Animal Kingdom Characteristics of all living things vs animals

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Animal Kingdom
Characteristics of all living things vs animals
Adaptations for obtaining food
carnivore
scavengers
herbivore
omnivore
detritivores/saprophyte
Physical adaptations to avoid predators
outer covering
size
mimicry
camouflage – also adaptations for predators
Behavioral adaptations
chemical release
speed
traveling in groups
Classification of animals
1. invertebrates vs vertebrates
97% invertebrates
2. symmetry
radial
bilateral
asymmetrical
Organ systems - general
Phylum Porifera
sponges
simplest animals
eukaryotic
multicellular
loose arrangement of cells – no tissues
asymmetrical
sessile
filter-feed on plankton
ostia = tiny pores leading to channels throughout body of sponge
osculum = large opening at top of sponge
choanocyte = collar cells (line channels)
2 purposes:
1. create a current into sponge with their flagella
2. trap food particles on sticky collar
amoebocytes = cells that move food around to other cells within the body
spicules – silica structures produced to give shape to organism
unique to each sponge
reproduction
asexual = mitosis
sexual
sponge:
Phylum Cnidaria – includes sea anemones. hydras, jellyfish, and corals
2 body forms:
polyp – vase-like; sessile
medusa – bell-shaped; free swimming
radial symmetry
2 tissue layers – evolutionary step
muscles
nerves
digestive cavity with one opening
food in & waste out
tentacles have nematocysts = stinging cells
barbs are unique to each species
reproduction
asexual
sexual
Nematocysts = stinging cells of cnidarians
Corals: reefs are built as one generation of corals secretes their hard skeletons on those of
earlier generations
Important to ocean ecosystems:
provide shelter to diversity of ocean animals
provide shelter to economically valuable species – oysters, shellfish,…
provide protection for beaches and shorelines from wave action
used in medical research – bioprospecting
provide clues to locations of geological value – oil
bioindicators of the oceans – sensitive to changes in environment
Phylum Platyhelminthes – flatworms and roundworms
bilateral symmetry
three tissue layers
primitive organs/organ systems
digestive
circulatory
muscular
nervous
Flatworms
A. Planaria – free swimming/living
eyespot
one opening (mouth & anus)
freshwater organism
cilia for movement
herbivore
asexual reproduction – split in half & regenerate
sexual reproduction = hermaphrodite
planaria
marine flatworm
B. Flukes - parasitic
require more than one host
small
reproduce sexually
causes Schistomiasis
blood disorder
spread by contact with water that contains the parasites
occurs in underdeveloped countries
potentially fatal to humans from liver, kidney or bladder
failures or cancers
fluke
C. Tapeworms – parasitic
complex life cycle
bladder worm stage
as adult: releases segments, each with fertilized eggs
absorbs food from its host
Roundworms or Nematodes
common to all environments
free swimming/living
2 body openings – first group to have true digestive system
reproduce sexually
can be beneficial – destroy pests and improve soil conditions
can be harmful – disease-causing agent
Phyllum Mollusca
second largest phylum
fresh & salt water environments
land environments too
bilateral symmetry
soft body enclosed by mantle which may secrete outer shell
body cavity between body and mantle = coelom
body cavity contains gills – adaptation for oxygen absorption or filter
feeding
open circulatory system – heart pumps blood to open spaces and to organs
well developed head & sensory organs
classified by type of shell and muscular foot ( -pod)
Class Gastropoda ( stomach – foot)
snails & slugs
tentacles with eyes
tongue with radula
foot secretes mucus to reduce friction
live in moist environments for mucus
Class Bivalvia (hinged shells)
clams, oysters, & scallops
siphon – special tube used for movement and burrowing
expels water forcibly
Class Cephalopoda ( head – foot)
octopus, squid
most complex
well developed nervous system
first closed circulatory system
foot divided into tentacles with suction cups
adaptations for swimming
streamlined
siphon
ink
Value of Mollusks
food for fish, humans
income
decoration
shelter for other organisms
bioindicators
Harmful Effects
damage plants – slugs, snails & property
host of parasites – snails
Phylum Annelida – segmented worms
Earthworms, leeches
bilateral symmetry
coelom with organs
found in all moist environments
setae = bristle like structures on outside of each segment for locomotion
digestive system
organisms swallow soil, absorb nutrients from soil, excrete waste
waste = castings; important – natural fertilizer
closed circulatory system
aortic arches with arteries and veins
respiratory system
gas exchange through the skin
nervous system
small brain with nerve in each segment of body
negative phototaxic – moves away from light
reproduction
hermaphrodite = both male and female organs in organism
leeches
no setae
use suckers to attach to other organisms
use anesthetic to numb organism as they latch on
cut organism for blood
used in medicine
holistic
chemicals dialate blood vessels
marine worms
burrow in ocean floor or structures
free swimming
mounds made by marine roundworms
value of annelids
aerate soil by constant burrowing
return nutrients to soil
leeches in medicine
Phylum Arthropoda – “jointed feet”
segmented bodies with exoskeleton
bilateral symmetry
two body openings
open circulatory system
nervous sytem
adapted to every environment
Class Insecta – largest class on Earth
only invertebrates that can fly
three body segments – head; thorax; abdomen
head = antennae; compound eyes; mouth
thorax = legs & wings
abdomen = reproductive structures
body systems:
circulatory; respiratory; excretory; digestive
blood contains hemoglobin as in humans
respiration through spiracles = openings to the outside through exoskeleton
3 pairs of legs = 3 x 2 = 6 legs
metamorphosis = series of changes in body form
2 types:
incomplete = egg, nymph, adult
complete = egg, larvae, pupa, adult
Class Chilopoda = “many feet”
centipedes & millipedes
hunt for prey or eat decayed material (saprophyte)
millipede – 2 sets of legs (4) per segment
centipede – 1 set of legs per segment
Class Arachnida = spiders; scorpions; ticks
2 body segments
cephalothorax & abdomen
4 pairs of legs = 4 x 2 = 8 legs
adapted with venom glands to paralyze prey; can be deadly (brown recluse)
ticks = parasitic
adaptations for digestion
enzymes that are injected into prey
respiration through book lungs – see below (looks like stack of books)
Brown Recluse
Class Crustracea = crabs, lobsters, shrimp
1 or 2 pairs of antennae
5 pairs of legs
first pair for catching prey
rest for motion
5 pairs of swimmerets – for movement & reproduction
exoskeleton (not a shell)
Value of arthropods
part of food chains
help agriculture with pollination
some agricultural products – honey
some medicinal advantages
bee’s sting/venom is used to treat arthritis
Harmful effects
destroy property, food, & clothing
locust, insects on crops, moths
Phylum Echinoderma – sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers
mostly oceans
spiny epidermis
radial symmetry with some bilateral symmetry
do not have head or brain
nervous system
digestive system with mouth(underside)
unique to this group -water vascular system
network of water-filled canals with thousands of tube feet that end in suction cups
controlled by changes in water pressure within the system
helps them to move, capture prey, exchange gases
Sea stars
at least 5 arms
can regenerate for repair
Sea urchins
globe-shaped
covered with spines(ends have toxins)
Sea urchin
Sand dollars
5 pointed pattern on surface
covered in silk/hair-like spines
Sea cucumbers
body – leathery covering
rows of tube feet
detritivore/saprophyte
when threatened - they expel internal organs; regenerate later
Brittle Stars
fragile, slender arms with spines for protection
Value of echinoderms
saprophyte and recycle matter
some are used in medicine
control populations of the sea
sea urchin – gourmet delicacy
Closest to vertebrates
embryos develop much like vertebrate embryos do
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