1. How does the skull of a newborn differ from an adult? Newborn skulls have cartilage found in the middle on the top (also called a fontanel or soft spot). It allows the skull to “squish” as the child is born and will form into solid bone like that of an adult as they grow. 2. List & Describe the 3 different abnormal spinal curvatures. Scoliosis-Spinal curvature going from side to side. Spine makes an “S” shape if looking at front of body Lordosis-Lower back curves inwards towards the stomach Kyphosis-Upper back curves upwards creating a hunch 3. List the functions of the skeletal system. Movement, Support, Protection, Hemopoeisis (blood cell formation), mineral storage 4. List, Describe, and give an example of the 4 different types of bones found in the skeletal system. Long-Femur, humerus, tibia, ulna, phalanges Short-Carpals, Tarsals Flat-Sternum, ribs, skull Irregular-Vertebrae, Scapula, Pelvis 5. Give an example of each of the different types of synovial joints. ball and socket- shoulder and hip condyloid joint- metacarpals and phalanges gliding joints- ribs and sternum hinge joint- elbow pivot joint- joint at proximal end of radius and ulna saddle joint- between carpal and metacarpal of thumb 6. List & Describe the 3 different classifications of joints. Free movement-most joints of the body Slight movement-rib cage No movement-skull 7. What are 3 differences between a male & a female skeleton? Male skeletons are generally larger; male pelvis deep and narrow, female wide and shallow; females have a larger pubic angle and pelvic inlet 8. Describe the difference on the location, function, and look of tendons & ligaments. Tendons tether muscle to bone, usually longer and more narrow then ligaments which link bone to bone at the joints. 9. Describe the difference between osteomalacia & osteoperosis. Osteomalacia is the softening of the bone while osteoporosis is the demineralization of the bones as reabsorption of the minerals outpaces the bone building. 10. What are all the different ways that bones can break? Descibe & Diagram. Comminuted: bone fragments into 3 or more pieces (common with more brittle bones) Compression: bone is crushed (common with more brittle bones) Spiral: Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting force is applied to bone (common sports fracture) Epiphyseal: epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate (common where cartilage is dying) Depressed: Broken bone portion is pressed inward (common of skull) Greenstick: bone breaks incompletely (common in children whose bones are more flexible) 11. List & Describe the 4 steps to bone repair. Hematoma formation, Fibrocartilaginous callus formation, Bony callus formation, Remodeling of the bony callus 12. How are bones constantly remodeling themselves? Bones constantly remodel themselves so that they are new and able to withstand the stresses of everyday life of the individual.