M. A. COLASANTE MODULO BOTANICA SISTEMATICA

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Degree Natural Sciences
Plant Taxonomy and Geobotany
(group A-L)
Academic Year 2011-2012
Teachers:
Plant Taxonomy: Prof. Maria Antonietta Colasante, Dipartimento Biologia Ambientale, Botanica First
floor, room 104, tel 06-49912434, e-mail [email protected]
Geobotany: Prof. Francesco Spada, Dipartimento Biologia Ambientale, Botanic Garden Largo Cristina di
Svezia 24, 00156-Roma, first floor, room E 15, tel 06/44917133, e-mail [email protected]
Target students: 2th year, Degree Natural Sciences
Level: basic
Pre-qualifications: basic knowledge of general Botany, Genetics, Statistics, Geography
Credits: 12 CFU (6 CFU + 6CFU)
PLANT SYSTEMATICS
Prof. Maria Antonietta Colasante
Contents
Preliminary concepts to Systematics. Sistematics and Taxonomy.
Evolution. Darwin and ‘The origin of the species’. The storic context of the theory of evolution.
Variability of plant organisms. Fossils. Fossil landscape. Plant evolution investigation by computer.
Natural and artificial selection. Micro and macroevolution.
Species and differentiation of species. Concept of species. Taxonomic and biological species.
Population. Phenotypic and genotypic variability. Polimorphism, phenotypic plasticity and
ecotypification. Convergence. Differentiation of species. Variation at genetic level. Meiosis and
taxonomy. Formation of new genotypes: mutations, recombination, hybridization, introgression,
polyploidy, selection and isolation. Intraspecific taxonomic units. Ecotypes, Clones, Cultivars.
Phylogeny.
Taxonomic characters. Reproduction and vegetative characters. Macro- and micro- morphological
characters. Pollen grains. Hystological and anatomical characters. Taxonomical importance of tissues and
comparative anatomy. Vascular system evolution. Basical biometrics. Roots, stems, leaves modification.
Homology and Analogy. Elements of biometry. Chemotaxonomy: secondary metabolites. Taxonomic
value of DNA, RNA and Proteins. Cytotaxonomy.
Practical Taxonomy. Artificial and natural classification systems. Linneo, nomenclatur, systematics.
Classification methods. Sexual classification. Phenetic, cladistic, orthodox classification. Taxonomic
ranks. Nomenclature and International Nomenclature Code (ICBN). Nomenclatural and taxonomic
synonyms. Priority law. Botanic Museums: Herbaria, Botanic Gardens.
Identification of plant organisms.
Cianobacteria, Fungi, Algas, Briophytes. Diagnostic characters.
Vascular plants. Diagnostic characters of taxonomic value particularly refered to the root, steam, leaf,
flower and inflorescence, fruit and seed. Dichotomous keys, multiple access keys and computerized keys.
Use of analitical keys and identification of the main species of the vegetation types present in Italy
Pteridophytes (Rhyniopsida, Lycopidiopsida, Pteropsida): Main features. Iso- and etero-spores ferns.
Spermatophytes: Gimnosperms [Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales (Pinaceae and Cupressaceae),
Gnetales]: Main features. Angiosperms (Angiospermopsida) Systematics: Diversity and evolution. Main
features. Systematics. Main families of the Italian and European flora. BASIC FAMILIES: Nympheaceae.
MAGNOLIIDE: Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae. MONOCODS: Araceae, Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, Iridaceae,
Liliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae. EUDICODS: Sapindaceae (Aceraceae), Amaranthaceae,
Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae,
Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Plantaginaceae, Oleaceae, Ranunculaceae,
Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Violaceae. °°°
Skills acquisition and expected learning outcomes
Basic knowledge of taxonomic ranks and nomenclature rules.
Knowledge of main features, systematics and ecological meaning of Fungi and of the most important
autotrophic taxa, particularly refered to vascular plants.
Ability to identify the main autotrophic taxa, above all terrestrial ones.
Knowledge of morphological characters with taxonomic value, as regard vascular plants. Hybrids
identification.
Ability and methods used to identify vascular plants and to prepare an herbarium. Validity of herbarium
specimens. Types.
CONTENTS
Hours in
(12 CFU)
classroom
Preliminary concepts Ex-cathedra
2
to Systematics
teaching
Evolution
Ex-cathedra
6
teaching
Species and
Ex-cathedra
2
differentiation of
teaching
species
Hours at
home
4
Total hours
6
18
24
4
6
Taxonomic
characters,
Chemotaxonomy,
Practical Taxonomy
Bryophytes,
Pteridophytes
Ex-cathedra
teaching
10
32
42
Ex-cathedra
teaching
4
10
14
Gimnosperme,
Angiosperms
Ex-cathedra
teaching
Practices
Herbarium+
Botanic
Garden
Ex-cathedra
teaching
Practices
Ex-cathedra
teaching
Practices
12
16
28
6
6
12
2
8
10
6
38 +
4
102
10
152
Hybridization
Total
12
Check of results
Oral examination
Final evaluation.
Oral examination and possibly a discussion of an herbarium collection consisting of specimens
assignable to spontaneous species, with complete labels.
PLANT SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SELECTED
Briggs, D. & Walters S. M., 1997 – Plant Variation and Evolution, 3rd. edition. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK (Briggs, Walter, L'evoluzione delle piante, Ed. ital.
Mondadori)
Campbell N.A., Reece J.B., 2002 – Meccanismi dell'evoluzione e origini della diversità.
Cappelletti, Botanica, UTET. Darwin C., 1859 – L’origine delle specie. Newton- Compton Ed.
Di Mauro E., 1989 - La quarta dimensione del DNA. Dossier Scienza. Giunti.
Evert R. F., 2006 – Esau’s Plant Anatomy Wiley-Interscience.
Forman L. e Bridson D., 1989 - The Herbarium handbook,Whitstable Litho Printers.
Kitching I.J., Forey P. L., Humphries C.J., Williams D.M. ,1998 –Cladistics. Oxford University
Press
Gerola F. M., 1988 - Biologia vegetale. Sistematica Filogenetica, UTET. Greuter W. et al. (eds.) , 1997 - Codice Internazionale di Nomenclatura Botanica (Organizzazione
generale e nomenclatura). Edizione italiana in: Inform. Bot. Ital., 29(1): 1-171.
Ghiselin, 1981 - Il trionfo del metodo Darwiniano, Il Mulino.
Humphries C.J., Kitching I.L. et al. ,1995 - Cladistics, the Systematics association n. 10.
Clarendon Press, Oxford
Ingruille M., 1992 - Diversity and evolution of land plants,Chapman & Hall, London
Jeffrey C., 1982 - An introduction to plant taxonomy, Cambr. Univ. Press. Judd W.S., Campbell C.S., Kellog E.A., Steven P.F., 2007 – Botanica sistematica. Piccin.
Leporatti M. L.,
Foddai S.,
Tomassini L., 2001 - Testo Atlante di Anatomia Vegetale e
delle Piante Officinali. Piccin.
Linnaeus C., 1751. Philosophia Botanica. Stoccolma.
Marchi P., Pepe D’Amato E., Bianchi G., 2002, 2003, 2006 – Famiglie di piante vascolari
Italiane. ISBN 88-87242-20-8, ISBN 88-87242- 30-5, ISBN 88-87242- 85-2. Famiglie come da
programma
Niklas K. J., 2004 - Computer models of early land plant evolution. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.
32: 47–66
Pasqua G., Abbate G., Forni C. (Eds.), 2008 - Botanica generale e diversità vegetale. Piccin
Ricci, I., 1973 - Guida alle esercitazioni di Botanica, Ed. dell'Ateneo. Scoppola A., Scarici E.,
1998 – La conservazione delle piante (Guida alla realizzazione di un Erbario). Università degli
Studi della Tuscia, Erbario, pubbl. n. 1. Scaricabile dal sito dell’Università della Tuscia:
http://www.unitus.it/dipartimenti/dabac/erbario/intro.asp
Speranza A., Calzoni G.L., 1996 - Struttura delle piante in immagini, Zanichelli.
Stace C.A., 2000 – Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. 4° edition. Cambridge University Press
ISBN 0 521 42785 1
Strasburger E., 1995 - Botanica,Delfino.
Williams D. M. & Knapp S. (Eds.), 2010 - Beyond Cladistics. University of California Press.
N.B. Check the books and reviews in Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale Library, yellow kiosks &
Economato of University. Check the subjects titles of the program inside in the books and reviews above
mentioned and compare them to get the correct informaion.
Reception time (after call at telephone: 06 49912434)
Thursday 11.00 – 13
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