Running Head: IMMUNIZATIONS FOR KINDERGARTENERS Megan Shrum MPH 584 Immunizations for Kindergarteners March 23, 2014 Immunizations for Kindergarteners 1 Immunizations for Kindergarteners 2 In creating an immunization program for children entering Kindergarten, I have chosen a set of required immunizations that each kindergartener must receive before entering this school system. The required immunizations that kindergarten aged children should have before entering kindergarten include: Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Haemophilus Influenzae type B (Hib), Hepatitis B (Hep B), and Varicella (chickenpox). If a child has record of having Varicella (chickenpox) in the past, they will not be required to have had the vaccine. In selecting the required immunizations, I referred back to the CDC for factual statistics and data as well as informative information on vaccines. I first ensured the safety of vaccines. According to the CDC (2014), “Years of testing are required by law before a vaccine can be licensed. Once licensed and in use, vaccines are continuously monitored for safety and efficacy” (pg. 1). The CDC also states that vaccines within the United States are held to the highest standard of safety. America currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history (CDC, 2011). This information is reassuring in the sense that we know each and every vaccine has been closely monitored and assessed in order to ensure its effectiveness and safety. Vaccines are continually assessed each year they are implemented in order to ensure continued safety and effectiveness (CDC, 2014). Although, we know that vaccines are continually assessed for safety and effectiveness, each has its potential side effects. Some possible side effects include getting the illness even after being vaccinated, mild reactions such as fever and soreness at the entry site, potential allergic reactions, and severe reactions (CDC, 2011). However, the CDC has found that 90% of negative side effects following vaccinations are categorized as non-serious, leaving a small percentage for those that are considered serious (CDC, 2011). Many concerns arise from parents as they consider vaccinating their child. Immunizations for Kindergarteners 3 Although vaccinations are one of the best prevention methods to communicable diseases, they also pose some risks. These potential risks have not been taken lightly by the general public. Many are hesitant to receive vaccinations and/or have their loved ones vaccinated due to these risks. Some of the side effects that may occur with these vaccines include mild reactions such as tenderness and redness where the shot was administered, drowsiness, headache, diarrhea, fussiness and low-grade fever. On very rare occasions, a severe allergic reaction may occur, including hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and weakness (CDC, 2011). Both the CDC and Vaccines.gov are advocates for getting your child vaccinated. Both claim that vaccines can save your child’s life and prevent the spread of disease. Vaccines.gov claims that getting your children vaccinated is one of the best ways to protect them. They also share five reasons why you should have your child vaccinated. They claim that vaccinations can save your child’s life. They support this by stating that diseases that once killed thousands of children have been either eliminated or close to extinction. An example would be polio which has been completely eradicated from the U.S. This was once one of the most feared diseases in the U.S., causing paralysis and death (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.). They also state that vaccines are very safe and effective. The HHS state that, “Vaccines are only given to children after a long and careful review by scientists, doctors, and healthcare professionals...Serious side effects following vaccination, such as severe allergic reaction, are very rare. The disease-prevention benefits of getting vaccines are much greater than the possible side effects for almost all children” (pg. 1, n.d.). The last three claims are that vaccines can protect the ones you love by preventing the spread of disease, can save your family time and money by preventing lost time at work or school due to disease or disability from disease, and 4 Immunizations for Kindergarteners protects future generations by eliminating dangerous diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.). The CDC reports that the best way to prevent diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis is through vaccinations. They go on to reiterate what the HHS department states above (CDC, 2011). I do agree that children should receive their vaccinations in order to prevent the spread of disease. Due to the fact that many dangerous diseases have been controlled or eliminated by vaccinations, I would highly encourage all children to receive vaccines. Statistics show that there is a very slim chance of having a serious side effect from the vaccines. The dangers of being vaccinated are nothing compared to the dangers of not getting vaccinated. Therefore, I would support the beliefs of the HHS and CDC. Although vaccinations are one of the best prevention methods to communicable diseases, they also pose some risks. These potential risks have not been taken lightly by the general public. Many are hesitant to receive vaccinations and/or have their loved ones vaccinated due to these risks. Some of the side effects that may occur with these vaccines include mild reactions such as tenderness and redness where the shot was administered, drowsiness, headache, diarrhea, fussiness and low-grade fever. On very rare occasions, a severe allergic reaction may occur, including hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and weakness (CDC, 2011). Create a health profile table for group you have chosen, listing the mortality, morbidity, and risk factors for this group. Include in the table community health strategies for improving the health status of each group. Mortality/Morbidity Risk Factors/Causes Community Health 5 Immunizations for Kindergarteners (CDC, n.d.). Unintentional Injuries Malignant Neoplasms Congenital Anomalies Homicide Heart Disease Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Motor Vehicle Accidents Family Violence Drownings Burns Access to firearms Strategies Safety pamphlets and brochures Bully awareness campaigns Pool Safety campaigns, brochures pamphlets PSA Genetics Raise funds for research Maternal care campaigns, brochures Limited access to pamphlets PSA health care, prenatal on maternal care and postnatal care Community clinics Low-income that provide free or affordable care for low income families Access to firearms Gun Safety Abuse pamphlets, brochures, Violence campaigns, programs Bully awareness campaigns PSA’s Genetics Pamphlets and Maternal health and brochures access to Starting community prenatal/postnatal care clinics for low income families. Not receiving Vaccination Vaccinations Promotion programs Limited access to Low income health care vaccination programs Genetics Clinics offering to Second hand smoke provide affordable Poor living conditions and/or free vaccinations. Cerebrovascular Genetics Limited access to health care Benign Neoplasms Genetics Community clinics that provide free or affordable care for low income families Raise funds for research through community events and 6 Immunizations for Kindergarteners Influenza & Pnemonia Not receiving vaccinations Limited access to health care Low income families Septicemia Genetics Poverty Poor living conditions programs. Community clinics that provide free or affordable care for low income families Vaccination Promotion programs Low income vaccination programs Clinics offering to provide affordable and/or free vaccinations. Awareness pamphlets and brochures, Providing access to sanitary water. Clinics for lowincome families. References CDC. (2014). Vaccines. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/Index1.html. Immunizations for Kindergarteners 7 CDC. (February, 2014). Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Vaccines: DTaP, Td, and Tdap. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/dtap/dtapindex.html. CDC. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Safety. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/Common_questions.html. CDC. (n.d.). Leading Causes of Death 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/10LCID_All_Deaths_By_Age_Group_2010a.pdf. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Five Important Reasons to Vaccinate Your Child. Retrieved March 20, 2014 from http://www.vaccines.gov/more_info/features/five-important-reasons-to-vaccinate-yourchild.html.