Foundations of History to Neolithic Era Big Picture: 1). There were numerous species of humans and somewhere around 200K years ago in Africa Homo Sapiens (“Wise Man”) outlasted, won-out against the rest. 2). Tool use gradually improved (not quickly): Fire, agriculture, spears, spear-chucker, etc. 3). Migration was a major part of human life due to hunter-gatherer life INTERESTING FACTOIDS -Earliest human remains found 2.5million years ago in central-east Africa -After millions of years, Homo Sapiens Sapiens became most advanced and plentiful species (pg 3) -Speech gene developed around 70,000 years ago (pg 8) -Fire allowed for more protein in diet = more people -If Earth History were a 24hr Clock, humans have existed for last 5 minutes before midnight (pg 9) PALEOLITHIC AGE (“Old Stone Age”) 2.5 millon – 10,000BCE (pg 10) -Hunter-gatherers had some gender equality and traveled, following packs of animals for food. Gathered nuts and berries. Religious beliefs unknown but believed to be Animism (belief in animal spirits) -Technology: Boats, spear, spear thrower (p.11) NEOLITHIC AGE (“Old Stone Age”) 8000BCE-3000BCE (pg 12) -Agricultural “revolution” – Slow change, some resisted; -Around 8000-3500 humans developed farming (some independently); many resisted agricultural change (pg.4) -Some drawbacks to Agriculture: gendered life, disease, clustering of ppl (pg.4) Other effects: Birthrates increased, gender became more rigid, less migration, child-labor -Humans also domesticated animals from 10,000BCE onward (pg. 4) Technology: Grinding/sharpening tools, domestication of animals, farming, beginning irrigation Changes/Continuity: Change: Hunting Farming; Migration Habitat; Gender Roles change (creation) Continuity: Relatively short life span remains; animism/polytheism; weapons same (just sharper) CIVILIZATIONS BEGINNING -Reasons for city-civilization: Division of Labor extra food-supply allowed ppl to specialize and develop social structures/hierarchy. First known city: Uruk (pg 19 in Holt: good reading “First Civilization”) Technology: Writing (Cuneiform started by Sumerians around 3500BCE = better taxes, laws, social formation). RIVER-VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS 1). Mesopotamia in 4000BCE (pg 20-21) Sumerians actual people called the land Sumer -Located in between the Tigris & Euphrates in Middle East (present day Iraq) -irrigation/farming basis for political structure/power -Tech= Bronze, copper, Wheel, pottery artisans; invented systems of time/calendar in units of 10/60/360 -Religion=Priests/god-rulers practiced in Ziggurats (laws enforced religion) -Downfall due to conquest by the Akkadians then by Babylonians (King Hammurabi was Babylonian) -Hammurabi’s Law Code (pg. 21 = good reading) 2). Egypt in 3000BCE (pg. 20/22) -Located in North Africa along the Nile River -More unified government that ran business (Mesopotamia had a pseudo-independent business class) -The King, Pharaoh, had immense power and was responsible for irrigating Nile to flood regularly. -Kings build immense tombs, Pyramids, to practice their religious beliefs about after-life. (2700BCE onward) -Egypt developed the 24 hour-day, relied heavily on slave-labor (like Mesopotamia), anatomy. 3). Harrapa in 3000BCE (pg. 22) -Located along the Indus River -Multiple cities in this area: Harrapa, Mohenjo, Daro -Houses had running water; Developed their own alphabet and art (still cannot translate alphabet) -Little is known about culture and why it disappeared 4). Xia-Shang Dynasties in 2200BCE (pg. 22-23) -Created along the Huanghe River -Leaders had to regulate regular flooding/irrigation systems -Technology: horse-riding, pottery, bronze, iron (by 1000BCE), writing (Ideographic) -Due to lack of materials, not as much monument construction -By 1500BCE a line of rulers called the Shang ruled over the valley -Some historians of philosophy state the between Mesopotamia and Chinese development there was a major division: Mesopotamia stressed a difference/chasm between people and nature. Chinese stressed a harmony between the two. (pg. 26) (in this section near end) pg. 26: Jewish people arose around 1200BCE, settling near the Mediterranean. They established a state that was only independent during times of turmoil in the Middle East. They invented the belief in Monotheism that a single god guided the destinies of people. Because of the Jewish belief in a contract with God, there was no reason to convert non-Jews (an explanation for their sustained belief system over time).