Memory 1. B 2. A 3. A Development Across 3. fetus 4. accommodation 6. imprinting 9. embryo 11. schema 13. menarche 14. longitudinal Learning Matching 1. F 9. C 14. o T/F 1. F 4. B Down 1. Autism 2. Assimilation 5. Conservation 7. Cross-sectional 8. Zygote 10. Teratogen 12. Habituation 2. J 3. G 10. B 4. H 11. D 5. K(acquired) 12. L 13. N 6. M 7.K(intrinsic) 8. A 15. E 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. F Chapter 10 FRQ Question #1 Point 1: Recognition: Students should explain that the College Board ® decided to use multiple-choice questions, that depend on recognition, because it's important for students to be able to recognize the correct answer from the five options on each multiplechoice question. Students can also discuss content validity related to this point: Because they chose to use multiple-choice questions that depend on recognition, the College Board ® decided that part of the definition of “knowledge of psychological concepts” involves being able to recognize the correct answer from a series of options. Point 2: Recall: Students should explain that the College Board ® decided to use free response essay questions that depend on recall, because students also need to be able to remember and demonstrate knowledge of some psychological concepts without “cues” or options. Students can also discuss content validity related to this point: Because they chose to use free response essay questions that depend on recall, the College Board® decided that part of the definition of “knowledge of psychological concepts” involves being able to recall knowledge of psychological concepts well enough to write about them in an essay. Point 3: Standardization: Students should explain that the College Board® would have needed to test AP® exam questions on a representative sample of high school and college psychology students in order to be able to compare scores of test-takers to this standardization group. Students can also discuss predictive validity related to this point: The College Board ® could use the standardization group of college students to compare high school test scores to college student test scores in order to determine how well high school test scores predict how successful the high school students would be in a college-level course. Point 4: Normal curve: Students should explain that the distribution of composite scores on the AP ® psychology exam fall approximately along the normal curve, with few students receiving scores at either end of the distribution (scores of 1 and 5) with most scores falling in the middle (scores of 2, 3, or 4). Point 5: Reliability: Students should explain that scores on the AP® test need to be proven to be reliable, so the College Board ® most likely tested reliability through either the test-retest method (administering the test more than once to the standardization group) or the split-half method (administering half the test items to two different groups and comparing scores). Point 6: Content validity: Students should explain that the College Board ® needed to test the content validity of the AP® exam, that is, whether the test actually measures relevant psychological content. Students can explain this by describing some likely method of testing content validity (e.g., showing test items to college psychology professors and asking whether the items address important psychological content) or students can explain content validity in the context of points 1 or 2 above. Point 7: Predictive validity: Students should explain that the College Board ® needed to test the predictive validity of the AP ® exam, that is, whether AP® test scores accurately predict the grades these students would receive in a college-level psychology course. Students can explain this by describing some likely method of testing predictive validity (e.g., administering exam items to both high school students and current college students in psychology courses and comparing whether students receiving high scores on the exam receive high grades in college courses), or students can explain predictive validity in the context of point 3 above. Question #2 Point 1: Spearman’s general intelligence: Students should describe how the Spearman’s notion of a general intelligence (g) that underlies problem solving across different contexts applies to their school experience. Students might talk about how their general intelligence “generalizes” across different subject areas in school, such as how their analytical thinking ability helps in math, science, and history classes. Point 2: Gardner’s multiple intelligences: Gardner thought that intelligence is more accurately described as a collection of intelligences, from analytic to interpersonal to artistic. Students might describe specific strengths they encounter during school. Some students experience quick and creative problem solving in some classes (such as literary analysis) but struggle with the reasoning involved in other classes (such as chemistry). Point 3: Sternberg’s triarchic theory: Sternberg described intelligence as three distinct kinds of problem-solving abilities: analytic, creative, and practical intelligences. Students could discuss how most high school courses rely on what Sternberg calls analytic intelligence, and students may not have many opportunities to use creative and practical intelligence in their school experiences. Point 4: Factor analysis: Factor analysis is a technique used to determine which items on an intelligence test (or other kind of test) measure the same attribute or construct. Factor analysis research generally support single intelligence theories (like Spearman’s general intelligence theory), because factor analysis usually reveals that all items on intelligence tests measure overall intellectual capability. Point 5: Savant syndrome: Some individuals have specific, extremely effective problem solving skills (such as the ability to complete difficult mathematical operations in their heads) along with low abilities in other areas of life (such as dealing interpersonally with others). The existence of savant syndrome supports multiple intelligence theories, like Gardner’s or Sternberg’s, because intelligence can be “high” in one area but “low” in another in these savants. Point 6: Validity: Students should discuss the concept of validity: the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. The concept of validity doesn’t necessarily support single or multiple intelligence theories, but students should point out that support for any intelligence theories depends on research into validity of intelligence tests, and valid uses of the scores from these tests.