Introduction to cell notes With answers Which scientist used the term

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Introduction to cell notes With answers
 Which scientist used the term “cell” after viewing cork under a
microscope? Robert Hook
 What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek see that nobody had seen
before? Living cells and microorganisms
 What is the cell theory?
o All living things are made up of cells
o Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism
o New cells are produced from existing cells
 What are the levels of organization in a multicellular organism?
Cellstissueorganorgan systemorganism
 What is cell differentiation?
Cells become specialized in structure to perform different tasks (jobs)
 List 3 examples of specialized cells in the human body.
o Red blood cells, white blood cells
o Muscle (3 types), nerve
o Bone
Prokaryote
Cell Type
Nucleus?
No nucleus.
Organelles?
No membrane
bound organelles
Ribosomes?
Small ribosomes
Larger ribosomes
Size?
1-10 µm
2-1000 µm
Evolved when?
3.5 billiion years
ago
1.5 billion years ago
Kingdoms?
Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria
Protista, fungi,
plantae, and
animalia
Basic structure
(draw basic cell)

Eukaryote
Membrane bound
nucleus present
Many
 Shapes of bacteria? (sketch and name each)
o Coccus/cocci (spherical)
o Bacillus/bacilli (rod shaped)
o Spirilla (spiral)
 What do all cells have in common?
o
o
o
o
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
Genetic material
 Parts of plant cells
(draw arrows)
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleus
Chloroplast
Central vacuole
Golgi body
Ribosomes
Mitochondria
Cell membrane
Cell Wall
Parts of animal cells: (draw arrows)
Cell membrane
Mitochondria
Ribosome
Golgi body
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum
Lysosome
 Functions/description of organelles:
Plant? Animal?
Both?
Organelle
Function/description

Cytoplasm
Semi-liquid material
between nucleus and
cell membrane
Both (all cells)

Nucleus
Controls cell processes,
contains genetic
material
Both

Chloroplast
Plants only

Central vacuole
Photosynthesis takes
place here. Captures
light energy and
converts it into
chemical energy in
sugar
Stores water, salts,
ions, and minerals.

Ribosomes
Manufacture proteins
(from DNA’s
instructions)
Both (all cells)
Plants only.
(animals have many
small vacuoles)

Mitochondria

Cell membrane

Cell wall

Golgi body

Endoplasmic
reticulum

Lysosomes
Cellular respiration
takes place here.
Converts chemical
energy into useable
energy (ATP) for the
cell.
Creates a barrier
around cell that
controls what enters
and leaves the
cell…maintains cellular
homeostasis. Cellular
support
Outer layer that
supports and provides
protection.
Modifies, packages,
sorts, and ships
proteins from the ER
and other materials to
be stored in cell or
secreted from cell.
“post office”
Site where lipids for
cell membrane are
assembled, proteins
are modified prior to
export from cell.
Digestion of
biomolecules and
breaking down worn
out cellular parts
Both
Both (all cells)
Plant
Both
Both
Animals
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