Foundations of History to Neolithic Era Big Picture: 1). There were

advertisement
Foundations of History to Neolithic Era
Big Picture: 1). There were numerous species of humans and somewhere around 200K years ago in Africa
Homo Sapiens (“Wise Man”) outlasted, won-out against the rest.
2). Tool use gradually improved (not quickly): Fire, agriculture, spears, spear-chucker, etc.
3). Migration was a major part of human life due to hunter-gatherer life
INTERESTING FACTOIDS
-Earliest human remains found 2.5million years ago in central-east Africa
-After millions of years, Homo Sapiens Sapiens became most advanced and plentiful species (pg 3)
-Speech gene developed around 70,000 years ago (pg 8)
-Fire allowed for more protein in diet = more people
-If Earth History were a 24hr Clock, humans have existed for last 5 minutes before midnight (pg 9)
PALEOLITHIC AGE (“Old Stone Age”) 2.5 millon – 10,000BCE (pg 10)
-Hunter-gatherers had some gender equality and traveled, following packs of animals for food. Gathered nuts
and berries. Religious beliefs unknown but believed to be Animism (belief in animal spirits)
-Technology: Boats, spear, spear thrower (p.11)
NEOLITHIC AGE (“Old Stone Age”) 8000BCE-3000BCE (pg 12)
-Agricultural “revolution” – Slow change, some resisted;
-Around 8000-3500 humans developed farming (some independently); many resisted agricultural change
(pg.4)
-Some drawbacks to Agriculture: gendered life, disease, clustering of ppl (pg.4)
Other effects: Birthrates increased, gender became more rigid, less migration, child-labor
-Humans also domesticated animals from 10,000BCE onward (pg. 4)
Technology: Grinding/sharpening tools, domestication of animals, farming, beginning irrigation
Changes/Continuity: Change: Hunting  Farming; Migration  Habitat; Gender Roles change (creation)
Continuity: Relatively short life span remains; animism/polytheism; weapons same (just
sharper)
CIVILIZATIONS BEGINNING
-Reasons for city-civilization: Division of Labor extra food-supply allowed ppl to specialize and develop social
structures/hierarchy.
First known city: Uruk (pg 19 in Holt: good reading “First Civilization”)
Technology: Writing (Cuneiform started by Sumerians around 3500BCE = better taxes, laws, social
formation).
RIVER-VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS
1). Mesopotamia in 4000BCE (pg 20-21) Sumerians actual people called the land Sumer
-Located in between the Tigris & Euphrates in Middle East (present day Iraq)
-irrigation/farming basis for political structure/power
-Tech= Bronze, copper, Wheel, pottery artisans; invented systems of time/calendar in units of 10/60/360
-Religion=Priests/god-rulers practiced in Ziggurats (laws enforced religion)
-Downfall due to conquest by the Akkadians then by Babylonians (King Hammurabi was Babylonian)
-Hammurabi’s Law Code (pg. 21 = good reading)
2). Egypt in 3000BCE (pg. 20/22)
-Located in North Africa along the Nile River
-More unified government that ran business (Mesopotamia had a pseudo-independent business class)
-The King, Pharaoh, had immense power and was responsible for irrigating Nile to flood regularly.
-Kings build immense tombs, Pyramids, to practice their religious beliefs about after-life. (2700BCE onward)
-Egypt developed the 24 hour-day, relied heavily on slave-labor (like Mesopotamia), anatomy.
3). Harrapa in 3000BCE (pg. 22)
-Located along the Indus River
-Multiple cities in this area: Harrapa, Mohenjo, Daro
-Houses had running water; Developed their own alphabet and art (still cannot translate alphabet)
-Little is known about culture and why it disappeared
4). Xia-Shang Dynasties in 2200BCE (pg. 22-23)
-Created along the Huanghe River
-Leaders had to regulate regular flooding/irrigation systems
-Technology: horse-riding, pottery, bronze, iron (by 1000BCE), writing (Ideographic)
-Due to lack of materials, not as much monument construction
-By 1500BCE a line of rulers called the Shang ruled over the valley
-Some historians of philosophy state the between Mesopotamia and Chinese development there was a major
division: Mesopotamia stressed a difference/chasm between people and nature. Chinese stressed a
harmony between the two. (pg. 26)
(in this section near end) pg. 26: Jewish people arose around 1200BCE, settling near the Mediterranean.
They established a state that was only independent during times of turmoil in the Middle East. They
invented the belief in Monotheism that a single god guided the destinies of people. Because of the Jewish
belief in a contract with God, there was no reason to convert non-Jews (an explanation for their sustained
belief system over time).
Download
Related flashcards
Languages of Iraq

31 Cards

History of Iraq

37 Cards

Assyria

18 Cards

Assyrian people

21 Cards

Create flashcards