Report on the Assessment Guidelines for the 2013 Field Work Test at the Kyoto Olympiad 1. Introduction Henk Ankoné and Lex Chalmers first met with the Kyoto Olympiad Local Organising Committee more than a year before the event on 31 July-4 August 2013. The LoC was chaired by Yoshiyasu Ida, with significant input from Hiromi Iwamoto, Katsuki Toida and Hiroya Yoshimizu. The LoC and Task Force representatives met face-to-face three times in all, and had extensive email correspondence. Language was a modest barrier, with ‘dialogue’ facilitated through Taro Futamura. There was agreement from the outset that history and contemporary use of water provided an excellent and accessible theme for the FWT. Fushimi was established as the river port for Kyoto, and historically has been the site of good quality ground water on which the local saké industry was based. A local canal system was used to export sake to the rest of Japan. Contemporary water supply through the Lake Biwa Canal, and the distribution/use of water in Kyoto were interesting aspects, along with the significant flood risk in Fushimi and the links between water and cultural practices in Japan. The theme of the FWT for 2013 was delivered to students initially through a 13-page resources booklet entitled Cities and Water (see first two pages in Appendix One). Students undertook preparatory work with a visit to the Lake Biwa Canal Museum, and a 90-minute briefing before the first fieldwork task. The briefing included a lecture from Prof. Fujitsuka on catchment history and flood risk in Kyoto. 2. Task specification of the FWT The formal work was split into two components to meet the formal prescription of the Test. The first set of tasks required field observation and cartography, the second used geographical analysis to develop a strategic plan for Fushimi. The cartography required first the drawing of a cross profile of a flood-prone part of Fushimi, and second, a land-use map of a part of the community that showed a strong link to water (saké production, recreation etc.). The cartography was completed after a field traverse that featured Site A, the Uji River and local canals. The first set of tasks (1 and 2; observation and cartography) required students to: 1. Observe the characteristics of Site B, with particular attention to the physical geography of the area. Use the template provided to make an annotated cross--‐sectional diagram between the points labelled ‘X’ and ‘Y’ on the map. Describe the nature of the physical geography and the land use on the cross section (30 minutes, 7 marks). 2. Make an annotated land use map of Site C using the base map provided. Refer to the association between land use and water resources/management in your annotations (120 minutes, 13 marks). Write down your observations of the area on the tally sheet, along with your comments on land use and its association with water. Make a land use map in the following way: • Using property boundaries, show land use based on classification codes you have been given. You should use coloured pencils to represent a number of different land uses. • Provide a descriptive key, including land use classification and reference to the physical and human dimensions of water in the environment. The physical and human dimensions of water should be symbolised on your map as an overlay on the land use classification. Include descriptions of your symbols in the key. On the following day, the second set of tasks required the LoC/Task Force to provide contextual background. The geographical analysis operated at two levels, catchment and community. The second set of tasks (3 and 4) required the students to work in the following manner: 3. With reference to the fieldwork Site B, planners aim to come up with new strategies that will minimize the risk of flood damage in the larger river catchment shown in the maps provided. In terms of (a) infrastructural development (hard) and (b) socio--‐communal activities (soft), list six strategies (three infrastructural and three socio--‐communal) that can be applied in the catchment. Specify the locations where they apply. ii. Then, write expanded notes on each of the strategies you propose, using text (and possibly graphics) to explain the effects of your strategies on flood hazard management in the catchment. 4. Fushimi’s historical development is based on water and the importance of its site near Kyoto. The history is reflected in historical landscape preservation, with visitors to a local temple, sake brewing sites, and canal--‐based activities. Planners n o w n e e d t o d e v e lo p a strategic plan that provides a sustainable future for the community. Strategic plans often refer to residential environments, retail and commercial provision, manufacturing and industry, transport infrastructure, education and social services, recreation/cultural activities and reserves and open spaces. Write a one sentence ‘vision statement’ for a sustainable Fushimi in 2035. Outline at least four strategies that link directly to this vision statement. The importance of water and the opportunities provided by tourism should not be ignored. Using the map template provided, make an annotated map that shows the generalised spatial extent of the various activities you propose for the Fushimi area. Provide a suitable map legend. 3. Assessment guidelines Task 1. The Marking Schedule for this task was first discussed at the meeting of the marking panel of five. Assessment: 7 marks, no half marks awarded. Model answers were provided. Sample material from students came with the marking schedule. The panel leader (Alexy from Russia) was responsible for insuring consistency of marking. Task 2. The Marking Schedule for this task was first discussed at the meeting of the marking panel of four. Assessment: 13 marks, no half marks awarded. Model answers were provided. Sample material from students was provided with the marking schedule. The panel leader (Birgit, Denmark) was responsible for insuring consistency of marking. Task 3. Assessment guidelines The Marking Schedule for this task was first discussed at the meeting of the marking panel of six. Model answers were provided. Sample material from student answers was provided with the marking schedule. The panel leader (Robert, Belgium) was responsible for insuring consistency of marking. Task 4. Assessment guidelines The Marking Schedule for this task was first discussed at the meeting of the marking panel of six. Model answers were provided. Sample material from student answers was provided with the marking schedule. The panel leader (Anu, Finland) was responsible for insuring consistency of marking. 4. Outcomes and comments The overall student performance in the FWT was satisfactory with an average mark of 19.4/40 with a standard deviation of 5.73. The figures were comparable to the WRT, where the average was 18.5/40 and the standard deviation was 5.21. (In comparison, the MMT has a mean of 14.9/20, and the narrowest standard deviation of 2.01 – 4.02 if averages are compared). The mark range was highest in the FWT (from 2 to 32, as compared with 4.2 to 30.7 in the WRT, and 8.5 to 18 in the MMT). In the FWT, the marking schedule required students to provide clear evidence, and there were no half marks available and this probably limited scoring. As a consequence, the field work test was regarded by the LoC and task Force as (i) able to discriminate effectively between students and (ii) a fair test overall. For specific FWT tasks, the answers of every team member from three, randomly-selected countries was check-marked, with the marking panel leader available to comment on the rationale for the marks awarded. Sampling was also done at the top and bottom of the mark distribution for each task. In addition inter-marker variability was reviewed. The number of reviews and adjustments (generally by one mark, but by two marks on two occasions) was low (five cases in more than 100 of the 500+ individual task answers checked). Task 1 was quite poorly done. Despite a map with a clear scale and with the location of the cross profile marked, less than half the students marked the axes correctly, and many drew distorted cross profiles. The annotation of the profiles was done a bit more consistently, but the overall average mark was too low to convince the panel that students had sound observation and recording skills. Students had two copies of the cross profile template, one for observational notes, with the second for completion and submission before leaving the school. Task 2 was carried out a bit more effectively, although very few students saw the advantages of using the tally sheet as a basis for understanding the spatial distribution of different land-use classes. In general, however, the maps summarized the spatial distribution of land-uses quite well, and the keyed descriptions were therefore sound. The marks for the overlaid symbolization of water related features were generally more variable. The average mark was less than 50% in the scripts checked. Task 3 and 4 were generally much better developed by students, and this may be a function of the better workspace, field experience and resources available. Task 3 responses were often wellillustrated with thumb-nails pictures, and the understanding of catchment level strategies that affect flooding was good. Students wrote substantial texts; in a number of cases there were 1000 words of text and four or five small diagrams. Very few students failed to score well on this task; the average mark would be between 70% and 80% of the available marks. Task 4 was also well answered, and the marks were higher that the observation and cartography tasks (1 and 2). In general, the choice of vision statement was excellent and the linkage to the strategic statements chosen was good. In some cases students were able to draw on work done in their own geography programs, and to adapt this for Fushimi. Answers were substantial (1000 words plus) and generally well written. There were many water-based and sustainable tourism strategies, but also population based strategies and a number relating to housing. Only a few strategies were judged ‘inappropriate’ or poorly supported by contemporary evidence. Perhaps the weakest part of the response to the task was the ‘location’ of the place where community sustainability orientated strategies could be put in place. The maps were generally well-keyed, but locational specificity was sometimes awry; the resource book and time for observation in the field had an effect on some students. The average mark lay between 60% and 70%. Appendix One Cities and Water Resource Booklet Introduction Many Japanese cities have evolved as a consequence of the availability and use of local water. In the pre-modern era, water was used for variety of purposes in urban areas (transportation, drinking and domestic use, for ceremonial purposes and in industry). In the modern era water has also been used for generating electricity. Such is the importance of water that there is a Japanese term Shinsui, which literally means ‘water intimacy’. National government and public discourses now emphasize that water sustains people’s everyday lives. While water is vital for urban living, too much water may cause problems like flooding; humans need to protect themselves from the risk of hazards (at the interface between extreme natural events and human occupancy of space). Ever since the national capital was formed nearly 1200 years ago, Kyoto has had close connections with local water, most notably the Kamo River. Since the Meiji period in the late 19th century, the City of Kyoto has taken water from Lake Biwa and used it to supplement local ground water in the development of local economies and residential areas. You will have seen the video presentation at the Lake Biwa Canal Museum on the Excursion this afternoon; it explained the background and current use of Biwako Sosui (the water delivery canal from Lake Biwa). Currently, millions of residents and tourists have access to a secure water supply throughout Kyoto. Fushimi developed as a river transportation gateway to Kyoto more than 400 years ago, and is a community that especially demonstrates a close connection with water. Current urban development and planning of Fushimi actively emphasizes its relationship with water. The Local Organizing Committee chose Fushimi as the site of the Field Work Task, and we welcome students from around the world to Japan and to the FWT in Fushimi in particular. In the FWT we will explore some historical associations with water, the way water has influenced the local geographies of Fushimi and the important matters that will shape the future of this community. We note in particular that; 1. More than most places in Japan, Fushimi has worked to build a place that utilized water in the development of the local community. 2. Although there are issues in modern Fushimi (such as deterioration of the old center and narrow roads), awareness of these issues can lead to planning strategies that make good use of key resources like water, and the history/heritage of former water uses. The first field work exercise tomorrow (observation and field data recording) will provide you with material for innovative ideas that would make Fushimi a more sustainable community with effective use of resources like the local water supply. The second fieldwork test (written answers) on Friday morning requires you to use the Fushimi fieldwork in a written response. The fieldwork is supported by a small excursion this afternoon (Wednesday July 31). At the excursion, we distributed a worksheet and you wrote down your observations at several locations and made some geographical sketches. At this evening’s briefing, Professor Yoshihiro Fujitsuka (Osaka City University) presents a guest lecture entitled Changing Functions of Waterways: the Case of Kyoto City, and Taro Futumura describes the resources that support the fieldwork on 1 August. Professor Lex Chalmers makes comments on cartography, including map symbology, legends and design (based on Diercke Atlas material). In addition, students have access to a number of resources. The Diercke Atlas has been distributed, and English handouts of (i) Biwako Sosui Kinenkan (Lake Biwa canal memorial museum material) and (ii) the map of Kyoto (1:25000) are available to participants. List of materials included in the Resource Booklet On some maps, “H” indicates Hotel Heiannomori Kyoto, and “S” indicates Chushojima Station. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Landform Classification Map of Kyoto Basin Landform classification map of Kyoto Basin (scale 1:130,000 approx). This map shows the geology that determines the geomorphology of the Kyoto basin. Indurated Mesozoic rocks, in an environment that experiences nearly 1500mm rain annually, have been weathered by fluvial action to produce extensive alluvial fans and river terraces in the Tertiary era. More recent fluvial deposition has produced back marshes and flood plains. Flood Damage in Areas of the Kyoto Basin (scale 1:150,000 approx). The map shows that awareness of floods are based on experience of significant events. Risk of Flood Hazard at Fushimi. The spatial extent of flood risk in Fushimi is shown in this map. The attached graphic indicates that inundation of 0.5 metres would be inconvenient, but a 0.53.0m flood would cause serious damage to property and risk to life. If the flood reached 3.0m then damage to property would be extreme and there would be deaths unless extensive warning systems and public education are undertaken. The Contour Map of Fushimi (scale 1:40,000 approx.) shows the form of the alluvial fan and the extent of the marshland at the toe of the slope. The map of Historic and Contemporary Use of Ground Water in Sake Production (scale 1:25,000 approx.). the map shows the depth of the ground water table in Fushimi. Access to ground water is vital to sake making. Distribution of Sake Brewing Plants in Fushimi shows the extent of the sake industry in Fushimi. The graphic of the Demographic Structure of Fushimi (central district) shows an ageing community profile. While population fertility may change, the existing structure suggests issues associated with care of the elderly by 2035. Tourism in Kyoto and Fushimi. A number of graphics are included, along with some explanatory text.