Project 3 - Annotated Bibliography: Elizabeth Goff 1 Annotated Bibliography Anderson, C. M., & Spaulding, S. A. (2007). Using positive behavior support to design effective classrooms. Beyond Behavior, 16(2), 27-31. The authors, researchers at the University of Oregon, present a framework for creating classroom management system based on current research. They present evidence-based strategies that are appropriate for all levels of education. The article begins with a description of how a teacher can assess his/her current level of classroom management skills, moves into a section on the formation and teaching of classroom rules, and progresses into a discussion on the development of an acknowledgement system, including rewards. Charts with many examples of rules and rewards are included. This article offers practical advice on classroom management to teachers in various situations. It gives the reader information on a follow-up article that will examine the final piece of the framework: responding to misbehavior consistently. The article provides information rooted in behaviorist theory, which is unique to the current articles in the area of classroom management (more based in Humanistic or Adlerian theory), and can add dimension to my research. Beaty-O'Ferrall, M., Green, A., & Hanna, F. (2010). Classroom management strategies for difficult students: Promoting change through relationships. Middle School Journal, 41(4), 4-11. This journal article focuses on describing the need for teachers to build relationships with students in the classroom. It presents specific strategies that teachers can use to enhance relationships with students. The strategies are termed Project 3 - Annotated Bibliography: Elizabeth Goff 2 as: building empathy, admiring negative attitudes and behaviors, and leaving one’s ego at the door. These strategies are defined, described, and examples are given for each. The authors discuss the challenges of developing relationships with students from different cultural or racial backgrounds and give advice for dealing with those challenges. The article specifically addresses teachers of middle school students, but the information would be applicable to all levels of education. New ideas regarding classroom management from other disciplines, specifically counseling and psychotherapy, are presented and may be useful to my discussion of literature. Cameron, C. E., Connor, C., Morrison, F. J., & Jewkes, A. M. (2008). Effects of classroom organization on letter–word reading in first grade. Journal of School Psychology, 46(2), 173-192. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2007.03.002 This article was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development and the U.S. Department of Education Institute for Educational Sciences. The researchers investigated the impact of classroom environment on children’s literacy development. The results of the study showed that students in classrooms that had more time devoted to classroom organization early in the school year showed greater reading readiness and reading skills by spring. The authors report on the importance of classroom organization and teacher training in classroom management. Links to reference information are provided. The article provides good detail of the observation methods employed in the study. I may be able to use these details a framework to guide my observation work in schools. Freiberg, H., & Lamb, S. M. (2009). Dimensions of person-centered classroom management. Project 3 - Annotated Bibliography: Elizabeth Goff 3 Theory Into Practice, 48(2), 99-105. doi:10.1080/00405840902776228 This article provides some evidence toward a need for change in the way that classroom management and school discipline is being approached. One of the authors, H. Jerome Freiburg, is a proponent of person-centered classroom management, and has written several articles on the subject. He also co-authored a well-known book on the topic, along with one of the major theorists of this approach and is an obvious supporter of this philosophy. The article does provide a thorough overview of the topic. The four main dimensions of the person-centered approach are presented: social-emotional emphasis, school connectedness, positive school and classroom climate, and student self-discipline. Each is described, and vignettes of all dimensions are provided. The authors provide a comparison table of teacherdirected vs. person-directed classroom management characteristics. The article concludes with the identification and description of a classroom management model developed by Freiburg. Information in this article may be useful for teachers, administrators, or researchers interested in moving toward a person-centered approach to management. The specific model of management developed by the author could be helpful to my study as I look at characteristics of an efficiently managed classroom. Jones, J. L., Jones, K. A., & Vermette, P. J. (2009). Using social and emotional learning to foster academic achievement in secondary mathematics. American Secondary Education, 37(3), 4-4-9. The authors of this article, math teachers and a teacher professor, describe the need for and promise of teaching of social and emotional learning (SEL) skills to students. They Project 3 - Annotated Bibliography: Elizabeth Goff 4 propose that these skills will bolster the effort to close achievement gaps and increase achievement. The article discusses ways in which to implement social and emotional learning skills in general terms. There are three areas of SEL that the article explores in relation to the secondary math classroom: redefining of lesson planning, the establishment of an SEL-conducive climate, and student reflection and self-assessment. Although the authors write with examples from math classes, educators in all subject areas and levels could adapt these ideas to their own situations. Ideas for my research observations of classroom climate may come from the examples provided in this article. LaRocque, M. (2008). Assessing perceptions of the environment in elementary classrooms: The link with achievement. Educational Psychology in Practice, 24(4), 289-305. This article explores the link between students’ perceptions of their classroom environments and their achievement in reading and math. The author surveys over 2,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders using an instrument called “My Classroom Inventory” (MCI), which is a more simplified version of the “Learning Environment Inventory” (LEI). The students provide feedback regarding their classroom experience in the areas of: satisfaction, friction, competition, difficulty, and cohesion. Results of the study showed an overall positive perception of classroom environment by students. This result was also related to math and reading achievement. The author also notes differences in the responses based on the students’ grade levels. In further analysis of the article, it is possible the high scores given by students regarding their classroom environment may have been related to the math and reading achievement the students are experiencing. The survey used in the article may be helpful to my research study; it is one of the more child-friendly surveys I have found to this point. Project 3 - Annotated Bibliography: Elizabeth Goff 5 Little, S. G., & Akin-Little, A. (2008). Psychology's contributions to classroom management. Psychology in the Schools, 45(3), 227-234. The article provides results of a study regarding use of research-based classroom management (CRM) techniques. Teachers in several geographical areas of the US completed surveys measuring their use of research-based CRM techniques in their classrooms. The areas included in the survey: classroom rules, enhancing classroom environment, reinforcement strategies, and reductive procedures. The results of the study showed a strong use of appropriate CRM techniques by teachers. However, the results also show that teachers are using practices that may encourage student misbehavior, for example, providing more attention to a student who is disruptive. The authors report the results of the survey do not match up with the great need that teachers express for more training in CRM. Overall, the article opens a need for more exploration of teacher inefficiencies in regard to CRM strategies and techniques, and may help me build purpose for my study. Rosas, C., & West, M. (2009). Teachers beliefs about classroom management: Pre-service and inservice teachers' beliefs about classroom management. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 5(1), 54-61. The authors of this study, directors of graduate programs at the College of Mount St. Joseph, sought to compare and contrast the beliefs of pre-service and inservice teachers on classroom management practices. The participants were surveyed on their beliefs in their abilities to deal with a number of classroom management scenarios. The results showed a similar self-confidence between both groups in Project 3 - Annotated Bibliography: Elizabeth Goff 6 regard to dealing with management issues, except in one area, having a solid knowledge of techniques for dealing with a disruptive student. The pre-service teachers scored themselves at a statistically significant disadvantage for dealing with this behavior. The survey used may not have provided reliable information. The belief measures are all phrased in question format on the survey, with the exception of one that is presented as a statement, and it is that statement that is area of the survey that showed the significant difference between groups. The strong wording could have deterred pre-service teachers from responding with more confidence in that area. With that said, the article may assist in providing information to those who design courses in classroom management, at the university or in school systems. A more extensive survey, with similarly written questions may serve to provide better information in a future study. The article provides many citations to teacher perception research that I will explore for my research. Schussler, D. L. (2009). Beyond content: How teachers manage classrooms to facilitate intellectual engagement for disengaged students. Theory Into Practice, 48(2), 114-121. doi:10.1080/00405840902776376 This article explores teacher practices in classroom management that enhance student engagement. The author of this article, an associate professor of education and human services at Villanova University, uses quotes from students in an alternative high school setting that provide readers with a greater understanding of what teachers do that facilitates learning. The author suggests that opportunities to succeed, flexibility, and respect provided by teachers have a definite impact on the engagement of students. This Project 3 - Annotated Bibliography: Elizabeth Goff 7 article is written specifically to address the needs of disengaged or at-risk students, but would be useful to all teachers who want to enhance student engagement. The article follows a similar theme of many studies and commentaries I have read on the subject of classroom management: teachers’ cultivation of relationships with students (knowledge of student needs, learning style, etc. and respect for individuals) enhances student academic success. Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 68-81. doi:10.1177/1098300708326597 The authors of this study collect data on the amount of opportunities to respond (OTR) teachers provide to their students in current classroom settings. Both Title I and nonTitle I schools were examined in the study. Overall, the authors find that teachers are providing their students with OTR in amounts similar to past studies. They also discuss differences between classroom management techniques in Title I and non-Title I schools. More discussion of these differences would have been beneficial. The study provides a sample of criteria the assessment tool, Setting Factors Assessment Tool (SFAT), in chart format. The SFAT is an extensive measure of several dimensions of classroom management, and will be further examined as a possible assessment tool for my research study.