Chapter 9 guided notes Summarize the Klamath River issue: Should

Chapter 9 guided notes
1. Summarize the Klamath River issue:
Should dams be removed along the Klamath river?
The environmentalist point of view
The local ranchers point of view
Water is abundant but Usable water is rare (Figure 9.1)
Fresh water represents less than ___________ of water on earth.
Salt water in oceans make up _____________ of water on earth.
Only ___________ is fresh water is on the surface.
___________ is freshwater that is frozen in ice and glaciers.
Water below ground makes up ___________ of freshwater.
Atmospheric water is __________ of fresh water.
Surface freshwater in the form of lakes, river and ponds is _____________.
Groundwater terms (figure 9.2 and 9.3)
AquifersUnconfined aquifersConfined aquifersWater tableRechargeSprings-
4. Groundwater Resources can be over used as seen in the major Ogallala aquifer in the high
plains (figures 9.4)
5. Groundwater : Cone of depression (figure 9.5) occurs in areas where ground water is over
drawn for use
- Cone of depression is
6. Groundwater: Saltwater intrusion (figure 9.6) occurs along the coast where ground water is
- Saltwater intrusion is
7. Surface water includes lakes, rivers and ponds and wetlands, which are ecosystems which are
productive like flood plains for agriculture (figure 9.7)
8. Lakes are classified by Productivity:
- Oligotrophic-
9. Atmospheric Water: not much water is in the atmosphere by it influence weather patterns.
- An example of extreme weather conditions which shows the influence of atmospheric water is
the dust bowl years in the 1930s (Figure 9.8) which was caused by poor agricultural practices
and a drought.
10. Urban areas affect water absorption in soils causing ______________ surfaces which does not
let water penetrate the soil. This means excess surface water will run off into streams and
cause flooding and erosion to accelerate.
11. Altering the Availability of Water by human activity
- Levees (fig 9.9)-
Dams (figure 9.10)-
12. Dams cause barriers for organisms such as salmon, which has reduced the population of
salmon substantially
- Fish ladders (9.11) 13. Other human influences on water resources would include
- Aqueducts (figure 9.12, figure13) –
14. In countries where freshwater is not available, desalination and distillation can make
freshwater available (figure 9.14)
- Desalination technology is to remove salt out of water and create freshwater for drinking and
- distillation (a)
reverse osmosis (b)
Water availability around the world (figure 9.15) is not the same throughout the globe.
15. Water is used by humans for agriculture, industry, and household needs
When comparing countries in water use per day, The United States has the highest usage with
_________ L per capita per day and China uses _____________ L per capita per day (figure
16. Agriculture (figure 9.17)
- Types of irrigation in agriculture include _______________, ________________,
_________________, and ____________________.
Know how each is done and the advantages and disadvantages to each type.
Furrow irrigation-
Flood irrigation-
Spray irrigation-
Drip irrigation-
Hydroponic agriculture (FIGURE 9.18)-
17. Industry
- Water is required for many industrial processes such as generating electricity, cooling,
machinery, and refining metals and paper.
- Know the difference between water which is withdrawn and consumed and which processes in
industry withdraw water and/or consume water (figure 9.19)
18. Households
- 10 percent of water usage in the US is used in the household
- Household per capita water usage varies as seem in figure 9.20. Per capita house changes the
water use ranking where the US in no longer the greatest user per day.
- The ranking of indoor water use puts ____________________ as the highest use per household
(figure 9.21)
19. The future of water availability depends on many factors
- Water ownership (figure 9.22)-
Water conservation (figure 9.23)-
The change in water use in the US has changed between 1950-2005 (figure 9.24) Is
water in your toilet too clean? The concept of gray water with toilet flushing (figure