Forensic Science Test Review for Chapter 4 What is the importance

Forensic Science Test
Review for Chapter 4
What is the importance of the following people?
William Herschel—required Indians to put their fingerprints on contracts, and used
fingerprints as a means of identifying prisoners
Alphonse Bertillon—proposed body measurements as a means of identification; termed
Francis Galton—developed a primary classification scheme based on loops, arches, and
Edward Richard Henry—in collaboration with Galton, instituted a numerical classification
Juan Vucetich—developed a fingerprint classification system based on Galton’s that is used
in Spanish-speaking countries
How much of a fingerprint is needed to make a positive comparison?
Enough to have 8 to 12 characteristics in common.
What is the best way to visualize a print found on glass? Dusting powder
What are fingerprints composed of? Prints consist of the natural secretions
(oils, water, inorganic and organic materials) of human skin and require development
for them to become visible
Name all the parts of the body where ridge prints can be found. Fingers,
palms, lips, foot, toes, ears
Define the following:
Anthropometry: a system using body measurements for identification
Dactyloscopy: the study of fingerprints
What is the FBI’s database of fingerprints called? AFIS/IAFIS
A loop print that opens toward the thumb? Radial
Define: minutia - ridge characteristics
What is the chemical in superglue that reacts with the fingerprint?
What determines how a print is developed? The type of print it is, the
type of surface it’s on, the color of the surface it’s on
The three basic types of prints are: whorl, arch, and loop
Describe the three basic prints: An arch has friction ridges that enter on one side
of the finger and cross to the other side while rising upward in the middle. They do
NOT have type lines, deltas, or cores. A loop must have one or more ridges entering
and exiting from the same side. Loops must have one delta. A plain or central pocket
whorl has at least one ridge that makes a complete circuit. A double loop is made of two
loops. An accidental is a pattern not covered by other categories. Whorls have at least
two deltas and a core.
Describe some major parts of the fingerprint patterns. Ex. Delta.
When did dactyloscopy begin? 19th century in India with William Herschel 1877
What does silver nitrate react with? Chloride to form silver chloride, a
material that turns gray when exposed to light.