Day 2: Measures of Deprivation and Area Type Lecturer: Dr Paul Norman, University of Leeds Tuesday, 12 January 2016, 9.30 to 16.00, Queen’s University Belfast, McClay Library Training Room 2. Background Deprivation indexes and geodemographic classifications aim to reduce multidimensional attributes of areas to a single score or summary description which captures the essence of each area’s characteristics. Deprivation measures and geodeomographic schemes are widely used in research on spatial variations in many phenomena, ranging from health and crime to education and economic activity but the strengths and weaknesses of these measures is often poorly understood. To identify relatively deprived areas in the UK, various indexes have been devised such as the Townsend index and the Carstairs index. These types of scheme use a set of deprivation indicator variables, mainly census derived, and combine them into a single index score. The need for deprivation measures outside census years, the potential use of administrative data sources as deprivation indicators led to the development of the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Classification methods which cluster geographically distant places together on the basis of socioeconomic commonalities underpin geodemographics. Geodemographics has mainly been used in business applications but ONS and others have produced a series of classifications, including the 1991 and 1999 classifications of local government areas and the small area census geographies in 2001 and recently for 2011. The 2001 Supergroups, for example, includes areas labelled ‘Multicultural City Life’ and ‘Disadvantaged Urban Communities’. Outline syllabus This course will first explain the geographies which are used for deprivation and geodemographics schemes and the data sources which are used as inputs. Then, ‘traditional’ measures of area deprivation will be explained followed by a practical in which participants will calculate small area deprivation. Then, the methods underpinning geodemographics will be explained along with their usage in both commercial and academic situations. Participants will then develop a classification using ‘k-means’ one of the regularly used approaches. Data sources to be used: For both the deprivation index and classification practicals, data will be from the 2001 Census and for the Lower Super Output Area geography; If the course presenter gets time, equivalent datasets for small areas in Northern Ireland will also be made available so that participants can use these. At the time of writing, no promises are given! Mathematical and statistical methods & software being used: There are some examples of calculations in Excel but the practical work will all be carried out using SPSS. It is possible to calculate the deprivation measures with the methods here using Excel but the classifications method needs SPSS (or other statistical packages not used in this course); Participants: The course is aimed at people involved in research who may want to develop their own area measures. However, the knowledge and skills obtained during the course will help people to understand pre-existing area characteristics measures better. People are likely to be postgraduates or professionals involved in local government or health research. Whilst specific locations and datasets are used, the skills are readily transferable to other locations and data sources. N.B. There is a course on Demographic Analysis of Area, Individual and Longitudinal Data on the previous day. Each course is standalone but highly complementary. Course leader: Paul Norman is a population and health geographer whose interests include: harmonisation of small area level socio-demographic, morbidity and mortality data to enable time-series analysis of demographic and health change; using area typologies to understand migration patterns and resulting health outcomes; and using individual level microdata to understand aggregate differences in population stratification and characteristics over time. He is programme manager of the MSc in GIS at the School of Geography, University of Leeds supervising Masters and PhD researchers on applied demographic topics.