The Process:
To make soap, first get a beaker of distilled water. Add the
measured amount of lye into the water. Let it mix until it’s
clear. Measure out all of the hard oils, which are coconut oil,
palm kernel oil, and shea butter. Melt them in a crock-pot.
After it becomes a liquid add the soft oil, canola oil, and mix
it. Turn off the crock-pot and let the lye and oils cool until
they reach 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Once they are cooled
pour the lye into the oils and start mixing with a mixer. While
stirring, make sure you do not go past trace. You will know
you are at trace when you lift the mixer out of the soap and
the soap from the mixer falls back down it doesn’t
immediately sink in. Mix in the color and fragrance right
before it hits trace. Prepare and grease the mold. When the
mixture is ready, pour it into mold before it hardens and
cover the mold with plastic wrap.
The Chemistry:
The chemistry reaction that creates soap is called
saponification. Saponification is the chemical reaction that
occurs when you react a base with fats. The base that is
commonly used is lye. (How, 1). Within the fat, there are
triglycerides. Triglycerides are 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
molecule conjoined (Webb). When the sodium hydroxide, or
lye, gets mixed in, it takes the glycerin molecule and leaves
three molecules of soap and one now separate molecule of
glycerin. Soap works by forcing oil and water to mix. Without
soap, the water and natural oils from the skin are not able to
mix, and it will not get rid of any bacteria or dirt that has
settled onto the skin (ChemMatters, 6). In chemistry, polar
dissolves polar and non-polar dissolves non-polar. Oil is
non-polar and water is polar, which is why they do not mix.
Soap acts as an emulsifier, which forces non-polar and polar
things to mix. The soap molecule has two parts. The chain of
carbons and hydrogens are non-polar while the salt is polar.
The polar side is attracted to the water and the non-polar
side attracts the grease and dirt. With the polar side sticking
out attracting the water, it is able to disguise the oil and dirt
and can be washed away easily.
- Canola oil
- Coconut oil
- Palm kernel oil
- Sodium oleate
- Sodium laurate
- Sodium palmitate
- Sodium myristate
- Sodium stearate
- Sodium linoleate
- Shea butter
- Coconut milk
- Lavender scent
- Purple coloring
- Lye
- Di or distilled
- Sodium caprate
- Sodium arachidate
- Sodium alphalinoleate
- Water
- Pink Coloring
- Lavender fragrance
The Process:
To make the body scrub, measure out olive oil, grapeseed
oil, sugar and whatever scent and color you want. Then
simply mix it.
The Chemistry:
A body scrub is used to make skin softer. The main reason
the skin becomes soft after using a body scrub is because it
exfoliates. Exfoliating is basically buffing off dead skin cells
that are still clinging to the surface of your skin. This allows
the new skin to be revealed, and since it hasn’t been
exposed yet, it is soft and glowing (Rutland, 1). The olive oil
and grapeseed oil in the body scrub are used to moisturize
the skin so the new skin will be even softer. Since non-polar
can mix with non-polar, the two oils can mix while the polar
sugar does not get dissolved, allowing the sugar to exfoliate
the skin. According to and, both
grapeseed and olive oil are known for being moisturizing and
anti-aging. The combination of the two oils creates the
perfect moisturizing, anti-aging product.
- Olive Oil
- Grapeseed Oil
- Lavender Fragrance
- Peach coloring
The Process:
To make lip balm, first gather the beeswax (solid pieces),
flavor oil, jojoba oil, and shea butter. Melt the beeswax and
shea butter in a double boiler. Add jojoba oil and a few drops
any flavor oil to the mixture. Mix and pour into the container
to store your lip balm. Then allow the balm to harden at room
temperature or in the refrigerator.
The Chemistry:
The point of a lip balm is to moisturize your lips, so in our lip
balm there is jojoba oil, shea butter, and beeswax, which are
all ingredients used for moisturizing. According to,
it is thought that jojoba oil can mimic the natural oil that is
produced so the skin wont produce as much oil, leaving your
skin not oily but still moisturized. Beeswax is used in lip
balms because it is also moisturizing, and it also helps
protect from the UV rays from the sun (Edwards, 1). The
beeswax is also there to provide stability and helps hold
together the lip balm. When you heat up the mixed
ingredients, the oils can be mixed because they are all nonpolar and non-polar can mix with non-polar.
- Beeswax
- Jojoba oil
- Cucumber melon/Lavender flavor
- Shea butter
- jojoba oil
- Shea butter
- Cucumber melon fragrance
- Lavender fragrance
Allergy Warnings!
- All products contain fragrance and or coloring, may cause
irritation for those who have sensitive skin
- Allergy warning soap contains the following product that
may cause irritation
Coconut oil
Coconut milk
- Lip balm contains beeswax
- For external use only avoid contact with eyes!
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