Immunizations implementation in communities

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Running Head: IMMUNIZATIONS FOR KINDERGARTENERS
Megan Shrum
MPH 584
Immunizations for Kindergarteners
March 23, 2014
Immunizations for Kindergarteners
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Immunizations for Kindergarteners
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In creating an immunization program for children entering Kindergarten, I have chosen a
set of required immunizations that each kindergartener must receive before entering this school
system. The required immunizations that kindergarten aged children should have before entering
kindergarten include: Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella,
Haemophilus Influenzae type B (Hib), Hepatitis B (Hep B), and Varicella (chickenpox). If a
child has record of having Varicella (chickenpox) in the past, they will not be required to have
had the vaccine.
In selecting the required immunizations, I referred back to the CDC for factual statistics
and data as well as informative information on vaccines. I first ensured the safety of vaccines.
According to the CDC (2014), “Years of testing are required by law before a vaccine can be
licensed. Once licensed and in use, vaccines are continuously monitored for safety and efficacy”
(pg. 1). The CDC also states that vaccines within the United States are held to the highest
standard of safety. America currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history
(CDC, 2011). This information is reassuring in the sense that we know each and every vaccine
has been closely monitored and assessed in order to ensure its effectiveness and safety. Vaccines
are continually assessed each year they are implemented in order to ensure continued safety and
effectiveness (CDC, 2014). Although, we know that vaccines are continually assessed for safety
and effectiveness, each has its potential side effects. Some possible side effects include getting
the illness even after being vaccinated, mild reactions such as fever and soreness at the entry site,
potential allergic reactions, and severe reactions (CDC, 2011). However, the CDC has found that
90% of negative side effects following vaccinations are categorized as non-serious, leaving a
small percentage for those that are considered serious (CDC, 2011). Many concerns arise from
parents as they consider vaccinating their child.
Immunizations for Kindergarteners
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Although vaccinations are one of the best prevention methods to communicable diseases,
they also pose some risks. These potential risks have not been taken lightly by the general public.
Many are hesitant to receive vaccinations and/or have their loved ones vaccinated due to these
risks. Some of the side effects that may occur with these vaccines include mild reactions such as
tenderness and redness where the shot was administered, drowsiness, headache, diarrhea,
fussiness and low-grade fever. On very rare occasions, a severe allergic reaction may occur,
including hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness,
and weakness (CDC, 2011).
Both the CDC and Vaccines.gov are advocates for getting your child vaccinated. Both
claim that vaccines can save your child’s life and prevent the spread of disease. Vaccines.gov
claims that getting your children vaccinated is one of the best ways to protect them. They also
share five reasons why you should have your child vaccinated. They claim that vaccinations can
save your child’s life. They support this by stating that diseases that once killed thousands of
children have been either eliminated or close to extinction. An example would be polio which
has been completely eradicated from the U.S. This was once one of the most feared diseases in
the U.S., causing paralysis and death (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).
They also state that vaccines are very safe and effective. The HHS state that, “Vaccines are only
given to children after a long and careful review by scientists, doctors, and healthcare
professionals...Serious side effects following vaccination, such as severe allergic reaction, are
very rare. The disease-prevention benefits of getting vaccines are much greater than the possible
side effects for almost all children” (pg. 1, n.d.). The last three claims are that vaccines can
protect the ones you love by preventing the spread of disease, can save your family time and
money by preventing lost time at work or school due to disease or disability from disease, and
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Immunizations for Kindergarteners
protects future generations by eliminating dangerous diseases (U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, n.d.). The CDC reports that the best way to prevent diphtheria, tetanus and
pertussis is through vaccinations. They go on to reiterate what the HHS department states above
(CDC, 2011).
I do agree that children should receive their vaccinations in order to prevent the spread of
disease. Due to the fact that many dangerous diseases have been controlled or eliminated by
vaccinations, I would highly encourage all children to receive vaccines. Statistics show that there
is a very slim chance of having a serious side effect from the vaccines. The dangers of being
vaccinated are nothing compared to the dangers of not getting vaccinated. Therefore, I would
support the beliefs of the HHS and CDC.
Although vaccinations are one of the best prevention methods to communicable diseases,
they also pose some risks. These potential risks have not been taken lightly by the general public.
Many are hesitant to receive vaccinations and/or have their loved ones vaccinated due to these
risks. Some of the side effects that may occur with these vaccines include mild reactions such as
tenderness and redness where the shot was administered, drowsiness, headache, diarrhea,
fussiness and low-grade fever. On very rare occasions, a severe allergic reaction may occur,
including hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness,
and weakness (CDC, 2011).
Create a health profile table for group you have chosen, listing the mortality, morbidity, and risk
factors for this group. Include in the table community health strategies for improving the health
status of each group.
Mortality/Morbidity
Risk Factors/Causes
Community Health
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Immunizations for Kindergarteners
(CDC, n.d.).
Unintentional Injuries
Malignant Neoplasms
Congenital Anomalies
Homicide
Heart Disease
Chronic Lower
Respiratory Disease
Motor Vehicle
Accidents
Family Violence
Drownings
Burns
Access to firearms
Strategies
Safety pamphlets and
brochures
Bully awareness
campaigns
Pool Safety
campaigns, brochures
pamphlets
PSA
Genetics
Raise funds for
research
Maternal care
campaigns, brochures
Limited access to
pamphlets PSA
health care, prenatal
on maternal care
and postnatal care
Community clinics
Low-income
that provide free or
affordable care for
low income families
Access to firearms
Gun Safety
Abuse
pamphlets, brochures,
Violence
campaigns, programs
Bully awareness
campaigns
PSA’s
Genetics
Pamphlets and
Maternal health and
brochures
access to
Starting community
prenatal/postnatal care clinics for low income
families.
Not receiving
Vaccination
Vaccinations
Promotion programs
Limited access to
Low income
health care
vaccination programs
Genetics
Clinics offering to
Second hand smoke
provide affordable
Poor living conditions and/or free
vaccinations.
Cerebrovascular
Genetics
Limited access to
health care
Benign Neoplasms
Genetics
Community clinics
that provide free or
affordable care for
low income families
Raise funds for
research through
community events and
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Immunizations for Kindergarteners
Influenza & Pnemonia Not receiving
vaccinations
Limited access to
health care
Low income families
Septicemia
Genetics
Poverty
Poor living conditions
programs.
Community clinics
that provide free or
affordable care for
low income families
Vaccination
Promotion programs
Low income
vaccination programs
Clinics offering to
provide affordable
and/or free
vaccinations.
Awareness pamphlets
and brochures,
Providing access to
sanitary water.
Clinics for lowincome families.
References
CDC. (2014). Vaccines. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/Index1.html.
Immunizations for Kindergarteners
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CDC. (February, 2014). Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Vaccines: DTaP, Td, and Tdap.
Retrieved March 20, 2014 from
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/dtap/dtapindex.html.
CDC. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Safety. Retrieved March 20, 2014
from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/Common_questions.html.
CDC. (n.d.). Leading Causes of Death 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from
http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/10LCID_All_Deaths_By_Age_Group_2010a.pdf.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Five Important Reasons to Vaccinate
Your Child. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from
http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/features/five-important-reasons-to-vaccinate-yourchild.html.
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