Table S1 The mean soil bulk density of among the depth 10 cm to 100 cm. The soil bulk densities were averaged from the values of three different positions within the study site. Depth (cm) Soil bulk density (g cm-3) 10 30 50 70 90 100 1.27 1.36 1.33 1.37 1.29 1.36 Table S2 The contribution of rain water and fog water to soil water at above 10cm (<10cm) depth and above (< 50cm) inferred with a single isotopic signature (δ18O) in isoerror1_04 (Phillips, 2001).Volume weighted δ18O of rain water and the volumetric water content weighted mean isotopic values for soil water were used for the calculation. The mean values with the range of minimum/maximum proportions (in parentheses) were also given. Rain(%) ≦10 cm soil ≦ 50cm soil 90.0(75-1) 99.6(82.6-1) Fog(%) 10(0-0.25) 0.4(0-17.4) Figure S1 The rainy season foliar water uptake (a) and percent increase in leaf water content (b) after putting leaves in water for 3 h. The plant species are the evergreen trees (black bars) Cleistanthus sumatranus, Lasiococca comberi, the deciduous tree species (grey bars) Mayodendron igneum and Lagerstroemia tomentosa, and the liana species (open bars) Combretum latifolium, Acacia pennata. The asterisk indicates the foliage absorb water significantly more than 0 mg H2O cm-2 (a) and significantly increased in leaf water content (b) (one sample t-test, *, P < 0.05, **, P < 0.01).