EDEX 796 Natalie Knott APS 1: Long Range Planning A. Description of Students: My placement class consists of five students with severe and multiple disabilities. This class is a self-contained PMD class. There are four boys and one girl. Four of the students use wheelchairs for mobility. One child is able to walk. Four of the students require feeding tubes. Two students can eat pureed foods. Two students are in eighth grade, two are in seventh grade and one is in sixth grade. The four older students have similar interests and IEP goals. Their curriculum incorporates functional academics and skills. The sixth grade student’s IEP contains pre-academic and pre-vocational skills. Student information for this paper was obtained from classroom IEP documents. I will refer to the students by a designated letter to protect their privacy. The first student, B is fourteen years old and is in eighth grade. He lives with his parents and older brother. He is non-vocal and uses a wheelchair for mobility. B’s interests include listening to music, going fishing, and watching movies. His strengths include his desire for social interaction. Although this student cannot speak, he communicates. He makes eye contact and smiles when people talk to him. He loves to observe people and to be around them. He also uses eye gaze for choice making. He uses the side of his head to activate a switch on a voice output and leisure activity device. He is very cognizant of his surroundings. His challenges include limited mobility and speech. He has limited use of his arms. He also needs a feeding tube. The other eighth grader is PL. He will be fourteen at the end of this month. He lives at home with his parents, twin sister, and younger sister. His strengths include desire for social interaction. He is beginning to demonstrate choice making. He has purposeful movement in his arms. The right arm is stronger than the left arm. His interests include listening to music and sensory activities. He can use his right arm to grab objects. He enjoys simple cause and effect toys. He can activate a switch to access adapted toys. His challenges include limited movement. He needs a wheelchair for mobility. He also uses a feeding tube. In addition, P is legally blind. He was diagnosed with optic nerve atrophy. He had surgery in August for curvature of the spine. He is now able to sit up better and gained three inches in height. The only girl in the class is P. She has severe and multiple disabilities. P is thirteen years old. She lives at home with her parents. She is the oldest child. She has a younger sister and twin brothers who are one year old. She was born with Lebers Congenital Amaurosis, a disability that affects sight. She has limited ability to open her eyes. AC enjoys social interactions, being read to, and going for walks in her wheelchair. She is able to move her hands. She is learning to sort items by feeling the shape and texture of them and by opening her eyes to look at the items. P works with cause and effect activities. She uses vocalizations to express pleasure and displeasure. She will also laugh and smile on occasion. She is able to eat pureed foods. Her challenges include very limited vision and lack of interest in her surroundings. S is the other seventh grader. He lives with his parents. S is considered medically fragile. He has multiple disabilities. His strengths include the ability to activate a switch device to access activities. He also enjoys social interaction. He will smile when people talk to him. His challenges include medical issues that make him more prone to pneumonia. He currently has pneumonia and is on intermittent homebound. The last student is Z. This is his first year in middle school. He is diagnosed with Down’s syndrome. He divides his time between his dad and his mother’s home. He has a younger sister. He is able to walk and feed himself. He has severe developmental delays. He enjoys listening and dancing to music. He shows interest in social interactions. He also enjoys working on DT Trainer. He is able to use a touch screen to answer the questions on that program. He is able to follow one step directions. His challenges include communication skills. He also exhibits undesirable behaviors. He thrives on structure and will become upset if any changes are made to his schedule. He has made considerable progress since the beginning of the year. The frequency and duration of his behaviors are decreasing. He is becoming more vocal, as well. B. Goals and Objectives The students’ goals and objectives are grouped by domains. The areas include daily living, socialization/daily living, functional academics, and prevocational. B,P,PL, and S’s goals are very similar. This is Z’s first year in middle school and his goals are different. I will list each student’s goal by each domain. Daily Living Skills B’s Daily Living Skill Goals: B will increase his daily living and transition skills. Will partially participate in hand washing. Will partially participate in preparing for position transfer. P’s Daily Living Skill Goals P will increase daily living skills. Will partially participate in hand washing. Will partially participate in feeding herself. S’s Daily Living Skill Goals S will increase his daily living skills. Will partially participate in hand washing. Will access voice output device to deliver a message or request materials. PL’s Daily Living Skill Goals PL will increase his daily living skills. Will partially participate to access his water bottle. Will partially participate in hand washing. Pre-vocation Skills B’s Pre-vocation skills B will independently respond to a variety of stimuli by either making a choice through visual gaze or turning his head toward the stimuli. Will sort various greenhouse materials by using eye gaze to show which basket the materials go. P’s Pre-vocation Goals When given work materials and partial prompting, P will sort various personal service materials by physical characteristics. Will identify a photo/tactile symbol of herself from a field of two. S’s Pre-vocation Goals When given needed work materials S will use eye gaze to or voice output device to sort various hospitality materials Will identify a photo/tactile symbol of himself from a field of two. PL’s Pre-vocational Goals PL will increase his pre-vocation skills. Will sort items into containers by physical characteristics Will pick up an item when requested by someone. Functional Academics B’s Functional Academics B will increase his functional science and social studies skills by using eye gaze and a visual choice board to communicate within 30 seconds when performing classroom activities. When oriented to a variety of items will use eye gaze to sort items by characteristics of solid and liquid. PL’s Functional Academics PL will answer science and social studies questions by using a voice output device to communicate when performing classroom activities. When oriented to a variety of items will sort items by using a voice output device by characteristics of solid and liquid. P Functional Academics When given physical manipulatives or pictures, P will answer questions by using eye gaze or auditory scanning method. Will use eye gaze and auditory scanning to answer questions relating to historical figures and events. Will use eye gaze and auditory scanning to answer questions relating to sorting solids and liquids. S’s Functional Academics When given physical manipulatives or pictures, S will answer questions by using eye gaze Will use eye gaze to answer questions relating to historical figures and events. Will use eye gaze to answer questions relating to sorting solids and liquids. Socialization and Leisure Skills B’s Socialization/ Leisure Skills B will increase his socialization and leisure skills as evidenced by using adapted switches. Will use adaptive switches to access various toys and devices for at least fifteen minutes. Will use adaptive switches to access various computer programs for at least 15 minutes. P’s Socialization/ Leisure Skills P will increase his socialization and leisure skills as evidenced by using adapted switches. Will use adaptive switches to access various toys and devices for at least fifteen minutes. Will use adaptive switches to access various computer programs for at least 15 minutes. S’s Socialization/Leisure Skills S will increase his socialization and leisure skills as evidenced by using adapted switches. Will use adaptive switches to access various toys and devices for at least fifteen minutes. Will use adaptive switches to access various computer programs for at least 15 minutes. PL’s Socialization/Leisure Skills Will increase socialization and leisure skills by using assistive technology. Z’s Goals and Objectives Z’s goals and objectives vary from the other students. This is his first year in middle school. The goals and objectives are organized by elementary school categories. Z’s goals and objectives are organized into pre-academic, self-help, social/play, fine motor skills, and language and communication categories. Pre-academic skills By June, 2013, Z will increase his cognitive skills in the following areas: Where to obtain good and services from five different locations; grocery store, doctor, restaurant, park, school. Identification of colors; red, blue, yellow, green, purple, orange Matching shapes; circle, square, triangle, heart, star, Identification of animals from a field of two pictures; dog, cat, bird, fish, horse, pig Z will touch a picture from a field of three to demonstrate an understanding of the following: Five foods, toys, clothing, activities Self-Help Z will increase his self-help skills by: Eating chopped foods with minimal spillage. Pouring milk in a cup. Carrying his tray. Cleaning up his area Standing ten minutes to complete a task. Social/Play By June, 2013, Z will increase his social/play skills Will indicate a preferred leisure activity. Will greet peers verbally. Fine Motor By June, 2013, Z will demonstrate functional fine motor skills. Will open a plastic silverware packet with two or less prompts. Zip up his outer garments once initiated Access a wall soap dispenser given two or less physical prompts. Language/Communication By June, 2013, Z will increase his language/communication. Will identify six different actions by pointing to a picture from a field of two with fading prompts. Will follow a daily visual schedule with fading prompts. The goals and objectives for most of the students are functional and relevant to their lives. Communication is an important skill in order to have a higher quality of life. All of the students’ goals involve some form of communication. For example, Z has the goal of greeting other students. Z,PL,P, and S have goals to access voice-activated switches. B can hit a switch attached to his stander. He uses the voice output device attached to his switch to greet other people or to start a conversation. The students also have relevant daily living goals. B,PL,P, and S have goals to learn how to partially participate in hand washing. This is an important hygiene skill. P has the goal to feed herself. Again, feeding herself even with partial participation leads to greater independence and quality of life. The only goals that I disagreed with are Z’s. This is his first year in middle school and his goals are more appropriate for an elementary school student. One of the goals that I would change is the animal receptive identification goal. Instead of identifying animals, I would teach identification of preferred foods and activities. I would conduct a preference assessment to identify his favorite activities, toys, and foods and teach those as a receptive identification goal. The goals are challenging for the students, however, the criteria for student mastery needs to be increased. The current criteria for mastery is 80% or four out of five trials. This percentage should be increased to 100%. C. Instructional Units for the Year The instructional units support the IEP goals and objectives. Many of the student goals involve communication skills. PL,P, S, and B have goals to activate a switch device to learn to communicate and make choices. They can answer a question using their device. For example, in the first unit, “About Me,” the students answered questions about their hair and eye color using a switch. B and S can access a switch that activates a Big Mac that says “Yes, that me.” P, PL, and Z can hit touch the Big Mac with their hands. B can also use eye gaze to make choices. Communication is a skill is taught in every domain. Switch use and eye gaze are part of all of the student’s IEPs except Z’s. Z is learning to communicate by speaking and using sign language. Functional academics require student IEP goals in Science and Social Studies. The curriculum follows the state standards. The instructional units correspond with the Science and Social Studies standards and the students’ IEP goals. For example, Z has a goal to learn community places. This is also a state standard. The units are logically sequenced. The year starts out with learning about organisms; living and non-living organisms. The next unit involves plants. The year progresses to learning about the human body. Students learn about the body systems. The following is the units/programs for science taught during the first half of the year: Unit Month Science Standard Indicators Organisms, Habitats, September 6-2.1 Recognize that living things need food Life Cycles and water to grow. 6-2.2 Identify organisms as either plants or animals. Plants September 6-2.4 Recognize the structures of a plant and their functions 6-2.8 Recognize that plants grow toward light 7-2.4 Recognize that green plants produce their own food (photosynthesis) Human Body September 7-3.1 Identify several major organ systems, the major organs, and IEP Goals their functions. Weather October 6-4.2 Identify an example of precipitation (e.g., rain, snow). 6-4.3 Identify clouds that will most likely produce rain (e.g., dark as opposed to white and fluffy). 6-4.4 Identify an example of precipitation. 6-4.6 Identify weather conditions Earth and Space October 8-4.1 Identify objects in the solar system Systems 8-4.3 Recognize that light and heat come from the sun. 8-4.4 Identify Day and night. Recognize Earth’s seasons and temperature changes. Earth, materials, and Change November 7-4.6 Identify renewable resources 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding that Earth has many features and is composed of different materials that are constantly changing. Properties of Matter November and Energy 7-5.2 Exemplify Sort items by Solid and mixtures; solids and liquid. B,P,PL,S solid, liquid and liquid Exploring Force and Motion December 8.5 The student will demonstrate an understanding that an object in motion has a position, direction, and speed at any point in time and can be affected by various forces. 8-5.3 Recognize that gravity makes objects fall downward when they are released. 8-5.4 Recognize that a heavy object will be harder to move than a lighter object. I will teach Social Studies for the second half of the year. I could also alternate weeks that I teach Science and Social Studies. P and S have goals related to identifying historical figures. They are both in seventh grade, so I will incorporate seventh grade SC-Alt standards.. The following is an outline of how I would organize the units. The units progress sequentially and build on the previous units. I will begin with a unit on family and community. Next, I will progress to information and history about South Carolina. I will teach five major cities, regions of the state, and state symbols. I will also teach about famous South Carolinians. I will include lessons on the civil rights movement and its leaders. The last unit that I teach will involve world historical figures and events. I will include in culturally diverse pictures of families in my lessons. I will include important historical figures of diverse backgrounds. I will respect the various cultures of my students and involve these cultures in my units. Month Unit Social Studies Standard Indicators January Family and 6.1 Identify self that lead to Community personal identity including physical growth, Identify surroundings(e.g. Classroom, school, home, community) February South Carolina 8.7 Identify the symbols of IEP Goals South Carolina such as the state bird, state flag, and the state dog. 8-7.2 Identify the role of tourism in South Carolina, tourist ;locations (e.g. Charleston,beaches,mountains) 8.5 Respond to biographies of famous South Carolinians, such as Strom Thurmond ,Dizzy Gillespie, and Mary McCloud. March American Values; Key Figures 6-2.2 Identify examples of the qualities of honesty, courage, determination, individual responsibility, selfdetermination, and patriotism (examples include Patrick Henry, John Hancock, George Washington, Sojourner Truth, Martin Luther King, Jr) 8-2 Identify symbols of the US(e.g. the flag, national bird) April Historical Events and 8-5 The student will S and P will answer Key figures demonstrate an understanding questions regarding of major social and political historical figures and and economic developments events that took place in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century. Respond to information about the accomplishments of John F Kennedy, Martin Luther King, and Rosa Parks. Identify examples of civil rights. May World historical; 6-2 6-2.2 Summarize the S and P will answer Key significant political and questions regarding cultural features of the historical figures and Figures classical Greek civilization, events including the role of Alexander the, literature, the arts, science, and mathematics. I would incorporate ELA standards and simple math skills; such as counting into each unit, even though functional academics does not require having IEP goals and teaching the standards.. I will introduce the students to the Children’s Book Award Nominees. I will read age appropriate yet engaging books to them. An example is Martin’s Big Words; the Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. written by Doreen Rappaport and illustrated by Brian Collier. Furthermore, the lessons in the unit are intellectually diverse. Some students will use eye gaze to show knowledge while others will access a voice output device. I will continue to work on pre-academic skills with Z and incorporate these skills into the units. D. Assessment and Evaluation of Progress The teacher uses curriculum based measurements, teacher observation and data collection to access progress made toward IEP goals. Each student has a binder with their IEP goals and data sheets. The teacher provides instruction during the week then takes data to assess what the student has learned. This enables the teacher to make further instructional decisions. The teacher uses a task analysis to teach hand washing and self-feeding. The teacher calculates the percentage of steps completed with partial physical prompts. Teacher observation is used to determine the number of correct responses by student eye gaze. A percentage of correct responses in calculated out of 5 trials. Does the teacher give grades? How does she report progress to parents? Describe in detail. E. Classroom Management Rules and Procedures The classroom rules and procedures are age appropriate. The rules include: Follow directions Keep Hands off what? Be quiet Listen Pay attention The only rule that I would change is “Keep Hands Off.” I would change it to “Keep Hands down.” The classroom rules are mostly observable and consistent with school regulations. The rule that may be hard to observe is “Listen” with some students. However, it can be observed with most of the students in the class. Procedures are very important in this classroom. Following procedures are academically and medically important. Position changes are part of B’s IEP. He needs to relax in order for the staff to move him. He also needs to learn to exert some control over his body in order for him to breathe easier. The teacher schedules position changes, bathroom, feedings, and times for medication for each student. She posts the times on a large poster hung on the wall.