The Process: To make soap, first get a beaker of distilled water. Add the measured amount of lye into the water. Let it mix until it’s clear. Measure out all of the hard oils, which are coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and shea butter. Melt them in a crock-pot. After it becomes a liquid add the soft oil, canola oil, and mix it. Turn off the crock-pot and let the lye and oils cool until they reach 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Once they are cooled pour the lye into the oils and start mixing with a mixer. While stirring, make sure you do not go past trace. You will know you are at trace when you lift the mixer out of the soap and the soap from the mixer falls back down it doesn’t immediately sink in. Mix in the color and fragrance right before it hits trace. Prepare and grease the mold. When the mixture is ready, pour it into mold before it hardens and cover the mold with plastic wrap. The Chemistry: The chemistry reaction that creates soap is called saponification. Saponification is the chemical reaction that occurs when you react a base with fats. The base that is commonly used is lye. (How, 1). Within the fat, there are triglycerides. Triglycerides are 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule conjoined (Webb). When the sodium hydroxide, or lye, gets mixed in, it takes the glycerin molecule and leaves three molecules of soap and one now separate molecule of glycerin. Soap works by forcing oil and water to mix. Without soap, the water and natural oils from the skin are not able to mix, and it will not get rid of any bacteria or dirt that has settled onto the skin (ChemMatters, 6). In chemistry, polar dissolves polar and non-polar dissolves non-polar. Oil is non-polar and water is polar, which is why they do not mix. Soap acts as an emulsifier, which forces non-polar and polar things to mix. The soap molecule has two parts. The chain of carbons and hydrogens are non-polar while the salt is polar. The polar side is attracted to the water and the non-polar side attracts the grease and dirt. With the polar side sticking out attracting the water, it is able to disguise the oil and dirt and can be washed away easily. - Canola oil - Coconut oil - Palm kernel oil water - Sodium oleate - Sodium laurate - Sodium palmitate - Sodium myristate - Sodium stearate - Sodium linoleate Materials - Shea butter - Coconut milk - Lavender scent - Purple coloring - Lye - Di or distilled Ingredients - Sodium caprate - Sodium arachidate - Sodium alphalinoleate - Water - Pink Coloring - Lavender fragrance The Process: To make the body scrub, measure out olive oil, grapeseed oil, sugar and whatever scent and color you want. Then simply mix it. The Chemistry: A body scrub is used to make skin softer. The main reason the skin becomes soft after using a body scrub is because it exfoliates. Exfoliating is basically buffing off dead skin cells that are still clinging to the surface of your skin. This allows the new skin to be revealed, and since it hasn’t been exposed yet, it is soft and glowing (Rutland, 1). The olive oil and grapeseed oil in the body scrub are used to moisturize the skin so the new skin will be even softer. Since non-polar can mix with non-polar, the two oils can mix while the polar sugar does not get dissolved, allowing the sugar to exfoliate the skin. According to comluv.com and daillyglow.com, both grapeseed and olive oil are known for being moisturizing and anti-aging. The combination of the two oils creates the perfect moisturizing, anti-aging product. Ingredients: Sugar - Olive Oil - Grapeseed Oil - Lavender Fragrance - Peach coloring The Process: To make lip balm, first gather the beeswax (solid pieces), flavor oil, jojoba oil, and shea butter. Melt the beeswax and shea butter in a double boiler. Add jojoba oil and a few drops any flavor oil to the mixture. Mix and pour into the container to store your lip balm. Then allow the balm to harden at room temperature or in the refrigerator. The Chemistry: The point of a lip balm is to moisturize your lips, so in our lip balm there is jojoba oil, shea butter, and beeswax, which are all ingredients used for moisturizing. According to acne.org, it is thought that jojoba oil can mimic the natural oil that is produced so the skin wont produce as much oil, leaving your skin not oily but still moisturized. Beeswax is used in lip balms because it is also moisturizing, and it also helps protect from the UV rays from the sun (Edwards, 1). The beeswax is also there to provide stability and helps hold together the lip balm. When you heat up the mixed ingredients, the oils can be mixed because they are all nonpolar and non-polar can mix with non-polar. Materials: - Beeswax - Jojoba oil - Cucumber melon/Lavender flavor - Shea butter Ingredients: -Beeswax - jojoba oil - Shea butter - Cucumber melon fragrance - Lavender fragrance Allergy Warnings! - All products contain fragrance and or coloring, may cause irritation for those who have sensitive skin - Allergy warning soap contains the following product that may cause irritation Coconut oil Coconut milk - Lip balm contains beeswax - For external use only avoid contact with eyes!