Evolution of vision along primate phylogeny. Primate phylogeny according to Fabre
phylogeny, showing the distribution of monochromatic, dichromatic, routine trichromatic and
allelic trichromatic species.
Figure S6. Relationship between body mass (in log kg) and geological age (in Ma) (N= 184
species) of fossil primate genera.
Table S1. Relationship between ecological role and origination and extinction rates. We tested
this by performing General Linear Models including as independent variables the ecological
role (mutualism versus antagonism) and the geological age of each primate genus on the per
capita origination rate (p) and extinction rate (q).
Origination rate
Whole model (R2=0.206)
Ecological Role
Extinction rate
Whole model (R2=0.664)
Ecological Role
Std Error
Table S2. Nested ANOVA testing the effect of ecological role and diet on temporal range (in log
Ma) of fossil Primate genera (N = 285 genera).
Sum of Squares
F Ratio
Prob > F
Ecological Role [Diet]
Ecological Role[Diet]*Epoch
Table S3. Nested ANOVA testing the effect of ecological role and diet on maximum temporal
range (in log Ma) of fossil Primate genera (N = 155 genera).
Sum of Squares
F Ratio
Prob > F
Ecological Role [Diet]
Ecological Role[Diet]*Epoch
Table S4: Outcomes of the structural equation modeling exploring the relationship between the organismic-level traits (vision and body mass), ecological traits (diet
and mutualism) and species-level trait (geographic range), for extant primates using a phylogenetically-controled matrix according to Fabre n(N=378 species) and
Chaterjee (N=218 species) phylogenies. Each model tested a possible hypothesis about how these variables were interrelated among themselves.
Paths constrained to zero
Fabre phylogeny
DietGeographic Range
Body Mass Geographic Range
Body Mass  Diet
Model1 removing DietGeographic Range
Body MassGeographic Range
Vision  Diet
Vision  Mutualism
Body Mass Mutualism
Chaterjee phylogeny
Vision  Mutualism
Body Mass Mutualism
DietGeographic Range
Body Mass Geographic Range
Vision  Diet
Table S5: Outcomes of the structural equation modeling exploring the relationship between the organismic-level traits (vision and body mass), ecological traits (diet
and ecologica role) and species-level trait (geographic range and stratigraphic range) for extinct primates (N = 264 genera). Each model, from 01 to 04, tested a
possible hypothesis about how these variables were interrelated among themselves.
Diet  Geographic Range
Diet  Stratigraphic Range
Mutualism Geographic Range
Paths constrained to zero
Body MassGeographic Range
Table S6. Phylogenetic post hoc comparisons of geographic range between different diet
categories. Shown are the contrasts with the diet category faunivory. According to the Fabre
phylogeny the geographic range is not different in primates with different diets. According to
the Chaterjee phylogeny, folivores have a smaller range than the rest.
Fabre phylogeny
Chaterjee phylogeny
Estimate S.E.
0.147 -2.40
0.128 0.82
Table S7. Differences among diet and ecological roles categories in body size among extant
Ecological Role
Body mass (kg)
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