Research in Library and Information Science Quality Require

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RESEARCH IN LIBRARY AND
INFORMATION SCIENCE QUALITY
REQUIRE AT DOCTORATE AND MLIS
LEVEL.
KANTILAL G. PATEL
LIBRARIAN,MATRUSHREE S.S. GOVINDA B.ED. COLLEGE, PALANPUR
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: LIBRARY SCIENCE
INTRODUCATION :
Research is life blood of human which was started from prehistoric are when first fire was inveted
Research activity is a basic phenomena which fertile the subject, by that the development and growth is
possible. The enrichment and enlargement of subject knowledge is directly depend on the research enlight us
to find out the new vales. Truth or new dimension on the particular theme of the subject. In this paper we
discuss research mean research project under taken for Ph.D., and M.L.I.S. degree.
HISTORIC PROSPECTIVES :
Research in Lib. & Inf. Sc. does not have a long history. The first Ph.D . degree in Lib. Sc. was awarded to Mr.
Melvil Dewey in 1891 by New York State Library School Albany. It was to be an Honorary degree for his
extraordinary, conspicuous professional achievement. The first doctorate in Lib.& Inf. Sc. was earned by
Eleanor S. Upton in 1930 at Chicago then after a long period of 21 year become 2nd doctorate in 1951 from
Ilinois University. According to Dr. M.P. Satija first doctoral dissertation was submitted in 1925 by Trichin Tai of
lowa state University.
In India Dr. S.R. Rangnathanwas awarded honorary D. Lit degree by University of Delhi for his
outstanding contribution in our profession. An honorary D. Lit. Degree was also awarded to him by University
of Pittasburgh in 1960. He was the 1st Indian recipient and fourth ever to be honored by university. Inspite
oppose to S.R. Rangnathan, he was succeeded to made the provision for Ph.D. in LIT at Uni. Of Delhi in 1948.
Sir Maurice Guwyer, the vice chancellor played key role to support Dr. S. R. Rangnathan. Thus in India Ph.D. in
LIS started and in 1957 1st Ph.D. as was awarded to Mr. D.b.Krishna Rao under the guidance of Dr. S.R.
Rangnathan.
GROWTH OF PH.D. DEGREE IN LIS IN INDIA :
In recent year Ph.D. degree is easily available but let us compare the matter with the time period.
After a hard working of 8 years by Dr. D.B. Krishna Rao was awarded doctorate and many of our professional
get within a period of 2 to 3 years. From 1950 to 1986 only 57 Ph.D. degree was awarded by 30 Indian
University where as today the about 50 doctorate degree offered by more than 60 University. According to
S.Kumar and Leena Shah upto 1999 total 372 Ph.D. degree was awarded from Indian Universities.
Tables 1
yearwise Ph.D. degree
Year
Awarded
2001
28
2002
32
2003
43
2004
46
Data collected from University news thesis of the month.
Above table shows that rate of growth of development. Here I would like to mention data of S. Kumar
& Leena Shah that Uni. Of Delhi had awarded only 18 Ph.D. in LIS inspite of all potentialities for research work
highest is India. Where as Karnataka University Dharwar had awarded 24 Ph.D. degree from 1976 to 2000. For
the purpose of study. I collected the data from university news. (thesis of the month) Vol. 39 (2001) could able
to find out following points.
1.
Most of all thesis are onsurvey based.
2.
There is not a single thesis on experimental method.
3.
Very few are on historical methods.
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4.
Majority are on traditonal subjects .
5.
Trend of the year 2003 & 2004 is networking Automation and communication .
6.
Academic libraries are more preferred for domain institution.
7.
About 20/. Thesis are published in regional language.
8.
Several thesis are on nearly identical or overlapping themes.
Considering above points I come to conclusion that the aims of all receiptor of be assured in the research. The
recent news published in news paper that some university housed in two or three rooms which offer. Ph.D.
degree U.G.C. had disqualified such Universities. The present situation shows that quality may not be
maintained in our field, which is must Researcher give prime importance to degree instead of mission & vision
of LIS profession in India.
To overcome this situation in not too much difficult task but must have desire for qualitative research.
DISSERTATION OF MLIS :
Most of all departments of LIS of universities in India offer a dissertation at MLIS offer a
dissertation. The new syllabus of MLIS also favour either a project work or a dissertation as a part of
curriculums. The basic philosophy for the activity is to train and orient them with research. But there are many
questions about the fruitfulness of this aim. The present situation is not satisfactory. There are many
drawbacks and gap in this system. Dr. P.S.G. Kumar in his book Research in LIS in India” has also findout
several drawback.
There are several drawback in the system and in the quality. For this purpose I visit to stack room
many times and examine many dessertation. My observation are as uunder.
DRAWBACK OF SYSTEM :
1.
The students do not have sufficient time as admission shedule is much late.
2.
The departemnt must preapre a shedule for dissertation work.
3.
The total number of admission should not be more than 15 students.
4.
All teachers should be alloted 2 to 3 students for guidance.
5.
Department must prepare a list of different topics.
6.
Student should be guided and motivated to selects for proper selection of topics.
7.
At a certain interval, HOD should collect the progress report from both i.e. from teachers and
students.
8.
A joint meeting should be organise by HOD for the monitoring the work and quality.
9.
There should be a signature and certificate of guide in dissertation.
DRAWBACK OF DISSERTATION ON THE PART OF STUDENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9
10
11
12
Students select traditional topics i.e. Users study.
most of all students use the identical same questionnaire.
many students make deirect copy from past dissertation. They make malpractices.
language work found very poor.
Without referring original source student cite the references.
optical citation are not provided when the directly make copy from
past dissertation.
Literature search is not included in most all dissertation. My talk in classroom enlight me that
students are not familiar with this matter and its use in dessertation.
Many of the student dont make pilot survey before finalise the questionnaire.
lack of providing systematic reference.
without sufficient proper reading and subject knowledge they start to write dissertation. This mistake
to tail to design questionnaire,interpretation. Conclusion etc.
in the research method, they write theory instead of their practical research project.
lack of design, knowledge of English and statistical methods etc. The list become too long if I
enumerate the drawback of their dissertation but I come to say that there are many drawbacks in all
respects which are to be removed in near future.
SUGGESTIONS FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN RESEARCH AT PH.D. LEVEL.
1.
Organize a periodical workshops to research guides and researchers.
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The University should organise such kind of workshop at certain interval of time. Saurastra University
Rajkot have organise such type of workshop in this month is a right action to my suggestion. I think it well
prove useful to maintain the quality. Other University should move in this direction.
2.
Introducing qualifying examination :
In recent past years many Universities were conducting translation test after the registration for Ph.D.
degree. Such kind of examination should be implemented there should be a test of research method, statistical
analysis, internet and communication, technical writing, translation skill etc.
3.
Grading system in examinition
4.
5 or 7 points scale grade system should be given for Ph.D. degree.
5.
Aducate infrastructure such as library with internet connectivity,
laboratoty,sufficient manpower
should be made available.
6.
Databse on research, research output on internet, award to research guide and researcher, quality
audit etc. Are other important suggestions for qualitative research.
SUGGESTIONS FOR MLIS DISSERTATION :
1.
Sufficient time should be provided to the students. They should be allowed to submit the dissertation
two or three months after the theory examination. Of course there may arise some difficulties but it can be
solved.
2.
Students are to be motivated encouraged for qualitative research work. They are to be made a
mission oriented manpower.
3.
The research methodolody must be taught before they start their research work.i.e. at BLIS this paper
must be taught.
4.
Arrange several lectures on english grammer, statistical analysis use of internet etc.
5.
Keep past dissertation in a safe guard.
6.
Sufficient guidance should be provided to them from where they required information will be
available.
7.
The department head have to play the role of leader instead of only a head or manager. He should
provide a leadership on all kind of assgin work related to him and his staff.
CONCLUSION :
In light of above suggestions which are to be implemented, localised politics prevailing in the
University set up would become quite in effective and better research environment. Augmentation of
research facilities to gather with several quality checks in research would always ensure a meaningful research
output. A positive thinking and positive contribution to the profession and country at a large would be
benefitted.
REFERENCES :
1.
Kumar PSG (1986) ed. Research in library and information science in india,New Delhi. Concept
Pub.Co.
2.
Dhawan S.M.(2001) ed. Quest for quality New Delhi ILA
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STUDY OF BRIEF INTRODUCTION
ABOUT SIKH GURUS
MR. SANJEEV KUMAR*
DR.MOH.RIZWAAN**
RESEARCH SCHOLAR (EDUCATION)BHAGWANT UNIVERSITY AJMER (RAJASTHAN)*
PRINCIPAL BUDDHA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION RAMBHAKARNAL**
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
ABSTRECT
This chapter was deals about the brief introduction about sikh Gurus such as Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism,
GuruAngad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, GuruArjan, GuruHar Gobind, Guru HarRai, Guru Har Krishan, Guru
Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism.
INTRODUCTION OF SIKH GURUS
GURU NANAK
Guru Nanak (1469–1538), founder of Sikhism, was born to Kalu Mehta and Mata Tripta, in a Hindu family in
the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore. His father, a Hindunamed Mehta Kalu, was a
Patwari, an accountant of land revenue in the government. Nanak's mother was Mata Tripta, and he had one
older sister, BibiNanki.From an early age Guru Nanak seemed to have acquired a questioning and enquiring
mind and refused as a child to wear the ritualistic "sacred" thread called a Janeu and instead said that he
would wear the true name of God in his heart as protection, as the thread which could be broken, be soiled,
burnt or lost could not offer any security at all. From early childhood, BibiNanki saw in her brother the Light of
God but she did not reveal this secret to anyone. She is known as the first disciple of Guru Nanak.Even as a
boy, Nanak was fascinated by Hindu religion, and his desire to explore the mysteries of life eventually led him
to leave home. It was during this period that Nanak was said to have metKabir (1440–1518), a saint revered by
many. Nanak married Sulakhni, daughter of MoolchandChona, a trader from Batala, and they had two sons, Sri
Chand and Lakshmi Das.
His brother-in-law, Jai Ram, the husband of his sister Nanki, obtained a job for him in Sultanpur as the manager
of the government granary. One morning, when he was twenty-eight, Guru Nanak Dev went as usual down to
the river to bathe and meditate. It was said that he was gone for three days. When he reappeared, it is said he
was "filled with the spirit of God". Hisfirst words after his re-emergence were: "There is no Hindu, there is no
Muslim". With this secular principle he began his missionary work.
GURU ANGAD:
In 1538, Guru Nanak chose Lehna, his disciple, as a successor to the Guruship rather than one of his sons.
BhaiLehna was named Guru Angad and became the successor of Guru Nanak. BhaiLehna was born in the
village of Harike in Ferozepur district in Punjab, on 31 March 1504. He was the son of a small trader named
Pheru. His mother's name was Mata Ramo (also known as Mata Sabhirai, Mansa Devi, DayaKaur). Baba
Narayan Das Trehan was his grand father, whose ancestral house was at Matte-di-Sarai near Mukatsar.After
the death of Guru Nanak on 22 September 1539, Guru Angad left Kartarpur for the village of Khadur Sahib
(near Goindwal Sahib). He carried forward the principles of Guru Nanak both in letter and spirit. Yogis and
Saints of different sects visited him and held detailed discussions about Sikhism with him.
Guru Angad introduced a new alphabet known as Gurmukhi Script, modifying the old Punjabi script's
characters. Soon, this script became very popular and started to be used by the people in general. He took
great interest in the education of children by opening many schools for their instruction and thus increased the
number of literate people. For the youth he started the tradition of Mall Akhara, where physical as well as
spiritual exercises were held. He collected the facts about Guru Nanak's life from BhaiBala and wrote the first
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biography of Guru Nanak. He also wrote 63Saloks (stanzas), which are included in the Guru Granth Sahib. He
popularised and expanded the institution of Guru kaLangar that had been started by Guru Nanak.
Guru Angad, following the example set by Guru Nanak, nominated Sri Amar Das as his successor (the Third
Nanak) before his death. He presented all the holy scripts, including those he received from Guru Nanak, to
Guru Amar Das. He breathed his last breath on 29 March 1552 at the age of forty-eight. It is said that he
started to build a new town, at Goindwal near Khadur Sahib and Guru Amar Das Sahib was appointed to
supervise its construction. It is also said that Humayun, when defeated by Sher Shah Suri, came to obtain the
blessings of Guru Angad in regaining the throne of Delhi.
GURU AMAR DAS:
Guru Amar Das became the third Sikh guru in 1552 at the age of 73. Goindwal became an important centre for
Sikhism during the Guruship of Guru Amar Das. He continued to preach the principle of equality for women,
the prohibition of Sati and the practise of Langar. In 1567, Emperor Akbar sat with the ordinary and poor
people of Punjab to have Langar. Guru Amar Das also trained 140 apostles, of which 52 were women, to
manage the rapid expansion of the religion. Before he died in 1574 aged 95, he appointed his son-in-law Jetha
as the fourth Sikh Guru.
In 1635, upon meeting Guru Angad, Bhai Sahib was so touched by the Guru's message that he became a
devout Sikh. Soon he became involved inSewa (Service) to the Guru and the Community. Under the impact of
Guru Angad and the teachings of the Gurus, Bhai Amar Das became a devout Sikh. He adopted Guru as his
spiritual guide (Guru). Bhai Sahib began to live at Khadur Sahib, where he used to rise early in the morning and
bring water from the Beas River for the Guru's bath; he would wash the Guru's clothes and fetch wood from
the jungle for 'Guru kaLangar'. He was so dedicated to Sewa and the Guru and had completely extinguished
pride and was totally lost in this commitment that he was considered an old man who had no interest in life;
he was dubbed Amru, and generally forsaken.However, as a result of Bhai Sahib's commitment to Sikhi
principles, dedicated service and devotion to the Sikh cause, Guru Angad Sahib appointed Guru Amar Das
Sahib as third Nanak in March 1552 at the age of 73. He established his headquarters at the newly built town
of Goindwal, which Guru Angad had established.
GURU RAM DAS:
Guru Ram Das (Born in Lahore, Punjab,Pakistan on 24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581, Amritsar, Punjab,
India) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 30 August 1574, following in the
footsteps of Guru Amar Das. He was born in Lahore to a Sodhi family of the Khatri clan. His father was Hari Das
and mother Anup Devi, and his name was Jetha, meaning 'first born'. His wife was BibiBhani, the younger
daughter of Guru Amar Das, the third guru of the Sikhs. They had three sons: Prithi Chand, Mahadev and Arjan
Dev. As a Guru one of his main contributions to Sikhism was organizing the structure of Sikh society.
Additionally, he was the author of Laava, the hymns of the Marriage Rites, the designer of the Harmandir
Sahib, and the planner and creator of the township of Ramdaspur (later Amritsar). A hymn by Guru Ram Das
from page 305 of the Guru Granth Sahib: "One who calls himself a Sikh of the True Guru shall get up early
morning and meditate on the Lord's Name. Make effort regularly to cleanse, bathe and dip in the ambrosial
pool. Upon Guru's instructions, chant Har, Har singing which, all misdeeds, sins and pains shall go away." Guru
Ram Das nominated Guru Arjan, his youngest son, as the next Guru of the Sikhs.
GURU ARJAN:
In 1581, Guru Arjan — the youngest son of the fourth guru — became the Fifth Guru of the Sikhs. In addition
to being responsible for building the Golden Temple, he prepared the Sikh Sacred textand his personal
addition of some 2,000 plus hymns in the GurûGranthSâhib.In 1604 he installed the ÂdiGranth for the first
time as the Holy Book of the Sikhs. In 1606, for refusing to make changes to the GurūGranthSāhib, he was
tortured and killed by the Mughal rulers of the time.
GURU HARGOBIND:
HarGobind became the sixth guru of the Sikhs. He carried two swords — one for Spiritual reasons and one for
temporal (worldly) reasons. From this point onward, the Sikhs became a military force and always had a
trained fighting force to defend their independence.Guru Hargobind fixed two Nishan Sahib's at Akal Bunga in
front of the Akal Takht. One flag is towards the Harmandir Sahib and the other shorter flag is towards Akal
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Takht. The first represents the reins of the spiritual authority while the later represents temporal power stating
temporal power should be under the reins of the spiritual authority.
GURU HARRAI:
Guru Har (26 February 1630 - 6 October 1661) was the seventh of the ten Gurus of Sikhism, becoming Guru on
8 March 1644, following in the footsteps of his grandfather, Guru HarGobind, who was the sixth guru. Before
he died, he nominated Guru HarKrishan, his youngest son, as the next Guru of the Sikhs.Guru HarRai continued
the hunting tradition of his grandfather, but he would allow no animals to be killed on his grand Shikars. The
Guru instead captured the animal and added it to his zoo. He made several tours to the Malwa and Doaba
regions of the Punjab.
His son, Ram Rai, seeking to assuage concerns of Aurangzeb over one line in Guru Nanak's verse
(MittiMussalmamkipedepaikumhar) suggested that the word Mussalmam was a mistake on the copyist's part,
therefore distorting Bani. The Guru refused to meet with him again. The Guru is believed to have said, "Ram
Rai, you have disobeyed my order and sinned. I will never see you again on account of your infidelity." It was
also reported to the Guru that Ram Rai had also worked miracles in the Mughal's court against his father's
direct instructions. Sikhs are constrained by their Gurus to not believe in magic and myth or miracles. Just
before his death at age, 31, Guru HarRai passed the Gaddi of Nanak on to his younger son, the five year old —
Guru HarKrishan.
Although, Guru HarRai was a man of peace, he never disbanded the armed Sikh Warriors (Saint Soldiers), who
earlier were maintained by his grandfather, Guru Hargobind. He always boosted the military spirit of the Sikhs,
but he never himself indulged in any direct political and armed controversy with the contemporary Mughal
Empire. Once, DaraShikoh (the eldest son of emperor Shah Jahan), came to Guru HarRai asking for help in the
war of succession with his brother, the murderous Aurangzeb. The Guru had promised his grandfather to use
the Sikh Cavalry only in defence. Nevertheless, he helped him to escape safely from the bloody hands of
Aurangzeb's armed forces by having his Sikh warriors hide all the ferry boats at the river crossing used by
DaraShikoh in his escape.
GURU HARKRISHAN:
Guru HarKrishan born in KiratPur, Ropar (7 July 1656 - 30 March 1664) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of
Sikhism, becoming the Guru on 7 October 1661, following in the footsteps of his father, Guru HarRai. Before
HarKrishan died of complications of Smallpox, he nominated his granduncle, Guru TegBahadur, as the next
Guru of the Sikhs. The following is a summary of the main highlights of his short life:
When HarKrishan stayed in Delhi there was a smallpox epidemic and many people were dying. According to
Sikh history at HarKrishan's blessing, the lake at Bangla Sahib provided cure for thousands. Gurdwara Bangla
Sahib was constructed in the Guru's memory. This is where he stayed during his visit to Delhi. GurdwaraBala
Sahib was built in south Delhi besides the bank of the river Yamuna, where HarKrishan was cremated at the
age of about 7 years and 8 months. Guru HarKrishan was the youngest Guru at only 7 years of age. He did not
make any contributions to Gurbani.
GURU TEGHBAHADUR:
Guru TeghBahadur is the ninth of the Sikh Gurus. Guru TeghBahadur sacrificed himself to protect Hindus. He
was asked by Aurungzeb, the Mughal emperor, under coercion by Naqshbandi Islamists, to convert to Islam or
to sacrifice himself. The exact place where he attained martyrdom is in front of the Red Fort in Delhi (LalQila)
and the gurdwara is called Sisganj. This marked a turning point for Sikhism. His successor, Guru Gobind
Singh further militarised his followers.
GURU GOBIND SINGH
Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth guru of Sikhs. He was born in 1666 at Patna (Capital of Bihar, India). In 1675
Pundits from Kashmir in India came to Anandpur Sahib pleading to Guru TegBhadur (Father of Guru
GobindSingh ) about Aurangzeb forcing them to convert to Islam. Guru TegBahadur told them that martyrdom
of a great man was needed. His son, Guru Gobind Singh said "Who could be greater than you", to his father.
Guru TegBahadur told pundits to tell Aurangzeb's men that if Guru TegBahadur will become Muslim, they all
will. Guru TegBahadur was then martyred in Delhi, but before that he assigned Guru Gobind Singh as 10th
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Guru at age of 9. After becoming Guru he commanded Sikhs to be armed. He fought many battles with
Aurangzeb and some other Kings of that time, but always won.
CONCLUSION
Toconclude, the abave chapter givesthe brief introduction about sikh Gurus such as Guru Nanak, founder of
Sikhism, GuruAngad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan, GuruHar Gobind, Guru Har Rai, Guru Har
Krishan,Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism.
The followers of Sikhism are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh gurus, or enlightened leaders, as
well as the holy scripture entitled the Gurū Granth Sāhib, which, along with the writings of six of the ten Sikh
Gurus, includes selected works of many devotees from diverse socio-economic and religious backgrounds.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.
Singh, Balawindara (2004). Fifty-Two Commandments Of Guru Gobind Singh. Michigan, US: Singh Bros.
2.
Singh, Satbir (1991). Aad Sikh TeAadSakhian. Jalandhar: New Book Company.
3.
BhaiVir Singh, Sri KalagidharChamatkar (Amritsar: Wazir Hind Press, 1925); Sri Guru Nanak Chamatkar
(Amritsar: Wazir Hind Press, 1928); Sri Asht Guru Chamatkar((Amritsar: Wazir Hind Press, 1952).
4.
Shahid-BilasSantJarnail Singh Bhindranwale, eds., Gurtej Singh and SwaranjeetSingh (Chandigarhi:
Satsandhi Publications, 2001).
5.
BhaiGurdas, Varan,
6.
Mobad, Dabistan-I Mazahib,
7.
BhaiGurdas, Varan, 137; Chaupa Singh also refers to the presence of Sikh scribes, see his Rahit-Nama,
Chaupa Singh, Rahit-Nama,.
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MARKETING OF LIBRARY AND
INFORMATION SERVICES IN
UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
Dr. CHETANA N.SHAH
LIBRARIAN, DR.BABASAHEB AMBEDAKAR OPEN UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: LIBRARY SCIENCE
1. Introduction:
There was a debate among the library professionals about marketing of library services like the business and
industries during last three decades of twenty century but at the end of the century it is accepted fact that
marketing of library and information services is not essential but it is inevitable to enhance the maximum
utilization of library resources. Alvin Toffler, Peter F. Drucker, Philip Kotler, etc have visualized the concept of
marketing particularly in service organization that the marketing people of the 21st century will confront and to
think about how they should re-orient themselves best, so as to deliver quality services of their organization
to the customers. The marketing emerged as e-marketing or online marketing or web based marketing in ICT
environment of the 21st century and library professionals have undertaken the challenges of utilization of their
library resources using internet and web technology. The situation is seen imbalanced between developed and
developing countries also among different types of libraries. In developed countries libraries gauntlet the
challenges but developing countries libraries are stumbling due to many predictable and unpredictable
reasons. University libraries in developing countries like India is have heterogeneous situations as some
libraries are competing western libraries but many university libraries are yet not come out from traditional
services. The paper discusses the role of university library in new environment and how it can enhance usage
of its resources with the e marketing.
2. University Library and Marketing:
There are 45 Central Universities, 311 State Universities, 29 Deemed to Universities and 171 Private
Universities besides 49 institutes of national importance in India (accessed from UGC website). As per optical
cited by Wikipedia giving a reference of World Bank India's higher education system is the third largest in the
world, next to the United States and China. It a pride for us but as far library and information centre are
concern we are far behind than many western countries. Major part of our university libraries are traditional
and have finished library automation digital library and institutional depository is only a dream for them. The
changes are required from the grass root level.
3. Changing Roles for University Libraries
It is in the context of the changing teaching and learning environment and the complexities in the acquisition,
usage and dissemination of information and knowledge that librarians are embracing new roles which are
melting down the boundary that exists between the library and the academic departments. The learning
environment has become hybrid and distributed, so also is the librarian. The librarian has evolved from his role
as an information organizer to more distributed roles as an active participant in the campus’ instructional and
research process. Areas where the changing roles of the university librarian can be specifically identified by
Adeogun, M (2008) are:

Provision of instructional support to both faculty and students in acquiring information literacy skills;

Collaboration with the teaching faculty in curriculum planning and the teaching of research
strategies;

Provision of consultancy services in information issues and problems;

Collaboration with teaching faculty in incorporating IT and multimedia resources into teaching and
learning;

Collaboration with teaching faculty in publishing course materials and other special resources; and

Serving as a disciplined faculty.

Efforts for the utilization of the library resources.
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Maximum utilization of resources awareness and marketing is an essential. Information marketing in university
libraries in India is essential in order to:
• Promotion of the use of information resources;
• Create perception of need and thereby create demand;
• Improve the image and status of the libraries and library professionals.
• Tackle the problems of rising costs of reading materials, journals, and databases;
• Cope with the information explosion;
• Introduce cutting-edge information technology systems in library services;
• Balance shrinking funds;
• Save libraries from devaluation
• Save libraries from declining reader-support;
• Uphold the dictum that information is power.
4. Marketing Tools:
Gupta and Jambhekar( 2003) have given various ideas of the authors about the use of internet for integrating
library services. Natarajan (2002) has discussed the use of e-mail as important tool in library services. The five
laws of library science enunciated by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1988) is a lighthouse of marketing activities to be
undertaken by any library and information centers. The ideas given by him in his literature are still relevant to
the marketing. Stegmann and Kretschmer (2013) have rightly said that “on the basis of citation data we have
shown that the work and ideas of the great Indian librarian Shayali Ramamrit Ranganathan are enduring parts
of modern scientific discourse”. Bhatt (2011) has enumerated several marketing activities relevant to the
philosophy of Dr. Ranganathan. There are numbers of marketing activities that any library can implement
according to its own atmosphere and available means. The marketing activities fall under two broad group
traditional activities that include physical and print media and modern activities known as e-marketing or on
line marketing include e- mail, blog, social networking, e- publishing, website etc. The various used by several
university libraries are discussed here
4.1 Traditional Marketing Tools:
1.
COMMUNICATION
The well-known quotation “Much unhappiness has come into the world because of bewilderment and things
left unsaid” given by Fyodor Dostoyevsky gives importance of communication in our life. The unsaid is to be
said through communication as communication plays vital role in making our life easy and smooth and helping
in building relationship and establish interaction with community. The community may be the customers or
companions or unknown individual. We use various communication channels. Rowley (1998) divides
communication channels into personal and non-personal. Personal communication channels are those in
which two or more people communicate, and word of mouth is the primary means of communication,
although other media such as e-mail are significant. Non-personal communication channels include TV, radio,
posters, newspapers, etc. Library professionals can use personal and non-personal channels to provide
information about information sources.
2.
ATMOSPHERE
“A happy life must be to a great extent a quiet life, for it is only in an atmosphere of quiet that true joy dare
live.”( Bertrand Russell) The atmosphere is the primary requirement for the effective use of learning and
reading. Library atmosphere should not be neglected by libraries as it. This term is coined by Philip Kotler
(1975) who defines atmosphere as "the designing of buying and consuming environments in a manner
calculated to produce specific cognitive and/or emotional effects on the target market." Kotler’s words can be
articulate in the context of physical as well as internal environment of library and information centre as
working environment, library ambience, appearance of employees, the physical setting, lighting, work
environment, noise levels, distance from main location and in the case of public library transport facility etc.
The healthy, positive and suitable to users will make a positive impact on users. Of course some of these like
library ambience, physical structure cannot be changed but attractive look shape can be provided.
Atmospheric considerations are often neglected in many libraries and information centers. It is not always a
matter of extra cost but simply a matter of thoughtfully designing space in the library, placing of relevant
guides to use, etc. This may help in attracting and maintaining users.
3.
ADVERTISING
Jerry Della Femina quotes that “There is a great deal of advertising that is much better than the product. When
that happens, all that the good advertising will do is put you out of business faster." For promoting library
services advertising is important aspect of in image-building. Newspapers, scholarly journals, magazines,
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newsletters, radio, television, web, etc are the available media that a library can use to advertise its products
and services. They can be in a short message, or staff can write longer articles on new and existing library
services. Librarians can appear on local radio and TV, highlighting the new role the libraries plays in the present
era (Jaafar, 1998). There are a variety of ways of advertising online. Traditional print advertisements include
brochures, pamphlets, newspaper advertisements, etc. All the productive have special features and own
importance. The design of these products should be attractive in a simple language. Regular updating is also
required.
4.
NEWSLETTERS
The newsletter generally intends to communicate the news/information regarding the new product, services,
achievement, activities of the organization to the general public. The library can produce its own newsletter or
can give library news in the newsletter of parent organization. The library can convey information about new
acquisitions, new services, events and activities, fee changes, etc. Information regarding library can be
included to convey a message to readers about the alertness of the library in updating and communicating
small but important pieces of information. In fact, they are an excellent marketing tool because they list all the
activities of a library. With ICT facilities in the library, an e-newsletter can be produced. The text of the
newsletter can also be included on the library website.
5.
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Many organizations exhibit the extension activities to create awareness, develop positive image of
organization among its clientele and general public to achieve its goals through the extension activities. A
library can organize activities establishing a readers club of special groups of common interest. Extensive
activities such as book displays, lectures, quiz, debates, seminars, competitions, exhibitions, etc., can have a
positive impact on the image of the library and can motivate people to come to the library and promote the
use of its products and services.
6.
LIBRARY TOUR AND ORIENTATION
Library tour for new and existing members can be used to promote the library services. While on a library tour,
users can be prompted to ask questions and find out more about new activities, products, and services.
7.
Library Month/Day
Organizing national library day/week/month can be an effective way to promote the library. A library can
create awareness of its importance in society.
4.2 ICT Marketing Tools
ICT is playing vital role in the all sphere human activities, library uses computers, internet and develop their
website either own or parent institute. There are some many tools and techniques that a library can use it for
marketing some of them are as under.
1.
PROMOTING IN ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT
Today there is no problem now a day for Libraries to use ICT tools in designing, developing, and disseminating
services to satisfy their users. They can use ICT tools to promote their products and services. Library websites,
email, instant messaging, social networking etc are the ICT based channels that library can use. Many libraries
provide access to resources through web OPAC.
2.
WEBSITES
Library websites can be accessed by users at any time. The websites contain details about the library, including
the collection, subscriptions, service policy, terms and conditions, etc. It may also have graphics and
multimedia advertising that can have an impact on visitors. The library website should be continuously
updated to avoid an adverse effect the image of the library. The website can also be interactive so users can
communicate with staff. For this purpose, a directory of staff members should be posted on the website
(Mahajan and Chakravarty, 2007).
3.
ELECTRONIC MAIL/MAIL-SHOTS
In the internet environment e-mail and mail-shots are commonly used tools. According to Cole (2013), 86. %
American use e-mail and per week they use it 20.4 hours. The Hindu (2013) quotes the report of The Telecom
Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) that India now has nearly 74 million Internet users, a 31 per cent increase
over March 2012 and ranked third position in the world. Internet is the most universal application on the
Internet and it can be used for direct communication with potential users by any library for personalized
services. There are many benefits to using email as a promotional tool.
4.
BULLETIN BOARD
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This is an offshoot of email and is a many-to-many email system. It is medium for messages of interest to a
community of online users (Moorthy and Karisiddappa, 2000). This service can be used by libraries for
disseminating information to online users.
5.
NEWSGROUPS
It is just like user groups of the library which discuss on a particular topic of common interest, The library user
groups physically meet at one place whereas newsgroups discuss online.. Libraries can use newsgroups or
discussion groups to build awareness among its clientele. According to Moorthy and Karisiddappa, (2000) a
message (or an article) is posted to the entire newsgroup. Other interested persons can reply/comment on the
message. The topic can range widely, but each group is confined to one subject.
6.
E-COMMERCE
E-commerce has occupied important place in the worldwide market. A library can also sell its products online
through online charging and credit facilities. Well-known bookstores around the world are offering their
holdings over the Internet. For example, Blackwell maintains a database of more than 1.5 lakh active titles
(Moorthy and Karisiddappa, 2000). Benefits of e-commerce include:

A very large customer can be served without boundaries of different countries and that reaches to
unreacged.

Low cost maintenance of web based selling and that results in reduced prices, value added benefit
like healthy competition, latest and current information, quick access and sales

Caters customaries need, serve varied interests, saving travel time
7.
BLOGS
Blogs are the personal or institutional website which continuously-updated by developer. Generally they are
free to share the ideas . A library can use blogs to promote its products and services by making it appealing and
informative (Mahajan and Chakravarty, 2007). Special alerts about new resources special services can be
included in the blog entries. To get feedback, comments and suggestions can be invited from visitors. It is a
mirror and can serve as a means of collecting feedback.
5. CONCLUSION:
The marketing is a means that can be used for the enhancement of the library and information in the modern
time. Traditional marketing tools have many limitations and libraries are facing scarcity of manpower in ICT
environment, the library can develop website and cater various services through internet. University libraries
in India has wide scope of availability of fund through INFLIBNET and UGC, the library and information services
can be made available in the interest of users. In ICT context, the university librarian will have to rethink and
reassess information strategy, offering alternative programme of creating awareness modes of delivery.
REFERENCES:
Adeogun, Margaret (2008). Emerging university library services in an ever changing and knowledge intensive
learning environment. Presented at the ACU Conference of Executive Heads,28 th Nov., 2008 Hyderabad,
India.
Bertrand
Russell
accessed
on
12th
September,
2013
accessed
from
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/b/bertrandru388926.html#cApc1HK4PB0Ks3RJ.99 Bhatt, R.K.
(2011), Relevance of Ranganathan's Laws of Library Science in Library Marketing Library Philosophy and
Practice 2011. Accessed from http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/
Cole,
JeffreyI.(2013).The
2013
Digital
Future
Report
accessed
from
http://www.worldinternetproject.net/_files/_Published/_oldis/713_2013_digital_future_report_usa.pdf.
Fyodor
Dostoyevsky
quotation
accessed
on
12th
September
2013
from
http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/3137322.Fyodor_Dostoyevsky
Gupta, Dinesh and Jambhekar,Ashok(2003). An intercalated approach to service marketing: a book of reading
on marketing of library and information services. Mumbai; Alliied Publishers.
Jerry Della Femina accessed from http://advertising.about.com/od/referencedesk/a/25-Great-AdvertisingQuotations.htm
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Jaafar, Shahar Benum (1998), "Marketing information technology (IT) products and services through libraries:
Malaysian experiences", Proceedings of sixty fourth IFLA general conference, 16-21 August, Amsterdam,
available at: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla64/126-86e.htm (accessed 12 September 2012).
Kotler, Philip (1975), Marketing for non-profit organizations, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Mahajan, Preeti and Chakravarty, Rupak (2007), "How to promote library services: academic libraries in India,"
in Mullins, Jame L. (Ed.), Library Management and Marketing in a Multicultural World, Proceedings of the 2006
IFLA Management & Marketing Section, 16-17 August, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 138-55, accessed from on
12th September,2013 :http://www.reference-global.com/doi/abs/10.1515/9783598440267.3. 138
Moorthy, A Lakshmana and Karisiddappa, C. R. (2000), "Internet for Libraries", in Ashok Babu, T. et al.
(Eds.),Vision of the future library and information systems, Viva Publications, New Delhi, pp. 67-81,accessed on
12th September,2013 from http://drtc.isibang. ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/1849/354/1/SSMfect.pdf
Natarajan, M. (2002), "E-Mail as a marketing tool for information products and services", DESIDOC Bulletin of
Information Technology, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 27-34
Ranganathan, S. R. (1988), Five laws of library science, 2nd ed., Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library
Science, Bangalore.
Rowley, Jennifer (1998), "Promotion and marketing communications in the information marketplace", Library
Review,
Vol.
47
No.
8,
pp.
383-7.
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http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewPDF.jsp?Filename=html/Outpur/Pubishe3d/EmeraldFullTextArtic
le/pdf/03580470802.pdf (accessed 12 September 2012).
Stegmann, johannes and Kretschmer, Hidrun(2013), Ranghanathan today: a citation study. Srels Journal of
Information Management, vol.50 (5), pp. 473-478.
The Hindu (2013) accessed from http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/internet/india-is-now-worldsthird-largest-internet-user-after-us-china/article50
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Neural Network Based Brain Tumor
Detection Based on Characteristics of
GLCM Texture Features
KADAM D B1
R K PRASAD2
1
Research scholar JJTU, Rajasthan, India, & Asso. Prof. PVPIT, Budhgaon Sangli
2
Pune University, Pune Maharashtra, India
KEYWORDS: Neoplasm, Artificial Neural Network, GLCM, MR image, growth detection
SUBJECT:
ABSTRACT
This paper outlines intensive science laboratory work for artificial neural network primarily based neoplasm
detection exploitation mister pictures with texture options methodology. Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix
(GLCM) characteristics options are used with the patient’s mister image for coaching of neural network. A
brand new approach is introduced to change the coaching information before coaching of neural network. The
current methodology detects growth space by darkening the growth portion and enhances the image for
detection of alternative brain diseases i. This methodology is capable of neoplasm detection, that shows
satisfactory science laboratory results. The projected algorithmic rule with success tested within the
laboratory.
INTRODUCTION
Brain Tumor Detection exploitation resonance (MR) Imaging technology has been introduced within the life
science from previous couple of decades. The growth detection becomes most complex for the large image
information. A computer code approach is required to assist the correct, quicker clinical designation.
Introduction of neoplasm, classification of neoplasm, image getting strategies, details of resonance Imaging
(MRI)
and
therefore
the
connected
literature
survey
is
mentioned
in
[1].
Present work introduces the new methodology of neoplasm detection exploitation combined approach of
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM). Hopfield ANN approach is a lot of
standard for the growth detection. the current projected methodology has been tested on tomography.
However, the new algorithmic rule will be applicable to CT scan pictures. GLCM texture options ar thought of as
input file in conjunction with the tomography. Haralick et. al. [2] recommended GLCM texture options ar utilized
in this gift work.
Lehana, Parveen, et al [3] introduces the new investigation technique exploitation aura remodel for enhancing
the mister pictures. the improved image is appropriate for the designation purpose. However, the current new
algorithmic rule isn't solely detection the neoplasm, darkening the growth space, however conjointly enhances
the options of tomography to its attainable sensible quality. Doctors will foursquare diagnose alternative
diseases within the human brain with increased tomography. Killedar et al [4] recommended content primarily
based image retrieval approach for the growth detection. The content primarily based image retrieval approach
is time overwhelming operation as compared with the opposite growth detection methodology. Author covers
full careful obtainable techniques for neoplasm detection, image sweetening and content primarily based image
retrieval strategies. Linder Nina et al. [5] illustrated for the segmentation of animal tissue associated stromal
tissue exploitation texture options and an SVM classifier. Texture options ar capable of providing classification
of image and detection of object exploitation intelligent approach. Sharma et al. [6] used the GLCM and Artificial
Neural Network Fuzzy logical thinking System (ANFIS) for neoplasm detection. The projected algorithmic rule in
[6] literature is difficult and therefore appropriate changed algorithmic rule is developed during this gift work.
Vijayakumar et al.[7] recommended growth cut segmentation and classification of mister pictures exploitation
texture
options
and
feed
forward
neural
networks
approach.
The present paper is split into six sections. Section I covers necessary introduction and relevant literature
survey. Section II covers details of GLCM texture options utilized in this gift work. Section III covers improved
neoplasm algorithmic rule. Results and discussion is roofed in section IV. Conclusion and references coated in
section V and VI severally.
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II. GLCM TEXTURE optionsThe GLCM texture options ar extracted from the co-occurrence matrix sometimes
known as as dependence matrix in neoplasm detection [8,9] the feel analysis in image process characterizes
varied properties of image beneath process to spot the thing. Tone and texture ar the 2 necessary
characteristics of a picture for the process. Tone and Texture helps to quantify and object identity gift in a
picture exploitation texture options. However, one continually dominates the opposite. A grey tone abstraction
dependence matrix approach, introduced by Haralick that may be a standard method for extracting second
order texture info from pictures, is employed for this gift work the assorted texture Let us denote the co
occurrence matrix C and N be the number of distinct gray levels in the quantized image.
(1)
(2)
The following eight texture features are calculated
1.
Angular second moment(ASM)
2.
Contrast(CON)
3.
Inverse Difference Moment (IDM)
4.
Sum Variance (SVAR)
5.
Sum Entropy (SENT)
6.
Entropy (ENT)
7.
Difference Entropy (DENT)
8.
Information Measure of correlation (IMC)
IMPROVED growth DETECTION algorithmic ruleBrain tumor detection may be a very important downside of
clinical analysis exploitation mister pictures. it's pretty much time overwhelming method to search out growth
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in a picture from the massive information of mister pictures. the current work is dole out within the laboratory
to spot the neoplasm exploitation mister pictures with the factitious neural network approach. The ANN is
difficult network and before the utilization neural network, coaching of neural network is crucial. The backpropagation algorithmic rule is employed for the coaching of neural network [1]. the current neoplasm
detection algorithmic rule is as followsStep 1:- Load mister ImageMATLAB interface is developed for the
implementation of gift work exploitation MATLAB R2010B computer code. The interface of continuing work is
shown in figure a pair of. interface information handling between the various callbacks ar attainable with a
world handle structure containing declared variables. Handle structure is outlined to store the weather of
loaded image. parts of loaded mister image ar hold on within the variable ‘MRI’ and regularly updated the
handle structure (GUIDATA) when every amendment within the structure variables.Step 2:- Calculate Texture
options (TF)The GLCM is employed for calculation of various texture options listed in section a pair of. perform
graycoprops in MATLAB image process tool case is additionally accustomed calculate the four texture options.
However, few a lot of parameters recommended by Haralick ar needed during this continuing work [2]. New
perform GLCM1 is developed for the calculation of texture options of co-matrix. The perform is outlined
because the input is that the matrix of mister image and output is that the structure containing texture
options, hold on within the variable ‘stats’. Step 3:- notice growth exploitation symmetry analysis algorithmic
rule and prepare information for coachingImproved neoplasm detection algorithmic rule is employed to get
coaching information for neural network. Sudipta Roy et. al.[10] recommended symmetry analysis for the
neoplasm detection. The coaching information is obtained exploitation recommended algorithmic rule by
Sudipta Roy et. al. with modification within the resizing method of image matrix. Obtained coaching
information for the coaching of Neural Network is hold on in ‘annin’ and ‘annout’ structure variables.
Step 4:- coaching of neural network exploitation coaching informationLinear layer, neural network is initialized
exploitation perform ‘newlind’ with lr=0.05, mc=0.001, epochs=3500, goal = 1e-8. coaching information is
changed before exploitation the perform ‘train’. Input and target information to be feed for the coaching of
neural network is appropriately resized exploitation perform ‘reshape’. Input coaching information, the matrix
of original mister image and therefore the texture feature, target coaching information ar appropriately
changed for the coaching of neural network, as shown within the figure one.
Figure 1 :- Training method of ANN
Step 5:- Use ANN for tumor detection
Neural Network is employed for the neoplasm detection when appropriate coaching. Load mister image and
modify input file. The output information of neural network ought to be re-modified for the show of desired
image. Reshape the output image to the previous dimensions for correct show.
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IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONMATLAB interface is shown within the figure a pair of. Integrated recall perform
is developed to affix the various MATLAB functions. interface offer most convenient, user friendly atmosphere.
native and international variables ar declared and information transfers or exchanges between these variables
ar attainable.
Figure 2 :- MATLAB GUI
The load mister image, recall perform goes to load the mister image for example; the loaded mister image is
shown within the figure three. Matrix image parts ar hold on in ‘MRI’ variable for the any process. Loaded
tomography image is of size 256 * 256.
Figure 3 :- Sample MR Image
The texture options ar calculated supported the suggestions by Haralick. the various texture options ar listed
within the table one. the feel options ar hold on in ‘stats’ variable.Table 1 :- GLCM Texture Features
Texture Feature
Value
Autocorrelation
[1 1]
Contrast
[0 0]
Cluster Prominence
[0 0]
Cluster Shade
[0 0]
Dissimilarity
[0 0]
Energy/Angular Second [1 1]
Moment
Entropy
[-2.220446049250313e-016
2.220446049250313e-016]
Homogeneity
[1 1]
Maximum probability
[1 1]
Variance
[9.689941406250000e-001
9.689941406250000e-001]
Sum average
[2 2]
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Sum variance
Sum entropy
Difference variance
Difference entropy
Information measure of
correlation1
Information measure of
correlation2
Inverse
difference
normalized (INN)
Inverse
difference
moment normalized
[4 4]
[-2.220446049250313e-016
2.220446049250313e-016]
[0 0]
[-2.220446049250313e-016
2.220446049250313e-016]
[0 0]
-
-
[0 0]
[1 1]
[1 1]
Detected tumor using the symmetry analysis algorithm is shown in figure 4.
Figure 4:- Sample detected Tumor Image
The training of neural network is carried out as per the initialization and training window is shown in figure 5.
Data division is random and training performance is based on mean square error method with ‘trainlm’ training
algorithm.
Figure 5 :- Neural Network Training window
The best validation performance of neural network training is 0.041205 at epochs 1.
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Figure 6 :- Neural Network Training Performance
Training states are having gradient of 6.7802e-015, Mu is 1e-005 and validation check is 1 at the epoch of 2.
Figure 7 Neural Network Training States
The training regression analyses are found to be 0.90358 for training, 0.90135 for validation, 0.9035 for test and
overall regression is 0.90312 for the training session.
Figure 8 :- Neural Network training Regression analysis
The ANN results are shown in figure 9 to figure 16. ANN is trained for the tumor detection within the edges of
MR image. The dark area within the boundary is indicating tumor area. The tumor area can be calculated for the
further analysis.
V.CONCLUSION
Present{braingrowth neoplasm}Detection algorithmic rule isn't solely detection the tumor space by darkening
malign brain cells however conjointly enhances the tomography to assist the doctors for the detection of
varied diseases in human brain. The intensive science laboratory work has verified that projected algorithmic
rule detects growth. GLCM texture options ar capable of extracting helpful info and ANN classifier shows the
satisfactory results.
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Figure9 ANN input Image 1 Figure10 ANN output Image 1
Figure11ANN input Image 2 Figure12 ANN output Image 2
Figure13ANN input Image 3 Figure14 ANN output Image 3
Figure15ANN input Image 4 Figure16 ANN output Image 4
REFERENCES
Kadam, Deepak Bhimrao, S. S. Gade, M. D. Uplane, and R. K. Prasad. "Neural network based brain tumor
detection using MR images." International Journal of Computer Science and Communications 2, no. 2 (2011):
325-331.
[2] R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, and I. Dinstein, “Textural Features of Image Classification”, IEEE
Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. SMC-3, no. 6, Nov. 1973
[1]
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[3] Lehana, Parveen, et al. "Investigations of the MRI Images using Aura Transformation." Signal & Image
Processing: An International Journal (SIPIJ) 3.1 (2012): 95-104.
[4] Killedar, Aditi P., and Veena P. Patil Megha S. Borse. "Content Based Image Retrieval Approach to Tumor
Detection in Human Brain Using Magnetic Resonance Image.", 1st International Conference on Recent Trends
in Engineering & Technology, Special Issue of International Journal of electronics, Communication & Soft
Computing Science & Engineering, Mar-2012, pp 211-214, ISSN: 2277-9477
[5] Linder, Nina, et al. "Identification of tumor epithelium and stroma in tissue microarrays using texture
analysis." Diagn. Pathol. 7 (2012): 22.
[6] Sharma, Minakshi. "Artificial Neural Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) For Brain Tumor Detection."
arXiv preprint arXiv:1212.0059 (2012).
[7] Vijayakumar, B., and Ashish Chaturvedi. "Tumor Cut-Segmentation and Classification of MR Images using
Texture Features and Feed Forward Neural Networks." European Journal of Scientific Research 85.3 (2012):
363-372.
[8] L. Soh and C. Tsatsoulis, “Texture Analysis of SAR Sea Ice Imagery Using Gray Level Co-Occurrence
Matrices”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 37, no. 2, March 1999.
[9] D A. Clausi, “An analysis of co-occurrence texture statistics as a function of grey level quantization”, Can.
J. Remote Sensing, vol. 28, no.1, pp. 45-62, 2002
[10] Sudipta Roy, Samir K. Bandyopadhyay, “Detection and Quantification of Brain Tumor from MRI of Brain
and it’s Symmetric Analysis”, International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research,
Volume 2 No. 6, June 2012, PP 477-483, ISSN 2223-4985
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A C OMPARATIVE S TUDY OF
P ROFITABILITY A NALYSIS OF GAIL
AND ONGC O PERATING IN I NDIA
Dr. DIVYESH G. VYAS*
Mr. PRITESH C. PANCHAL**
ASST.PROF SHREE P M PAREL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ,ANAND 388001.*
ASST. PROF SHREE P M PAREL INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ,ANAND 388001**
KEYWORDS: Profitability, T-Test, Gas Company
SUBJECT: MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT
During the Pre-Independence period, the Assam oil companies in the north eastern and at tock oil company in
north western part of the undivided India were the only oil companies producing oil in the country, with
minimal exploration input. The major part of Indian sedimentary basins was deemed to be unfit for
development of oil and gas resources. After independence the national government realized the importance of
oil and gas for rapid industrial development and its strategic role in defense. Until 1955, private oil companies
mainly carried out exploration of hydrocarbon resources of India. In 1955, Government of India decided to
develop the oil and natural gas resources in the various reigns of the country as part of public sector
development.
The profitability ratios are calculated to measure the operating efficiency of the business enterprise. Besides
management of the company, creditors and owners are interested in the profitability of the firm. So, for this
purpose we would like to evaluate the profitability analysis with reference to various selected profitability
ratios to examine the financial result of selected Gas companies operating in India.
(Source: Indian Journal of applied research)
www.theglobaljournals.com
INTRODUCTION
A delegation under the leadership of Mr. K.D.Malviya the minister of natural resources, visited several
European countries to study the status of oil industry in those countries and to facilitates the training of India
professionals for exploring potential oil and gas resources. In April 1956, the government of India adopted the
industrial placed mineral oil industry among the scheduled ‘A’ industries, the future development of which was
to be the sole and exclusive responsibility of the state. ONGC was formed in 1956 with the vision of great
leaders to make our country energy sufficient. The company has discovered 6 of the 7 producing basins in
India and added 6.4 billion tons of oil and gas resources.
Today, according to platts top 250 global energy ranking, ONGC is the no. 1 E & P company in the world. Gail
has been ranked No.1 gas utility company in Asia and second in gas utility globally. Gas has also been
conferred it ranks by platts in the fastest growing company. It was setup by the government of India in August
1984 to create gas sectors infrastructure. Currently Gail transmit more than 160 mmscmd of Gas through its
dedicated pipeline and have more than 70% market share in both gas transmission and marketing.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Chakravarty and reddy made study on ratio analysis as major tool for financial performance by studying 22
ratio of productivity, profitability, proprietary, liquidity and turnover groups of the industries for the period
from 1961-1971.Dutts S.K has written an article on “Indian tea industry an appraisal” which was published in
management accountant in the year of March 1992. He analyzed the profitability, liquidity and financial
efficiency by using various ratios.
Ahindra Chakrabati published: an articles “performance of public sector enterprises a case study on fertilizers”
in “The Indian journal of Public enterprise” in the year 1988-89. He made analysis of consumption and
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production of fertilizers by public sector”, He also made analysis of profit and loss statement. He gave
suggestions to improve the overall performance of public enterprise.
According to Shim and Siegel (2000, pp.46-47) accounting liquidity is the company’s capacity to liquidate
maturing short-term debt (within one year). Maintaining adequate liquidity is much more than a corporate
goal is a condition without which it could not be reached the continuity of a business. Solvency and liquidity
are two concepts that are closely related and reflect upon the actions of company’s working capital policy. A
low liquidity level may lead to increasing financial costs and result in the incapacity to pay its obligations.
Dr. Pramod Kumar published a book in 1991, “Analysis of financial statements of Indian Industries.” He studies
analysis of activities, assessment of profitability return on capital investment, analysis of financial structure. In
this research he revealed various problems of cement industries and he suggested for the improvement of
profitability.
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The objective of the present study is to examine and evaluate the Profitability analysis of Gas Authority of India
Ltd.(GAIL) and Oil and natural gas Corporation (ONGC) Over a period of 5 years i.e., from 2008-09 to 2012-13.
1)
To study the Profitability aspect of GAIL and ONGC.
2)
To evaluate financial performance of GAIL and ONGC.
3)
To analyses the performance of GAIL and ONGC with the help of Profitability ratios.
4)
To compare the performance of GAIL and ONGC.
5)
To derived conclusion and Suggestions for future prospects.
METHODOLOGY
Two companies have been selected for the study of Profitability analysis operating in India.
We will utilize secondary data from listed companies of Bombay Stock market to investigate the Financial
Analyses of selected Gas industries for the purpose of this research. The most recent period for this
investigation is 2008-09 to 2012-13.
There are various variables used in this study likewise Profit, loss ,Current Assets, and Current Liabilities, for
measuring Financial Analyses of selected Industries operating in India.
DIFFERENT PROFITABILITY RATIOS OF GAIL AND ONGC .
1)
Operating Profit Margin Ratio
This ratio is calculated by dividend operating profit by sales. The operating profit margin ratio indicates how
much profit a company makes after paying for variable costs of production such as wages, raw materials, etc. It
is expressed as a percentage of sales and shows the efficiency of a company controlling the costs and expenses
associated with business operations. Phrased more simply, it is return achieved from standard operation and
does not include unique or one time transactions. Terms used to describe operating profit margin ratios this
includes operating margin, operating income margin, operating profit margin or return on sales (ROS).
Operating margin or operating profit margin measures what proportion of a company’s revenue is left over,
after deducting direct costs and overhead and before taxes and other indirect costs such as interest. Measures
Company’s pricing strategy and operating efficiency. It gives an idea of how much a company makes (before
interest and taxes) on each dollar of sales. Operating margin can be used to compare a company with its
competitors and with its past performance.
Table – 1.1
Operating Profit margin Ratio of GAIL and ONGC during the Period from 2008-09 to 2012-13
Year
Operating Profit margin of GAIL
Operating Profit margin of ONGC
2008-09
17.33
50.39
2009-10
18.77
62.57
2010-11
17.00
58.81
2011-12
14.39
60.01
2012-13
13.61
40.43
Average
16.22
54.44
(Source: Annual Report of GAIL & ONGC)
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H0 There is no significant difference in the operating profit margin ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating
in India.
H1 There is significant difference in the operating profit margin ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating in
India.
T-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances
Operating Profit margin
of GAIL
Operating Profit margin
of ONGC
Mean
16.22
54.442
Variance
4.626
82.22532
Observations
5
5
Pooled Variance
43.42566
Hypothesized Mean Difference
0
Df
8
t Stat
-9.17086285
P(T<=t) one-tail
8.06745E-06
t Critical one-tail
1.859548033
P(T<=t) two-tail
1.61349E-05
t Critical two-tail
2.306004133
The significant level in this study is 0.05 % on the basis of above stated T-test (Two-tail) the p value of
operating profit margin ratio is 1.61%. Thus, from the above framed hypothesis the level at significant is more
than 0.05 %. So, here the hypothesis (H1) alternative is accepted. Hence, from the above T-test table 1.1 we
can say that there is significant difference in the operating profit margin ratio of Selected Gas Companies
operating in India.
2)
Profit Before Interest and Tax Ratio
EBIT Margin is the ratio of Earning before Interest and Taxes to net revenue earned. It is a measure of a
company’s profitability on sales over a specific time period. An indicators of a company’s profitability,
calculated as revenue minus expenses, excluding tax and interest. EBIT is also referred to as “operating
earning”, “Operating Profit”, and “Operating Income”, as you can re-arrange the formula to be calculated as
follows:
EBIT = Revenue – Operating Expenses
Also known as Profit before Interest and tax (PBIT), and equals Net Income with interest and taxes added to it.
in other words, EBIT is all profit before taking into account interest payments and income taxes. An important
factor contributing to the widespread use of EBIT is the way in which it nulls the effects of the different capital
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structures and taxes rates used by different companies. By excluding both taxes and interest expenses, the
figure hones in on the company’s ability to profit and thus makes for easier cross- company comparison.
This indicator gives information on a company’s earnings ability. Increase in EBIT is mainly due to growth of net
revenue, good cost control and strong productivity, Decrease in EBIT margin largely results from reduction in
revenue and higher operating cost. EBIT margin is most useful when compared against other companies in the
same industry. The higher EBIT margin reflects the more efficient cost management or the more profitable
business.
Table – 1.2
Profit before Interest and Tax Ratio of GAIL and ONGC during the Period from 2008-09 to 2012-13
Year
Profit before Interest and Tax of Profit before Interest and
Tax of
GAIL
ONGC
2008-09
14.49
40.66
2009-10
16.17
51.02
2010-11
14.80
45.32
2011-12
12.30
47.45
2012-13
11.36
28.48
Average
13.82
42.58
(Source: Annual Report of GAIL & ONGC)
H0 There is no significant difference in the Profit before Interest & Tax ratio of Selected Gas Companies
operating in India.
H1 There is significant difference in the Profit before Interest & Tax ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating
in India.
T-Test: Two-Sample
Variances
Assuming
Equal
Profit Before Interest and
Tax Margin of GAIL
Profit Before Interest and Tax Margin
of ONGC
Mean
13.824
42.586
Variance
3.82343
76.23858
Observations
5
5
Pooled Variance
40.031005
Hypothesized Mean Difference
0
Df
8
t Stat
-7.187714851
P(T<=t) one-tail
4.67839E-05
t Critical one-tail
1.859548033
P(T<=t) two-tail
9.35677E-05
t Critical two-tail
2.306004133
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In this study the significant level of T-test (Two-tail) is 0.05%. The p value of Profit before Interest & Tax ratio is
9.35%. Thus from the above framed hypothesis the level at significant is more than 0.05% so, here the
hypothesis (H1) alternative hypothesis is accepted. There for, it is observed from the above T-test table 1.2
there is significant difference in the Profit before Interest & Tax ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating in
India.
3)
Net Profit Ratio
Net profit ratio establishes a relationship between net profit (after taxes) and sales, and indicates the
efficiency of the management in manufacturing, selling, administrative and other activities of the firm.
The ratio is the overall measure of the firms’ profitability and is calculated as:
100
The net profits are obtained after deducting income-tax, and generally, non-operating incomes and expenses
and are excluded from the net profits for calculating ratio. This ratio also indicates the firms’ capacity to face
adverse economic conditions such as price competition, low demand, etc. Obviously higher the ratio, the
better is the profitability. but while interpreting the ratio, it should be kept in mind that the performance one
the profits must also be seen in relation to investments or capital of the firm and not only in relation to sales.
Table – 1.3
Net Profit Ratio of GAIL and ONGC during the Period from 2008-09 to 2012-13
Year
Net Profit of GAIL
Net Profit of ONGC
2008-09
11.40
23.50
2009-10
12.29
26.35
2010-11
10.79
26.37
2011-12
8.94
31.02
2012-13
8.32
23.66
Average
10.34
26.18
(Source: Annual Report of GAIL & ONGC)
H0 There is no significant difference in the Net Profit ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating in India.
H1 There is significant difference in the Net Profit ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating in India.
T-Test: Two-Sample
Variances
Assuming
Equal
Net Profit Margin of GAIL
Net Profit Margin of ONGC
Mean
10.348
26.18
Variance
2.79217
9.25585
Observations
5
5
Pooled Variance
6.02401
Hypothesized Mean Difference
0
Df
8
t Stat
-10.19912568
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P(T<=t) one-tail
3.66245E-06
t Critical one-tail
1.859548033
P(T<=t) two-tail
7.32489E-06
t Critical two-tail
2.306004133
The significant level in this study is 0.05 % on the basis of above stated T-test (Two-tail) the p value of Net
Profit ratio is 7.32%. Thus, from the above framed hypothesis the level at significant is more than 0.05 %. So,
here the hypothesis (H1) alternative is accepted. Hence, from the above T-test table 1.1 we can say that there
is significant difference in the Net Profit ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating in India.
4)
Return on Capital Employed Ratio
Return on capital employed establishes the relationship between profits and the capital employed. It is the
primary ratio and is most widely used to measure the overall profitability and efficiency of a business. The
term ‘capital employed’ refers to the total of investments made in a business and can be defined in a number
of ways. The two widely used definitions of this term are:
1.
Gross Capital Employed:
The term ‘Gross Capital Employed’ usually comprises the total assets, fixed assets as well as current assets
used in a business.
Gross Capital Employed = Fixed Assets – Current Liabilities
2.
Net Capital Employed:
The term ‘Net Capital Employed’ comprises the total assets used in a business less its current liabilities.
Net Capital Employed = Total Assets – Current Liabilities
Return on capital employed may help in devising future business policies for expansion or diversification, etc. it
helps in providing fair remuneration to various factors of production. Management aims to make optimum use
of various factors of production for increasing rate of return of return on investment.
Table – 1.4
Return on Capital Employed Ratio of GAIL and ONGC during the
Period from 2008-09 to 2012-13
Year
Return on Capital Employed of GAIL Return on Capital Employed of ONGC
2008-09
27.29
34.29
2009-10
25.55
34.54
2010-11
25.07
28.38
2011-12
20.57
28.56
2012-13
19.18
24.60
Average
23.53
30.07
(Source: Annual Report of GAIL & ONGC)
H0 There is no significant difference in the Return on Capital Employed ratio of Selected Gas Companies
operating in India.
H1 There is significant difference in the Return on Capital Employed of Selected Gas Industries operating in
India
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T-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal
Variances
Return On Capital Employed
of GAIL
Return On Capital Employed
of ONGC
Mean
23.532
30.074
Variance
12.06842
18.21158
Observations
5
5
Pooled Variance
15.14
Hypothesized Mean Difference
0
df
8
t Stat
-2.65838334
P(T<=t) one-tail
0.014438898
t Critical one-tail
1.859548033
P(T<=t) two-tail
0.028877796
t Critical two-tail
2.306004133
In this study the significant level of T-test (Two-tail) is 0.05%. The p value of Return on Capital Employed ratio
is 0.02 %. Thus from the above framed hypothesis the level at significant is less than 0.05% so, here the
hypothesis (Ho) Null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, it is observed from the above T-test table 1.4 there is no
significant difference in the Return on Capital Employed ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating in India.
5)
Return on Net Worth Ratio
Return on shareholder’ investment, popularly as ROI or return on shareholder/proprietors’ funds is the
relationship between net profits (after interest & tax) and the proprietors’ funds. Thus,
The ratio generally calculated as a percentage by multiplying the above with 100. This ratio is one of the most
important ratios used for measuring the overall efficiency of a firm. As the primary objective of business is to
maximize its earnings, this ratio indicates the extent to which this primary objective of business is being
achieved. This ratio is of great importance to the present and prospective shareholders as well as the
management of the company. As this ratio reveals how well the resources of a firm are being used, higher the
ratio, better are the result.
Table – 1.5
Return on Net Worth Ratio of GAIL and ONGC during the Period from 2008-09 to 2012-13
Year
Return on Net Worth of GAIL
Return on Net Worth of ONGC
2008-09
18.98
20.65
2009-10
18.69
19.39
2010-11
18.49
19.40
2011-12
16.89
22.24
2012-13
16.60
16.81
Average
17.93
19.70
(Source: Annual Report of GAIL & ONGC)
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H0 There is no significant difference Return on Net Worth ratio of Selected Gas Industries operating in India.
H1 There is significant difference Return on Net Worth ratio of Selected Gas Industries operating in India.
T-Test: Two-Sample
Variances
Assuming
Equal
Return On Net Worth of GAIL
Return on Net Worth of ONGC
Mean
17.93
19.698
Variance
1.21105
3.97307
Observations
5
5
Pooled Variance
2.59206
Hypothesized Mean Difference
0
df
8
t Stat
-1.736319889
P(T<=t) one-tail
0.060358785
t Critical one-tail
1.859548033
P(T<=t) two-tail
0.120717569
t Critical two-tail
2.306004133
The significant level in this study is 0.05 % on the basis of above stated T-test (Two-tail) the p value of Return
on Net Worth ratio is 0.12%. Thus, from the above framed hypothesis the level at significant is more than 0.05
%. So, here the hypothesis (H1) alternative is accepted. Hence, from the above T-test table 1.1 we can say that
there is significant difference in the Return on Net Worth ratio of Selected Gas Companies operating in India.
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
It is found on basis of result of financial performance of selected gas companies that ONGC is the best
company among these two companies. Second company GAIL is found to be lowest efficient company.
Looking to the average operating profit margin. It can be seen that ONGC registered highest margin while GAIL
registered the lowest profit margin so. in case of ONGC operating margin is continuously increase at increasing
rate while in case of GAIL, it fluctuates year by year.
With respect to Profit before Interest & Tax, GAIL is having lowest PBIT margin and ONGC registered highest
average PBIT margin.
As per net Profit ratio, also ONGC is found to be more efficient that other selected Gas company, The average
Net profit margin is of ONGC is 26.18 and GAIL is 10.34. So, the overall performance of ONGC is good.
As per Return on Capital Employed ratio also ONGC is found to be more efficient that other selected Gas
Company. So, first best efficient company from this two selected Gas company is ONGC with 30.07 average
return on capital employed.
It can be noted from the above table that GAIL is having lowest average return on net worth ratio i.e. 17.93
that shows inefficiency of GAIL compared to ONGC. Highest average ratio is found in case of ONGC i.e.19.70.
CONCLUSION
Here, two Indian gas companies have been analyzed in terms of financial analysis and financial position during
the study period. it can be concluded on basis of result of financial analysis of selected gas companies through
result and comparison of financial ratio that ONGC is the best company of this two best company. in case of all
financial analysis indicators and ratio, ONGC found to be the best performance and GAIL is found to be poor
compared to ONGC.

REFERENCES
1.
Agrawal, M.R., “Financial Management” Principles & Practice” 9th Edition Garima Publications, Jaipur.
2.
Bhalla, V.K., working capital management tax and cases, 2002 New Delhi.
3.
Chandra, P., “Financial Management”, Theory and Practice, 7th Edition Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing
company Limited, New Delhi.
4.
Desai, Vasant, “organization and management of small scale industries (1983).
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5.
Khan, M. Y. and jain, P.K, “Financial Management – text and problems”, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw –
Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
6.
Kothari, C.R., “Research Methodology Methods and Techniques”(2004) Second Revised Edition, New
Delhi, New Age International (P) Limited.
7.
Maheshwari, S.N., Financial Management, Principles & Practice, 11th Edition Sultan Chand & Sons,
New Delhi.
8.
Pandey I.M., “Financial Management”, 9th Revised Edition, Vikas publishing House Pvt Ltd., New
Delhi.

JOURNALS AND ARTICLES
1.
The journal of accounting
2.
The Indian journal of public enterprise
3.
Synergy journal of management, Vol-4 & 5 Nos. 1 & 2,January 2001-December 2003 Bi-annual

1.
2.
3.
WEBSITES
www.gailonline.com
www.ongcindia.com
www.moneycontrol.com
Thus, the utilization of micro teaching in the present scenario is vast, immense and it can’t be denied at all.
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East- West Encounter in Bharti
Mukherjee’s novel ‘WIFE’
Dr. HARIN D. TRIVEDI
Associate Professor, Grow More Institute of Arts, Himatnagar
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: ENGLISH
Bharti Mukherjee is one the most excellent contemporary Indian women novelists in English. She defined
herself as an American writer of Indian origin. She concentrates on characters that are adventurers and
explorers and part and parcel of a new changing America – the land of immigrants having an immigrant
culture. In an interview in The Massachusetts Review, she firmly said:
The immigrants in my stories go through extreme transformation in America and at the same time they alter
the country’s appearance and psychological makeup.
Thus we see that her themes focuses on the happenings of migration, the status of the new immigrants, their
feeling of alienation as refugees, and the Indian woman visiting abroad and her struggle for identity.
Commenting on the treatment of the East-West theme by Indian English novelists, Meenakshi Mukherjee
observes:
The definition of ‘East’ as well as of ‘West’ varies from novel to novel, but each tries in its own way to grapple
with the problem that has continued to concern the Indo-Anglican novelists for more than fifty years. One is
struck by the unabating interest shown by these novelists in the interaction of the two sets of values that exist
side by side, and often coalesce, in the twentieth century.
Bharti Mukherjee’s wonderful novel ‘WIFE’ concentrates on the life of Dimple Dasgupta. She was a middle
class Bengali girl married to Amit Basu, a consultant Engineer. After their marriage, they migrate to America
where Dimple encounters alienation, isolation and a deep sense of cultural shock. Dimple was having many
expectations from her married life. She was expecting that her married life would bring her freedom, fortune
and happiness:
“Marriage would bring her freedom, cocktail parties on carpeted lawns, funds-raising dinners for noble
characters. Marriage would bring her love.”(p. 3)
But on the contrary, Dimple‘s dreams about happiness were soon demolished. There were conflicts with her
mother-in-law and sister-in-law. She starts hating everything:
She hated the gray cotton with red roses inside yellow circles that her mother-in- law had hung on sagging
tapes against the metal bars of the windows (p. 20)
After some time, she begins to expect a child which is quite unwanted. She decides to get rid of the child by
skipping ropes. The self abortion is liberation from the traditional role of motherhood. The description of her
self- abortion is very poignant and touching:
She had skipped rope until her legs grew numb and her stomach burned; then she hd poured water from the
heavy bucket over her head, shoulders, over thr tight little curve of her stomach. She had poured until the last
blood washed off her legs; then she had collapsed (p.42)
Next disappointment comes for Dimple when Amit does not get suitable job in America. Her dreams had
failed:
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She was bitter that marriage had betrayed her, had not provided all the glittery things she had imagined, had
not brought her cocktails under canopied skies and three A.M. drives dizzy restaurants where they sold divine
Kababs rolled in roti. (p.102)
As her disappointments increase, she decides to end this torturous existence. She even thinks over the murder
of her husband Amit. Lastly, she kills him.This murder of husband raises number of questions. Some critics
believe that it is not the result of any cultural shock. It is because Dimple suffered from neurosis. K.S.Narayan
Rao raises a very relevant question:
The novel raises an important question: was the Indian wife happier in India with her limited freedom and
greater docility, or does she achieve happiness in her painful search for more individual freedom and in the
process of maturing?
One more explanation is that if Dimple had continued to live in Calcutta, she would have reconciled to her fate.
But the violence within her explodes in the American environment and notion of freedom. America actually
speeds up and Increases her confusion. Another view is that:
“Dimple is trapped in a dilemma of tension between American culture and the traditional constrains
surrounding an Indian wife, between a feminist desire to be assertive and independent and the Indian need to
be assertive and self- effacing.”
There is the longing to stick to traditions in Dimple at the same time the influence of American notion of
freedom inculcates in her the desire to protest against the strict norms of traditions. She sees herself in a
dilemma because she unable to determine any clear cut priority. As C.L. Chua describes Wife as the story of
“a weak-minded Bengali woman who migrates to New York with her engineer husband in search of a better
life; but her sensibilities become so confounded by her changing cultural roles, the insidious television
factitiousness, and the tensions of feminism that, ironically, she goes mad and kills her husband”
In short, she finds herself in a flux because she is unable to determine any clear- cut priority. To sum up, we
see that there is continuous urge in Bharti Mukherjee‘s women characters to build up their scattered life
between two cultures and ideologies which build feminine identity.
REFRENCE:

Alison B.Crab, “An Interview with Bharti Mukharjee” The Massachusetts Review, Winter 1988-1989,
pp. 645-654.

Mukherjee, Meenakshi. 1974. The Twice Born Fiction, New Delhi: Arnold –Heinemann Publishers
(India) Ltd.

Review of Wife, Books Abroad, Spring 1976.

Iowa Review 20, 3(1990)

Shyam S.Asnani et al., Identity crisis in The Nowhere Man and Wife”, Language Forum, 1-2 (Jan. – Dec.
1992) p. 42.

Chua, C.L. “Passages from India: Migrating to America in the Fiction of V.S. Naipaul and Bharati
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What and Why of Electronics
Books (E-books)
Dr. JAYESH POOJARA
Principle, Shri D N Institute of P G Studies in Commerce, Anand
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: COMMERCE
ABSTRACT:
The paper what and why of electronics books (E-books) reflects the concept and basic philosophy behind
traditional printed books versus e-books. It also reflects the format of e-books and various types of e-books
software. It is as well precise the advantages of e-books and the prospect of e-books in the next decade. At last
it wrap printed book lovers viewpoint regarding e-books.
INTRODUCTION:
Twenty-first century has seen a paradigm change in printing technology and the publishing sector all over the
world. The computer has snatched a place of the typewriter and laser-printing technology has taken a place of
offset printing, in the same manner in the beginning of this century, a silent uprising has been going on in the
development of electronic books (e-books) all over the world. Thus, the e-books is in race of replacing
traditional printed books.
What is e-book: An e-book is basically the contents of a book distributed in the forms of an electronic folder or
directory. Any folder that holds wording can in theory be used as an e-book. In other words, electronic books
are nothing but various Computer File Formats, which can be used with any readers. Electronic book is
altogether different than its print counterpart as it contains audio, video or live hyperlinks that make is unique.
There are numeral specialized formats and reading programmes that are planned with e-book reading in mind.
There are several ways for PC users for reading e-books, it is difficult to make a list of all these formats and
programme but here is a list of some of the most popular and frequently used formats of e-books and various
types of e-book software.

Microsoft’s Reader uses an exclusive. lit file format. One can find it with any new Pocket PC, it is
available on the ROM. It is designed in such a way as to make the reading on the screen as close as possible to
reading a print book. Clear Type technology is used in this software to make it more natural. One can
download it without paying anything from the website.

Mobi Pocket and Palm Reader are readers that use a little variation on the Palm DOC format. These
two devices are the most compatible and the most flexible programmes. The Palm Reader is free
downloadable software specifically designed for handheld computers using Palm OS software. There in
another advanced version called The Palm Reader Pro that has an excellent inbuilt dictionary and extra font
support which makes it different than an ordinary reading software and that is the reason that it costs 9.95
US$.

Pocket Internet Explorer can also be used for reading e-books but it will read HTML e-book files in a
pinch, because it is really meant to be a web browser, an as a result one cannot find it as a very good e-book
reader.

Pocket Word is another programme that reads Word Documents, Rich Text Files, and ACSII files. The
problem with this programme is the same as Pocket Internet Explorer. It is not intended to be an e-book
reader.

Acrobat e-book Reader 2.1 is a free e-book reading software that one can download from website. It
uses Adobe Cool Type Font Rendering Technology and an interactive dictionary. “This device has recently been
ported to the Pocket PC operating system, and reads. PDF files quite efficiently; but the weaknesses of the PDF
format really show themselves on the Pocket PCs screen, and they make for a really inefficient e-book reading
experience.”
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Digital Book Index provides access to more than 70,000 titles records. This index is a large body of resources
and makes it easier for both libraries and the public to access. DBI is the sole index that has marketable and
unmarketable, profitable and unprofitable e-books from more than 1900 publishers and classified publishing
institutions. Their titles range from the Ancient Agriculture to Space Flight. Besides than an extensive
Reference section includes more than 2000 Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Thesauri, Glossaries, Bibliographies,
Timelines, Chronologies and Literary Histories. Library subscribers to Net Library will find most of those ebooks indexed as well. The most important part of this DBI is that thousands of titles are available online
without paying a single dollar and many others are available at very low cost. Thousands more contemporary
titles, ranging from the Nancy Drew mysteries to Star Trek, Ernest Hemingway of John Le Carre, are available
from many leading publishers absolutely free.”
WHY READ E-BOOKS?
People argue that reading of e-books is an uninteresting job and it cannot provide the pleasure as one can get
in reading a paperback edition or hardbound. But the truth is that reading Books on a Palm Pilot thingy, or a
Pocket PC, or Microsoft Reader presents any book lover with a numeral reward. E-books have many
advantages as compare to those traditional printed books. There are some people who are of the opinion that
the e-book can never replace print from of books because it cannot provide us with the touch of books with
the hand and give us typical fragrances of the book! But as it said that one cannot have a cake and eat it too.

Storage space: e-books require very little space compare to those big racks of hard books. I have
recently shifted my residence so I know how it is difficult to shift only 900 books on my own. On the other
hand on can carry thousands of e-books in a suitcase or in a room of a college one can have Digital Library
having a connectivity and storage of thousands of books that too without any disorder. We can store
innumerable e-books on computer drives or on CD-ROM. One can have a number of books at a time before
one’s eyes, is really a great joy. E-book files are very small, and one can fit many than books on it. “In addition
to being able to carry a large number of e-books on our Pocket PC at one time, the Pocket PC is not only
smaller than a paper book, it also performs all of those other functions that Pocket PC excel at.”.

Easy to Find : Since e-books are essentially text-based files one can search for it or a certain part of an
e-book without having to flip through it endlessly as it happened in case of traditional books. I remember the
days when I had to search for hours in our dusty racks of library for a book. With the facility of e-books one can
find any title or a particular portion of an article in a fraction of time.

Shorter Lines : Some academicians argue that e-books have small lines particularly in Pocket PC as it’s
screen is smaller and holds less text. I do agree with this argument but at the same time it is also a verity that
in Pocket PC it is easy for our eyes to wander, and as a result we can read a little more effectively and
efficiently.

Variety of tiles: There are thousands of articles and books on various discipline, subjects and titles in
the form of downloadable or on-line books ON INTERNET. Most major writers, movements, history, authors
and their works are accessible on the Internet. One can find subjects range from the highly scholarly to the
contemporary as many publishers find more business in “on-line” distribution. There are several books on
various topics and disciplines like science, commerce, religion, history, economics, and children’s books
available totally free of cost on websites like www.planetbook.com, www.bn.com/e-book,
www.mightywords.com and many other such web sites on Microsoft and Adobe sites.

E-book and Publishing: We have seen a remarkable increase of e-book publishers in the beginning of this
century. Earlier very few publishers were interested in publishing e-books but recently established as well as
emerging Publication Company have also jumped into this developing e-book technology. With this
development individual authors have also emerged with their own websites where they can put their work on
web. Thus, if one wants to publish research paper or a book s/he can do it personally. Thus, new publishers as
well as new authors are emerging in the web world because electronic publication of research papers, small
write ups, articles and mini project are dearer that traditional printed forms. So far as the problem of copy
right is concerned e-book is safer as it does not “allow any copying onto more than two physical devices and
therefore it cannot be lent to anyone like printed books if encryption technique is used in reading software.
There are some problems with e-book publications for there are quite a few software that can convert copy
protected e-books into .pdf files and harm the publishing company economically, this is one of the reasons
that perhaps discouraging the publishing company from going on electronics books.
Printed Book Lovers Viewpoint: Rose Macaulay (1881-1966) says “Only one hour in the normally day is more
pleasurable than the hour spent in bed with a book before going to sleep, and that is the hour spent in bed
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with a book after being called in morning.” Those who love printed books are of the opinions that “You don’t
think of e-book curling up in a cosy place with a warm mug of coffee.” It is also true that pocket books are the
best friends and partners for bathroom and bed ! Printed book lovers also argue that one cannot feel the
texture and smell of ink and paper in e-books as it happens in case of printed books. They also add that one
cannot lent or borrow e-book from a friend, borrowing and lending of books on campus and society has its
own emotional values which one does not find in e-books. One cannot mark, highlight, show up, and underline
PDF format of e-books, which is a matter of charm and pleasures in printed books. They also argue that the
facility of key word search in Acrobat Reader is harmful as it searches the word or content immediately from
the book, which does not give us a chance to go through a book. They believe that when we search a specific
word or content in a printed book without any help of index or table of contents, we get an opportunity to go
through several other word, phrases, lines and passages which itself is an inspiring experience. This experience
is lost when one just click a search button in Acrobat Reader device. Printed book lovers argue that books are
made from renewable energy is paper where as e-books are not made from renewable energy ie petroleum,
thus they argue that we can grow trees for manufacturing paper but we cannot get additional petroleum
products. Thus, they believe that printed books are more ecological. On the other hand some ecological
diversity lovers argue that cutting down of tress creates more ecological imbalance that digging out petroleum
products!
THE PROSPECT OF E-BOOKS IN THE NEXT DECADE:
It is an undoubted fact that the next decade will flourish with e-books all over the world replacing most printed
books. It will pay a vital role in the way people write, publish, read and buy the products related to e-books. It
is quite possible that by the next decade, we will not have to wait eagerly for a postman for getting a new issue
of UNIVERSITY NEWS but it will be sent to us digitally directly on our mail address and we will be enjoying
reading it with pleasure seating in a armchair with a laptop in our hand! It is assumed by leading Info Tech
industrialists that by 2010, high-resolution, low-cost, light-weighted, reading devices will be available very
easily. For those who just want to read, a special wearable computer will be available with very low cost with
the facilities of various reading modes, images and sound. Millions of dollars will be invested in electronic
publishing sector in developing the related hardware and software. The best plus point of the e-books it that
they are available on the INTERNET and it doesn’t matter where the book lover lies, or at what time s/he wants
to read it. The INTERNET is open 24/7. The INTERNET NEVER closes and neither should YOU.
REFERNCE OF SOME SURFWORTHY WWW
http://www.e-bookwholesaler.net
http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/eng/hdbk/htm
http://www.planetbook.com
http://www.bn.com/e-book
http://mightywords.com
http://www.biblomania.com
http://www.digital.library.upenn.edu/books/
http://www.clasicbookshelf.com/
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Women Empowerment :
A General View
Mrs. MEENAKSHI CHAHAL
Assistant Professor,B.Ed.(2-year) Programme,Directorate Of Distance Education,Kurukshetra
University, Kurukshetra
KEYWORDS: ENABLEMENT, ENRICHMENT, GENDER GAP, EMPOWERMENT
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
ABSTRACT
‘Empowerment’ of women unlocks the door for modernization of any society. According to Cambridge English
Dictionary, ‘Empowerment’ means to ‘Authorize’. They have to be authorized to have control over their own
lives. It can be interpreted as totality of empowerment including social, cultural, political, physical, moral,
intellectual and other dimensions of human life etc. Empowerment is probably the totality of various
capabilities as decision making power by women, having access to information and resources, ability to
exercise assertiveness, increasing one’s positive self image and overcoming stigma etc. Education is supposed
to create ‘Enablement, Empowerment and Enrichment’. Democratic participation should be encouraged or
stimulated by instructions and practices that should be adapted by Media and Information society further. It is
through various developmental and education based programmes that a wide ‘Gender Gap’ will be bridged
and as a result of this vision of a proud and prosperous India would be realized.
INTRODUCTION
Status of ‘Women Issues’ In India has been one of the respect and reverence but hard truth is that even today
they are fighting for their own esteem and struggling for their own identity. Swami Vivekananda rightly said,
‘The nation which doesn’t respect women will never become great…..’. According to Cambridge English
Dictionary, ‘Empowerment’ means to ‘Authorize’. They have to be authorized to have control over their own
lives. Despite the Constitutional Guarantee of equality of sexes, exploitation of women and rampant
discrimination in India still continues. Programmes to strengthen women development need to be enforced
still. Media is Mirror of Society and its Reports are reflection of happenings in the society. IT revolution has
further increased its importance. Unfortunately, now a days media is wavering from its actual role and giving
biased information that makes development of the society more difficult. Indian Media needs to be sensitized
to gender issues and now must focus on women issues in a decisive way. Portraying ‘Women as Equals’ in the
society is a subject that has been given low priority by Indian media. News that adversely affect women
development should be censored or banned.
OBJECTIVES



to define ‘women empowerment’
to explain recent training programmes for women empowerment
to describe recent constitutional safeguards for women empowerment
Various Parameters Of Women Empowerment Parameters of women empowerment takes into
consideration the following as

Active participation in politics and economy

Equal participation in developmental processes

Decision making and action

Access to Legal literacy and entitlements in society

Enabling women to make informed choices in multi-dimensional areas like education, employment
and health etc.
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Thus’ Empowerment’ of women unlocks the door for modernization of any society. It can be interpreted as
totality of empowerment including social, cultural, political, physical, moral, intellectual and other dimensions
of human life etc. Empowerment is probably the totality of various capabilities as decision making power by
women having access to information and resources ability to exercise assertiveness, increasing one’s positive
self image and overcoming stigma etc.
VARIOUS POLICIES FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT
Various policies have also been framed to bring women into mainstream of society. Objectives of these
policies include equal access to women to health care, social security and employment etc.

Government’s various programmes for women empowerment are Streeshakti, Swayamsidha, Balika
Samridhi Yojana and Swashakti etc. Empowerment would not hold any meaning unless they are made strong
and alert. It is important to educate the ‘Women’. Need of the hour is to improve Female Literacy as education
holds the key to development. There is no tool for development more effective than empowerment of women.
Global community should respect and maintain dignity of women then only International Women Day can be
celebrated in the real sense. Various Governmental and Non-governmental organizations should take
adequate measures to ensure the safety, dignity of human rights and equality of women etc. Reality check of
the growth of a nation lies not only in economic growth but in the status of its women. A country cannot be
called ‘Developed’ if half of its population is deprived of its basic needs, access to knowledge, political voice
and livelihood options etc.

Dasra, a lucknow based non-profit organization Sarathi Development Foundation Giving Circle
members brings over a decade of experiences in generating large scale behaviour change amongst poor, rural
and urban communities on fundamental developmental issues such as maternal and child health, nutrition,
adolescent girls empowerment and education. Sarathi's unique integrated Planning Approach provides a
robust platform to engaze communities in identifying and addressing their own needs. Sarathi has created an
urban model known as project ‘SALONI’ to empower adolescent girls by engaging slum communities and
excellent working relationships with influential stakeholders to scale-up to 700 slums in Lucknow. INR 3 crores
has also been provided for 2800 volunteers trainers and 2100 adolescent girls aged 10-19 years along with
setting up 28 community run family life education centers.

‘Mata Kaushalya’ Award, Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh making has also instituted a state
level award in the name of Lord Ram’s mother ‘Mata Kaushalya’ (Mother Kaushalya) for safeguarding women
empowerment. State Government has announced to give away the first 'Mata Kaushalya' award for 2013-14
to 23 years old differently abled Mamta Chandravanshi of Kothitola (Navagaon) village of Naxal affected
Dongargarh Development Block in Rajnandgaon district. The award is comprised of cash as amounting to Rs1
lakh.
RECENT CONSTITUTIONAL SAFEGUARDS AGAINST HARASSMENT

Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal Bill 2010
Official statistics show that there has been a dramatic increase in number of reported crimes against women.
Sexual Harassment of women at workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal Bill 2010), Union Cabinet
recently on 30-8-2012 gave its nod to protection of women from sexual harassment at workplace. Under the
Act, sexual harassment includes any unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of sexual nature. Noncompliance with provisions of the act shall be punishable with a fine of upto Rs.50,000/-. Draft Legislation
envisages that every workplace whether organized or unorganized should have an ‘Internal Complaints
Committee.’ Thus cognizance of the complaints about sexual harassment should be taken immediately.
Enquiries should be conducted by following proper and due procedure of law.

‘Nirbhaya Fund' For Safety and Empowerment of Women.
In a tribute to the 23-year-old Delhi gang-rape victim, government announced setting up 'Nirbhaya Fund'
of Rs 1,000 crore for safety and empowerment of women. Nirbhaya (fearless) was the pseudonym given to
the victim to hide her actual identity. The announcement of Rs 1,000 crore fund was made by finance minister
P.Chidambaram while presenting the Union Budget for 2013-14 in the Lok Sabha amid thumping of desks by
members. P.Chidambaram said that Recent incidents have cast a long dark shadow on our liberal and
progressive credentials. As more women enter public space for education or work or access to services of
leisure there are more reports of violence against them. All have a collective responsibility to ensure dignity
and safety of women. He further quoted that ‘We stand in solidarity with our girl children and women. And
we pledge to do everything possible to empower them and to keep them safe and secure.’ He said a number
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of initiatives are ‘Under Way’ and ‘Many More’ will be taken by the government as well as non-government
organizations. These deserve our support.
UNITED NATIONS DYNAMIC EFFORT TOWARDS EMPOWERMENT
United Nations had also set up a ‘Commission On The Status Of Women’ (CSW) in 1946 for protection of
women rights all over the world. Promotion of ‘Gender Equality’ and ‘Women Empowerment’ is one of the
eight internationally accepted goals designed by United Nations. First dynamic effort towards empowerment
of Indian women was the foundation of ‘All India Women Conference’ in 1926. It was founded by Margaret
Cousins, an Irish revolutionary along with eminent womens of India such as Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay,
Sarojini Naidu, Begum Saheba of Bhopal, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Muthulakshmi Reddy and others etc. All India
Women’s Conference as a pioneer organization made a concerted effort to push forward educational reforms.
Judith Butler has clearly defined that way to ‘Women Empowerment’ and ‘Progress’ lies in destabilizing the
terms as ‘Masculine’ and ‘Feminine’ rather making ‘Gender Trouble.’ Need of the hour is not the hypocrisy and
not just a myopic blinkered gaze but a vision in totality. UN declared 1975 as ‘International Women Year’ and
1975-85 ‘Women Development Decade’ to focus attention on the extent of discrimination. Violence against
women is a common violation of human rights of women. Self-help groups are today emerging as the most
important tool in realm of ‘Gender and Development’. It is now vital to reflect upon SHGs in a multidimensional manner while keeping in mind expansion of these groups and their growing importance in the
development process.e.g. in state Karnataka, Shimoga district, research study was conducted through survey
of 200 SHGs and it was found that these groups were really concerned with Women Empowerment
Programme by taking into account ‘Intensive Interactions’ etc. Self-help Groups can go a long way in
improving the social and economic status of women. There have been successful ‘Models’ to organize and
channelize potential of women from these self help groups. Society has witnessed women as ‘Dual Role
Performers’. Thus ‘Women Leaders’ and ‘Women Achievers’ as role models can come to grips with the
complex reality of women. Challenge before government is to translate the women’s movement concern into
a wider societal awareness. As a result of this, it can become a ‘Practice’ at all levels of our individual and
national life. Self-Employment Women’s Association (SEWA) since its inception in 1971 has also been a
remarkable success in this direction e.g. in Gujarat.
RECENT TRAINING PROGRAMMES FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

NORAD, In our country, A Vocational training programme namely NORAD was initially launched by
the Govt. of West Bengal during the year 1982-83. It got assistance from the Norwegian Agency for
International Development to provide training to women for improvement of their vocational skills.
Subsequently it was renamed as ‘SWAWLAMBAN’ and it was decided to continue the scheme to develop
vocational skills and thereby to enhance economic empowerment of socially marginalized women with special
emphasis on those who are vulnerable to immoral trafficking.

National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW) was launched by the Government of India
(GOI) on International Women’s Day in 2010 with the aim to strengthen overall processes that promote allround development of women. Objective of this mission is to facilitate the process towards ensuring economic
empowerment of women and social empowerment of women.It gives emphasis on health and education,
elimination of violence against women, create awareness about various schemes and programmes etc.

Tejaswini Madhya Pradesh Rural Women‟s Empowerment Programme is a programme covering six
rural districts of Madhya Pradesh with a total programme cost of USD 37.2 million (approximately INR 1,616.0
million). The overall goal of the programme is to enable poor women to make use of choices, spaces and
opportunities in economic, social and political spheres for their improved wellbeing. Programme area includes
six rural districts (Panna, Chhatrapur, Tikamgarh, Balaghat, Mandla and Dindori) of Madhya Pradesh (MP). This
programme has been classified as a ‘Problem Project’ since the last three years. A Supervision Mission was
also take into account during 5-17 Sept 2012 to review the implementation progress. This mission in
consultation with the Department of Women and Child Development (DWCD) established four milestones for
achievement to rerate the programme and to move this programme out of the Problem Project category.

Mission Mangalam has been launched by the Gujarat Government in 2010 to help and empower the
poor rural women.
Thus Empowerment would not hold any meaning unless ‘Provisions’ are made for women to make her strong
and bring them in mainstream of society. Discussion about Women Empowerment from outward gross
realities to inward complexities can be found in the writings of a number of women writers also e.g in Anita
Desai’s novels Issues as Women liberation and Feminine consciousness etc. have been discussed in detail.
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Women have achieved immense development in their ‘State of Mind’ also. Many Entrepreneurial
opportunities have been created for women especially where they can excel their skills and maintain balance
in their life. Women participation in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have played a pivotal role
in economic and social development of the country as ‘Entrepreneurship’ refers to the act of setting up a new
business or reviving an existing business so as to take advantages from new opportunities. Education is
supposed to create ‘Enablement, Empowerment and Enrichment’. Democratic participation should also be
encouraged or stimulated by instructions and practices that should be adapted by Media and Information
society further.
SUMMARY
Women’s ‘Equality and Empowerment’ are identified as key agents of development. Constitution of India
grants equality to women in various fields of life but still a large number of women in various fields are either
ill-equipped or not in a position to propel themselves out of their unsatisfactory socio-economic conditions.
Education is the strongest tool for women empowerment. It is through various developmental and education
based programs, a wide ‘Gender Gap’ will be bridged and as a result of this vision of a proud and prosperous
India would be realized.
REFERENCES

Dr. S.R.Vashist, Elementary School Curriculum, Anmol Publications, New Delhi, 2007, p.395

Dr. H.S.Srivastava, Curriculum and Methods of Teaching, Shipra publications, sec.revised edition, New
Delhi,2010, p 4 & 19

Research Journal of Social and Life Sciences , Journal of Centre for Research Studies, Rewa
(M.P.),vol.xi, dec.2011, Eng.ed., Registered/Reviewed/Referred research journal, topic-Human rights and
violence against women, p.235,236, 365 & 366

Chadrashekar, topic-The study on literacy and power with in self-help groups in Karnataka, Research
Journal of Social and Life Sciences , Journal of Centre for Research Studies, Rewa (M.P.),vol.xi, dec.2011,
Eng.ed., Registered/Reviewed/Referred research journal, p.471

DASRA, a Lucknow based non-profit organization Sarathi Development Foundation Giving Circle, 2012

Research Journal of Social and Life Sciences , Journal of Centre for Research Studies, Rewa
(M.P.),vol.xiii-1, dec.2012, Eng.ed., Registered/Reviewed/Referred research journal, topic-Sexual harassment
of women of women in work place, p.68-73

Arvind Khanna and Parveen Kaur Khanna, topic-Women empowerment, Research Journal of Social
and Life Sciences , Journal of Centre for Research Studies, Rewa (M.P.),vol.xiv-1, june 2013, Eng.ed., p.27,44-45

Dr.S.Akhilesh, Social change and development in india, Centre for research studies, Rewa(M.P.),
Gayatri publications, Academy press, Allahabad, ed.2013, p.256,264,266 and 293

A Supervision report , a mission, India Tejaswini Madhya Pradesh Rural Women Empowerment
Programme , March 2013, p 4-8

Dr. P. Chidambaram, Finance Minister, Union Budget 2013-14, Govt’s 'Nirbhaya Fund' for safety,
empowerment of women, Feb.28,2013

Mata kaushalya award for women’s empowerment, Raipur, 9 March 2013

Women Development and Social Welfare department, topic-West Bengal women development
undertaking, 4 Feb.2014
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ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Prof. NITINKUMAR K .PATEL.
S.D.Arts & B.R. Commerce College, Mansa,Tal-Mansa,Dist-Gandhinagar,Gujarat.
KEYWORDS: FINANCIAL STATEMENT, ANALYSIS ,TOOLS OF ANALYSIS.
SUBJECT: COMMERCE
ABSTRACT:
All financial statements are essentially historical documents. They tell what has happened
during a particular period of time. However most users of financial statements are concerned about what will
happen in the future. Stockholders are concerned with future earnings and dividends. Creditors are concerned
with the company's future ability to repay its debts. Managers are concerned with the company's ability to
finance future expansion. Despite the fact that financial statements are historical documents, they can still
provide valuable information bearing on all of these concerns. Financial statement analysis involves careful
selection of data from financial statements for the primary purpose of forecasting the financial health of the
company. This is accomplished by examining trends in key financial data, comparing financial data across
companies, and analyzing key financial ratios. Managers are also widely concerned with the financial ratios.
First the ratios provide indicators of how well the company and its business units are performing. Some of
these ratios would ordinarily be used in a balanced scorecard approach. The specific ratios selected depend on
the company's strategy. For example a company that wants to emphasize responsiveness to customers may
closely monitor the inventory turnover ratio. Since managers must report to shareholders and may wish to
raise funds from external sources, managers must pay attention to the financial ratios used by external
inventories to evaluate the company's investment potential and creditworthiness. Although financial
statement analysis is a highly useful tool, it has two limitations. These two limitations involve the comparability
of financial data between companies and the need to look beyond ratios. Comparison of one company with
another can provide valuable clues about the financial health of an organization. Unfortunately, differences
in accounting methods between companies sometime makes it difficult to compare the companies' financial
data. For example if one company values its inventories by the LIFO method and another firm by average cost
method, then direct comparisons of financial data such as inventory valuations are and cost of goods sold
between the two firms may be misleading. Some times enough data are presented in foot notes to the
financial statements to restate data to a comparable basis. Otherwise, the analyst should keep in mind the lack
of comparability of the data before drawing any definite conclusion. Nevertheless, even with this limitation in
mind, comparisons of key ratios with other companies and with industry averages often suggest avenues for
further investigation.An inexperienced analyst may assume that ratios are sufficient in themselves as a basis
for judgment about the future. Nothing could be further from the truth. Conclusions based on ratio analysis
must be regarded as tentative. Ratios should not be viewed as an end, but rather they should be viewed as a
starting point, as indicators of what to pursue in greater depth. They raise may questions, but they rarely
answer any question by themselves. In addition to ratios, other sources of data should be analyzed in order to
make judgments about the future of an organization. They analyst should look, for example, at industry trends,
technological changes, changes in consumer tastes, changes in broad economic factors, and changes within
the firm itself. A recent change in a key management position, for example, might provide a basis for optimism
about the future, even though the past performance of the firm may have been mediocre.Few figures
appearing on financial statements have much significance standing by themselves. It is the relationship of one
figure to another and the amount and direction of change over time that are important in financial statement
analysis.
INTRODUCTION:
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A . FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:
In a modern economy in which competitiveness is often the key word, businesses raise the stakes
by publishing positive, better-than expected results. In upping the ante, profitable companies take a step
toward winning the economic competition and attracting investor interest. To understand financial statement
analysis, it's important to understand the underlying data that make up corporate accounting reports. These
include statements of financial condition, shareholders' equity reports, statements of cash flows and
statements of profit and loss. Although all businesses must post performance information, financially shaky
firms may be more eager to publish timely reports to shed the bankruptcy stigma that generally looms around
insolvent operations.
B . FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS :
Financial statement analysis traces a company's rise or fall from its inception to the reporting date.
Investors and financial analysts can review the firm's operations over many years, pinpointing specific parts of
its business along the way. Accounting report review refers to the way a company or investor analyzes
corporate performance and how the analyst compares such performance to rivals' achievements. To analyze a
financial statement, investors use three methods: vertical analysis, horizontal analysis and ratio analysis. In
vertical analysis, external financiers compare other financial statement items with one item, which is referred
to as the benchmark. For example, investors may compare a company's material costs and salaries expense
proportionately to its revenues. Horizontal analysis means comparing one financial item, such as sales or net
income, from one period to another. Ratio analysis relies on various accounting metrics, such as net profit
margin and debt-to-equity ratio, to evaluate an organization's financial standing.Financial Statements.
DEFINATION:
(1)
" Financial statement analyses is a largely a study of the relationship among the various financial
factors in a business disclosed by a single set of statement and a study of the trend of these factors as shown
in a series of statements ." ¹
(2)
" Financial analyses is a process of identifying the financial strength and weakness of a firm by
properly establishing relationships between the items of the balance sheet the profit and loss account ." ²
(3)
"Financial analyses is an Assessment of the(1) effectiveness with which funds are(investment &
debt)employed in a firms(2)efficiency & profitability of its operation and(3) value and safety of debtors claims
against the firm’s assets." ³
(4)
"Financial statement Analysis is the meaningful interpretation of financial statements for parties
Demanding Financial information."4
Objectives of financial statement Analysis:
Financial statement analysis enables security exchange players to separate "cash cows" from
insolvent businesses. By doing so, they can identify companies that are making money, those with inadequate
debt levels and others lacking short-term funds to operate. Investors also can zero in on key sectors in which a
company conducts its business and generates its primary revenues, as well as billings it derives from non-core,
secondary spheres. A cash cow is a business that regularly generates out-sized amounts of cash, often with
little management intervention. The major objectives of financial statement analysis are as follows:
1.Assessment of past performance:
Past performance is a good indicator of future performance.Investors and creditors are interested in
the trend of past sales,cost of good sold,operating expenses,net income,case flows and return on
investment.These trends offer a means for judging management past performance and are possible indicators
of future performance:
2.Assessment of current position:
Financial statement analysis shows the current position of the firm in terms of the types of assets
owned by a business firm and the different liabilities due against the enterprise.
3.Prediction of profitability and growth prospects:
Financial statement analysis helps in assessing and predicting the earning prospect and growth
rates in earnings which are used by investors while comparing investment alternative alternatives and other
users judging.
4.Earning potential of business enterprise:
Financial statement analysis is an important tool in assessing and predicting bankruptcy and
probability of business failure.
5.Assessment of operational efficiency:
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Financial statement analysis helps to assess the operation efficiency of the management of a
company .The actual performance of the firm which are revealed in the financial statement can be compared
with some standards set earlier and the deviation of any between standards and actual performance can be
used as the indicator of the efficiency of the management.
RELEVANCE:
Financial statement analysis enables security exchange players to separate "cash cows" from
insolvent businesses. By doing so, they can identify companies that are making money, those with inadequate
debt levels and others lacking short-term funds to operate. Investors also can zero in on key sectors in which a
company conducts its business and generates its primary revenues, as well as billings it derives from non-core,
secondary spheres. A cash cow is a business that regularly generates out-sized amounts of cash, often with
little management intervention.
EXPERT INSIGHT:
Various professionals contribute their intellectual wealth to making financial statement
analysis a success. They usually display business acumen, accounting knowledge and a penchant for number
crunching. Financial analysts, budget supervisors and accounting managers are among those spending a lot of
time going through corporate operating data and determining relationships between various pieces of
information. Investment analysts, traders and portfolio managers also engage in accounting report review to
guide asset allocation decisions.
TYPE OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS:
There are following type of analysis:
1.External analysis:
This analysis is performed by outside parties such as tread creditors ,investors, suppliers of
long term debt etc.
2.Internal analysis:
This analysis is performed by the corporate finance and accounting department and is more
detailed than external analysis.
3.Horizontal analysis:
This analysis compared the financial statement vis profit and loss account and balance sheet of
previous year along with current year.
4.vertical analysis:
This analysis convert each element of information into a percentage of the total amount of
statement so as establish releventship with other components of the same statement.
5.Trend analysis:
This analysis compares ratios of different components of the financial
statements related to different period to those of a base year.
6.Ratio analysis:
This analysis establishes the numerical or quantitative relationship between two items/variables of
financial statement so that a strength and weaknesses of a firm as well as its historical performance and
current financial position can be determined.
7.Funds flow statement:
This statement provides a comprehensive idea about the movement of finance in a business unit
during a particular period of time.
8.break even analyses:
This type of analysis refers to the interpretation of financial data that represent operating
activities.
STEPS TO A BASIC COMPANY FINANCIAL ANALYSIS:
The basic steps of company Financial Analysis are as under: .
Step 1. Acquire the company’s financial statements for several years .As a minimum, get the following
statements, for at least 3 to 5 years.
· Balance sheets
· Income statements
· Shareholders equity statements
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· Cash flow statements
Step 2. Quickly scan all of the statements to look for large movements in specific items from one year to the
next. For example, did revenues have a big jump, or a big fall, from one particular year to the next? Did total or
fixed assets grow or fall? If you find anything that looks very suspicious, research the information you have
about the company to find out why. For example, did the company purchase a new division, or sell off part of
its operations, that year?
Step 3. Review the notes accompanying the financial statements for additional information that may be
significant to your analysis.
Step 4. Examine the balance sheet. Look for large changes in the overall components of the company's assets,
liabilities or equity. For example, have fixed assets grown rapidly in one or two years, due to acquisitions or
new facilities? Has the proportion of debt grown rapidly, to reflect a new financing strategy? If you find
anything that looks very suspicious, research the information you have about the company to find out why.
Step 5. Examine the income statement Look for trends over time. Calculate and graph
the growth of the following entries over the past several years:
· Revenues (sales)
· Net income (profit, earnings)
Are the revenues and profits growing over time? Are they moving in a smooth and consistent fashion, or
erratically up and down? Investors value predictability, and prefer more consistent movements to large
swings.
For each of the key expense components on the income statement, calculate it as a percentage of
sales for each year. For example, calculate the percent of cost of goods sold over sales, general and
administrative expenses over sales, and research and development over sales. Look for favorable or
unfavorable trends. For example, rising G&A expenses as a percent of sales could mean lavish spending. Also,
determine whether the spending trends support the company’s strategies. For example, increased emphasis
on new products and innovation will probably be reflected by an increased proportion of spending on research
and development.Look for non-recurring or non-operating items. These are "unusual" expenses not directly
related to ongoing operations. However, some companies have such items on almost an annual basis. How do
these reflect on the earnings quality?
If you find anything that looks very suspicious, research the information you have about the company to find
out why.
Step 6. Examine the shareholder's equity statement. Has the company issued new shares, or bought some
back? Has the retained earnings account been growing or shrinking? Why? Are there signals about the
company's long-term strategy here?If you find anything that looks very suspicious, research the information
you have about the company to find out why.
Step 7. Examine the cash flow statement, which gives information about the cash inflows and outflows from
operations, financing, and investing.
While the income statement provides information about both cash and non-cash items, the cash flow
statement attempts to reconstruct that information to make it clear how cash is obtained and used by the
business, since that is what investors and creditors really care about.If you find anything that looks very
suspicious, research the information you have about the company to find out why.
Step 8. Calculate financial ratios in each of the following categories, for each year:
· Liquidity ratios
· Leverage (or debt) ratios
· Profitability ratios
· Efficiency ratios
· Value ratios
Graph the ratios over time, to find the trends in the ratios from year to year. Are they going up or down? Is
that favorable or unfavorable? This should trigger further questions in your mind, and help you to look for the
underlying reasons.
Step 9. Obtain data for the company’s key competitors, and data about the industry.
For competitor companies, you can get the data and calculate the ratios in the same way you did for the
company being studied. You can also get company and industry ratios from the website. Compare the ratios
for the competitors and the industry to the company being studied. Is the company favorable in comparison?
Do you have enough information to determine why or why not? If you don’t, you may need to do further
research.
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Step 10. Review the market data you have about the company’s stock price, and the price to earnings (P/E)
ratio.Try to research and understand the movements in the stock price and P/E over time. Determine in your
own mind whether the stock market is reacting favorably to the company’s results and its strategies for doing
business in the future.
Step 11. Review the dividend payout. Graph the payout over several years. Determine whether the company’s
dividend policies are supporting their strategies. For example, if the company is attempting to grow, are they
retaining and reinvesting their earnings rather than distributing them to investors through dividends? Based on
your research into the industry, are you convinced that the company has sufficient opportunities for profitable
reinvestment and growth, or should they be distributing more to the owners in the form of dividends? Viewed
another way, can you learn anything about their long-term strategies from the way they pay dividends?
Step 12. Review all of the data that you have generated. You will probably find that there is a mix of positive
and negative results. Answer the following question:
“Based on everything I know about this company and its strategies, the industry and the competitors, and
the external factors that will influence the company in the future, do I think this company is worth investing
in for the long term?”
FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS :
A popular way to analyze the financial statements is by computing ratios. A ratio is a relationship
between two numbers, e.g. ratio of A: B = 1.5:1 ==> A is 1.5 times B. A ratio by itself may have no meaning.
Hence, a given ratio is compared to:
- Ratios from previous years for internal trends
- Ratios of other firms in the same industry for external trends.
Ratio analysis is a diagnostic tool that helps to identify problem areas and opportunities within a
company.
The most Important ratios provides a firm’s:
-Liquidity
-Degree of financial leverage or debt
-Profitability
-Efficiency
Value
A. Analyzing Liquidity:
Liquid assets are those that can be converted into cash quickly. The short-term liquidity ratios show
the firm’s ability to meet its short-term obligations. Thus a higher ratio (#1 and #2) would indicate a greater
liquidity and lower risk for short-term lenders. The Rules of Thumb for acceptable values are: Current Ratio
(2:1), Quick Ratio (1:1).
While high liquidity means that the company will not default on its short-term obligations, one should
keep in mind that by retaining assets as cash, valuable investment opportunities may be lost. Obviously, cash
by itself does not generate any return. Only if it is invested will we get future return.
1. Current Ratio
= Total Current Assets / Total Current Liabilities
2. Quick Ratio = (Total Current Assets - Inventories) / Total Current Liabilities
In the quick ratio, we subtract inventories from total current assets, since they are the least liquid among the
current assets.
B. Analyzing Debt:
Debt ratios show the extent to which a firm is relying on debt to finance its investments and
operations, and how well it can manage the debt obligation, i.e. repayment of principal and periodic interest. If
the company is unable to pay its debt, it will be forced into bankruptcy. On the positive side, use of debt is
beneficial as it provides tax benefits to the firm, and allows it to exploit business opportunities and grow.
Note that total debt includes short-term debt (bank advances + the current portion of long-term
debt) and long-term debt (bonds, leases, notes payable).
1. Leverage Ratios:
a. Debt to Equity Ratio = Total Debt / Total Equity
This shows the firm’s degree of leverage, or its reliance on external debt for financing.
b. Debt to Assets Ratio = Total Debt / Total assets
Some analysts prefer to use this ratio, which also shows the company’s reliance on external sources for
financing its assets.
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In general, with either of the above ratios, the lower the ratio, the more conservative (and probably safer) the
company is. However, if a company is not using debt, it may be foregoing investment and growth
opportunities. This is a question that can be answered only by further company and industry research.
A frequently cited rule of thumb for manufacturing and other non-financial industries is that companies
not finance more than 50% of their capital through external debt.
2. Interest Coverage (or Times Interest Earned) Ratio :
Earnings Before Interest and Taxes / Annual Interest Expense This shows the firm’s ability to cover
fixed interest charges (on both short-term and long-term debt)
with current earnings. The margin of safety that is acceptable varies within and across industries, and also
depends on the earnings history of a firm (especially the consistency of earnings from period to period and
year to year).
3. Cash Flow Coverage : Net Cash Flow / Annual Interest Expense
Net cash flow = Net Income +/- non-cash items (e.g. -equity income + minority interest in earnings of
subsidiary + deferred income taxes + depreciation + depletion + amortization expenses)
Since depreciation is usually the largest non-cash item in most companies, analysts often approximate Net
cash flow as being equivalent to Net Income + Depreciation.
Cash flow is a “critical variable” in assessing a company. If a company is showing strong profits but has poor
cash flow, you should investigate further before passing a favorable opinion on the company.
C. Analyzing Profitability:
Profitability is a relative term. It is hard to say what percentage of profits represents a profitable firm, as
profits depend on such factors as the position of the company and its products on the competitive life cycle
(for example profits will be lower in the initial years when investment is high), on competitive conditions in the
industry, and on borrowing costs.
For decision-making, we are concerned only with the present value of expected future profits. Past or
current profits are important only as they help us to identify likely future profits, by identifying historical and
forecasted trends of profits and sales. We want to know whether profits are generally on the rise; whether
sales stable or rising; how the profits compare to the industry average; whether the market share of the
company is rising, stable or falling; and other things that indicate the likely future profitability of the firm.
1. Net Profit Margin = Profit after taxes / Sales
2. Return on Assets (ROA) = Profit after taxes / Total Assets
3. Return on Equity (ROE)= Profit after taxes / Shareholders’ Equity (book value)
4. Earnings per Common share (EPS) = (Profits after taxes – Preferred Dividend) / (# of common shares
outstanding)
5. Payout Ratio = Cash Dividends / Net Income
D. Analyzing Efficiency:
These ratios reflect how well the firm’s assets are being managed.
The inventory ratios shows how fast the inventory is being produced and sold.
1. Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory
This ratio shows how quickly the inventory is being turned over (or sold) to generate sales. A higher
ratio implies the firm is more efficient in managing
inventories by minimizing the investment in inventories. Thus a ratio of 12 would mean that the inventory
turns over 12 times, or the average inventory is sold in a month.
2. Total Assets Turnover = Sales / Average Total Assets
This ratio shows how much sales the firm is generating for every dollar of investment in assets. The
higher the ratio, the better the firm is performing.
3. Accounts Receivable Turnover = Annual Credit Sales / Average Receivables
4. Average Collection period= Average Accounts Receivable / (Total Sales / 365)
Ratios 3 and 4 show the firm’s efficiency in collecting cash from its credit sales. While a low ratio is
good, it could also mean that the firm is being verystrict in its credit policy, which may not attract customers.
5. Days in Inventory = Days in a year / Inventory turnover
Ratio 5 is referred to as the “shelf-life” i.e. how quickly the manufactured product is sold off the shelf.
Thus 5 and 1 are related.
E. Value Ratios:
Value ratios show the “embedded value” in stocks, and are used by investors as a screening device
before making investments. For example, a high P/E ratio may be regarded by some as being a sign of “over
pricing”. When the markets are bullish (optimistic) or if investor sentiment is optimistic about a particular
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stock, the P/E ratio will tend to be high. For example, in the late 1990s Internet stocks tended to have
extremely high P/E ratios, despite their lack of profits, reflecting investors' optimism about the future
prospects of these companies. Of course, the burst of the bubble showed that such confidence was
misplaced.On the other hand, a low P/E ratio may show that the company has a poor track record. On the
other hand, it may simply be priced too low based on its potential earnings. Further investigation is required to
determine whether the company would then provide a good investment opportunity.
1. Price To Earnings Ratio (P/E) = Current Market Price Per Share / After-tax Earnings Per Share
2. Dividend Yield= Annual Dividends Per Share /Current Market Price Per Share
USES OF RATIO ANALYSIS:
1. To evaluate performance, compared to previous years and to competitors and the industry
2. To set benchmarks or standards for performance
3. To highlight areas that need to be improved, or areas that offer the most promising future potential
4. To enable external parties, such as investors or lenders, to assess the creditworthiness and profitability of
the firm.
USERS OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS IN INDIA & OTHER COUNTRIES:
Interfirm comparison is one of the important techniques used in U.K, U.S.A and other countries
for efficient management control of organizations. This technique is applied by a number of companies and
agencies. In developed
countries, there are specialized agencies to provide this service of interfirm
comparison to various member organisations. Besides the various institutes providing this service. There
is an institute of interfirm comparison I n west germany and the department of interfirm comparison in
British institute of management, Londan.In India,this technique has not gained much popularity. However,it is
used by a number of firms and agencies.The Bombay Textile research Association under takes studies on
interfirm comparisons of productivity, quality and financial aspects on the basis of Annual reports and other
information provided by the participating mills.The ICICI published a report every year.It gives a valuable data
in absolute rupees and ratios classifying the companies on the basis of industry,size and a number of other
basis. Various financial journals and news papers, give a wide coverage to financial analysis and financial
reporting and use ratios for such an analysis.For example, the RBI Bulletung (Monthly journal of RBI),the
Economics Times,the Bombay stock Exchange official Directory .
LIMITATIONS:
1. There is considerable subjectivity involved as there is no theory as to what should be the “right” number for
the various ratios. Further, it is hard to reach a definite conclusion when some of the ratios are favorable and
some are unfavorable.
2. Ratios may not be strictly comparable for different firms due to a variety of factors such as different
accounting practices, different fiscal year. Furthermore, if a firm is engaged in diverse product lines it is
difficult to identify the industry category to which the firm belongs. Also, just because a specific ratio is better
than the average does not necessarily mean that the company is doing well (it is quite possible rest of the
industry is doing very poorly)
3. Ratios are based on financial statements that reflect the past and not the future.
Unless the ratios are stable,one cannot make reasonable projections about the futur trend.
4. Financial statements provide an assessment of the costs and not value. For example, the market value of
items may be very different from the cost figure given in the balance sheet.
5. Financial statements do not include all items. For example, it is hard to put a value on human capital (such
as management expertise).
6. Accounting standards and practices vary across countries and thus hamper meaningful global comparisons.
7. Management decision making is a dynamic process in a constantly changing environment while ratio
analysis is a static analysis based on historical data.
8. The linkage among various ratios is not readily obvious.
CONCLUSION:
 Financial statement analysis involves analyzing the firm’s financial statements to extract information that
can facilitate decision-making. For example, an analysis of the financial statement can reveal whether the firm
will be able to meet its long-term debt commitment, whether the firm is financially distressed, whether the
company is using its physical assets efficiently, whether the firm has an optimal financing mix, whether the
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firm is generating adequate return for its shareholders, whether the firm can sustain its competitive advantage
etc; While the information used is historical, the intent is clearly to arrive at recommendations and forecasts
for the future rather than provide a “picture of the past”.
 The performance of a firm can be assessed by computing key ratios and analyzing: (a) How is the firm
performing relative to the industry? (b) How is the firm performing relative to the leading firms in their
industry? (c) How does the current year performance compare to the previous year(s)? (d) What are the
 variables driving the key ratios? (e) What are the linkages among the ratios? (f) What do the ratios reveal
about the future prospects of the firm for various
 stakeholders such as shareholders, bondholders, employees, customers etc.?
 Merely presenting a series of graphs and figures will be a futile exercise. We need to put the information
in a proper context by clearly identifying the purpose of our analysis and identifying the key data driving our
analysis.
 Financial analysis is performed by both internal management and external groups. Firms would perform
such an analysis in order to evaluate their overall current performance, identify problem/opportunity areas,
develop budgets and implement strategies for the future. External groups (such as investors, regulators,
lenders, suppliers, customers) also perform financial analysis in deciding whether to invest in a particular firm,
whether to extend credit etc. There are several rating agencies (such as Moody’s, Standard & Poors) that
routinely perform financial analysis of firms in order to arrive at a composite rating.
REFERENCES:
1. Dr. S. N. Maheshwari & Dr. S. K.Maheshwari(2006),"Corporate Accounting, Vikas publishing House Pvt
Ltd, New Delhi."
2. C.R.T.Varma, Director of studies(2001), ICAI, "Financial Management",Unique Press Pvt Ltd, Noida.
3.Robert.N.Anthony & James.S.Reece, "Accounting Principles(2001),A.I.T.B.S.Publisher," krishnagar,Delhi.
4.Chandra prasanna(1997),"Financial management-Theory and Practice",Hill publishing Company Ltd, New
Delhi.
WEBSITES:
www.financial statement analysis.com
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COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF AEROBIC TRAINING
WITH TWO DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES AND
FREE HAND EXERCISES ON SPEED AN
EXPLOSIVE POWER PARAMETERS OF MEN
VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS
MRS. NAMRATA ACHARYA
P. hd. S CHOLAR
KEYWORDS: CONCENTRATION ABILITY
SUBJECT: PHYSICAL EDUCATION
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to find out the Comparative Effect of Aerobic Training with Two Different
Frequencies and Free Hand Exercise on Speed and Explosive Power Parameters of Men Volleyball Players. The
study was conducted on forty five (N=45) Volleyball players who were randomly selected from various
Engineering Colleges of Ahmedabad. Gujarat Technical University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, during 2013-2014.
The age of the subjects were ranged between 18 to 21. The selected players was assigned in to three groups of
fifteen each(n=15) , Group –I underwent Aerobic training with three days per week, Group –II underwent
Aerobic training with five days per week and Group III underwent free hand exercises. Speed and Explosive
power were selected as dependent variables. Speed was assessed by 50 meters run test and Explosive power
was assessed by Vertical Jump tests. All the subjects were tested prior to and immediately after the training
period of twelve weeks for all the selected variables. The data collected data from the three groups prior to
and immediately after the training programme on the selected criterion variables were statistically analyzed
with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Whenever the ‘F’ ratio for adjusted post test means was found to be
significant, Scheffe’s post hoc test was followed to determine which of the paired mean differences was
significant. In all the cases .05 level of confidence was fixed to test the hypotheses. Speed and Explosive Power
showed significant difference among the groups. Aerobic training with five days per week group showed better
performance than other selected groups
INTRODUCTION:
Training is good for the development of the cardiovascular system. “It enables athletes to recover from tough
workouts and helps to develop the capacity to increase repetitions”. (Singh, 1991). “Training improves the
functioning of the circulatory, respiratory and the muscular systems, while practice is largely aimed at
improving the control of muscular activity by the nervous systems”. (Kenneth, J. 1976) Aerobic exercise is the
type of moderate-intensity physical activity that one can sustain for more than just a few minutes with the
objective of improving their cardio respiratory fitness and your health. “Aerobic” means “in the presence of, or
with, oxygen.” Anaerobic, on the other hand, means “the absence of, or without, oxygen.” Anaerobic exercise
is performed at an intensity that causes to get out of breath quickly and can be sustained for only a few
moments. Weight lifting and sprinting are examples of anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise is any extended
activity that makes ones breathe hard while using the large muscle groups at a regular, even pace. Aerobic
activities help make human heart stronger and more efficient. During the early part of exercise, body uses
stored carbohydrate and circulating fatty acids (the building blocks of fat molecules) for energy.cer
METHODOLOGY:
The purpose of this study was to find out the Comparative Effect of Aerobic Training with Two Different
Frequencies and Free Hand Exercise on Speed and Explosive Power Parameters of Men Volleyball Players. The
study was conducted on forty five (N=45) Volleyball players who were randomly selected from various
Engineering Colleges of Ahmedabad. Gujarat Technical University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, during 2013-2014.
The age of the subjects were ranged between 18 to 21. The selected players was assigned in to three groups of
fifteen each(n=15), Group –I underwent Aerobic training with three days per week, Group –II underwent
Aerobic training with five days per week and Group III underwent free hand exercises. Speed and Explosive
power were selected as dependent variables. Speed was assessed by 50 meters run test and Explosive power
was assessed by Vertical Jump tests. All the subjects were tested prior to and immediately after the training
period of twelve weeks for all the selected variables. The data collected data from the three groups prior to
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and immediately after the training programme on the selected criterion variables were statistically analyzed
with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Whenever the ‘F’ ratio for adjusted post test means was found to be
significant, Scheffe’s post hoc test was followed to determine which of the paired mean differences was
significant. In all the cases .05 level of confidence was fixed to test the hypotheses.
The Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on Speed and Explosive power of aerobic training of two different
frequencies and free hand exercise Group have been analyzed and presented in Table -I.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on Speed and Explosive power of aerobic training of two different
frequencies and free hand exercise Group have been analyzed and presented in Table -I.
TABLE – I
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE ON SPEED AND POWER OF AEROBIC TRAINING OF TWO DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES
AND FREE HAND EXERCISE GROUP
Certain
Adjusted Post test Means
Source of
Sum of
df
Mean
F’
Variables
Variance
Squares
Squares
Ratio
Aerobic
Aerobic
Free Hand
Training
Training
Five Exercises
Three days days per
Group (III)
per
week week Group-(II)
Group-(I)
Speed
7.68
6.75
7.66
Between
8.55
2
4.27
20.68*
With in
8.47
41
0.21
Explosive
1.54
1.55
1.49
Between
0.03
2
0.01
10.16*
Power
With in
0.05
41
0.001
*Significant at .05 level of confidence.(The table value required for significance at .05 level with df 2 and 41
is 3.23)
Table I shows that the adjusted post test mean values of Speed and Explosive power for Aerobic Training three
days per week group, Aerobic Training five days per week group and Free Hand Exercises group are 7.68, 6.75,
7.66, 1.54, 1.55 and 1.49 respectively. The obtained F ratios are 20.68 and 10.16 is more than the table value
3.23 for df 2 and 41 required for significance at .05 level of confidence. The results of the study indicate that
there is a significant difference exists among the adjusted post test means of experimental groups showing the
decrease in speed and increase of Explosive power.
To determine which of the paired means had a significant differences, Scheffe’s test was applied as Post hoc
test and the results are presented in Table II.
Table - II
THE SCHEFFE’S TEST FOR THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ADJUSTED POST TESTS PAIRED MEANS ON
DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Certain
Adjusted Post test Means
Mean
Confidence
Variables
Difference
Interval
Aerobic
Aerobic
Free Hand
Confidence
Training
Training
Exercises
Interval
Three days
Five days
Group (III)
per week
per week
Group-(I)
Group-(II)
Speed
7.68
6.75
0.93*
0.42
7.68
7.66
0.02*
0.42
6.75
7.66
0.91*
0.42
Explosive
1.54
1.55
0.01
0.03
Power
1.54
1.49
0.05*
0.03
1.55
1.49
0.06*
0.03
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* Significant at.05 level of confidence
Table II shows that the adjusted post test mean for differences on speed between Aerobic Training three days
per week group and Aerobic Training five days per week group , Aerobic Training five days per week group and
Free hand exercises group are 0.93 and 0.91. The values are greater than the confidence interval 0.42, which
shows significant differences at .05 level of confidence. The values between Aerobic Training three days per
week group and Free hand exercises group are 0.02. It showed insignificant differences. Table II further shows
that the adjusted post test mean for differences on Explosive Power between Aerobic Training three days per
week group and Free hand exercises group, Aerobic Training five days per week group and Free hand exercises
group are 0.05, and 0.06. The values are greater than the confidence interval 0.03, which shows significant
differences at .05 level of confidence. The values between Aerobic Training three days per week group and
Aerobic Training five days per week group are 0.02. It showed insignificant differences. The adjusted post test
means values of Aerobic Training three days per week group, Aerobic Training five days per week group and
Free Hand Exercises group on Speed and Explosive Power were graphically represented in the figure I and
figure II respectively.
SPEED IN SECONDS
FIGURE I: adjusted post test means values of Aerobic Training three days per week group, Aerobic Training five
days per week group and Free Hand Exercises group on Speed
EXPLOSIVE POWER IN METERS
FIGURE II: ADJUSTED POST TEST MEAN VALUES OF Plyometric Training with and without resistance training
group and control groups on EXPLOSIVE POWER
DISCUSSION ON FINDINGS:
Resistance training, similarly to aerobic training, improves metabolic features and insulin sensitivity and
reduces abdominal fat in type 2 diabetic patients. Changes after training in VO2peak and truncal fat may be
primary determinants of exercise-induced metabolic improvement Bacchi et al(2012). Sigal et al(2007)
suggested to aerobic training and resistance training alone each led to improvements in glycemic control, and
combined aerobic and resistance training had effects that were greater than those of either method alone.
These effects were more powerful among individuals with poor glycemic control at baseline. It is suggested
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that future research might usefully explore the particular contribution of different aspects of the training
situation to these effects. Norris et al(1990).
CONCLUSIONS:
From the analysis of the data, the following conclusions were drawn.
1. The Experimental groups had registered significant improvement on the selected criterion variables namely
Speed and Explosive Power.
2. It may be concluded that the aerobic training five days per week group is better than aerobic training three
days per week group and Free hand exercises group in improving Speed and Explosive Power.
ES
REFERENCE:
Aerobic training retrieved from www.wikipedia.com on 12.12.2012. | Doherty Kenneth J, (1976), Modern
Track and Field, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.P. 87. | Elisabetta Bacchi, Carlo Negri, Maria Elisabetta Zanolin, Chiara
Milanese, Niccolò Faccioli,
Maddalena Trombetta, Giacomo Zoppini, Antonio Cevese, Riccardo C. Bonadonna, Federico Schena, Enzo
Bonora, Massimo Lanza,
and Paolo Moghetti, (2012) Metabolic Effects of Aerobic Training and Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic
Subjects, Diabetes Care April, vol. 35 no. 4 676-682. | Hardayal
Singh, (1991), Science of Sports Training, New Delhi: D.V.S. Publications, P.130. | Norris R, Carroll D, Cochrane
R.(1990), The effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on
fitness, blood pressure, and psychological stress and well-being, J Psychosom Res. 34(4):367-75. | Ronald J.
Sigal, Glen P. Kenny, Normand G. Boulé, George A. Wells,
Denis Prud'homme, Michelle Fortier, Robert D. Reid, Heather Tulloch, Douglas Coyle, Penny Phillips, Alison
Jennings, and James Jaffey(2007), Effects of Aerobic Training,
Resistance Training, or Both on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial, Ann Intern Med. 18
September 2007;147(6):357-369 |
Middleton,
Discovering Mental Toughness: A Qualitative Study of Mental Toughness in Elite
Athletes Berlin: Self Research Centre, Biannual Conference, 2004
Mishra, S. C.,
Fitness and Health Education, New Delhi Sports Publication, 2005
Mohammad, J.
Selective Physiological, Psychological and Anthropometric Characteristics of
Kuwaiti World Cup Soccer Team ,International Journal of Sports Science
and Physical Education, Vol.:3: 1.1991
Moran, A. P.
The Psychology of Concentration in Sports Performance: A Cognitive
Analysis Psychology, Press Publisher. 1996
Narang, P.,
Play and Learn Hockey, Delhi: Publication of Khel Sahitya Kendra, 2003
Otsuki, T. and other
Post-exercise Heart Recovery, 2007
Radha, Powan K Psychological Factor as Accelerates in Strength-trained Athletes, Journal of
American College of Sports Medicine, Vol.: 39, No. 2. 119, 1995
Harris and Bette L. H.,
Athlete's Guide to Sports Psychology, Leisure Press, 1984
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HOW TO MAKE A GREAT PRESENTATION
THROUGH A GOOD COMMUNICATION
RAJDEEP A. JOSHI*
S.S.S.D.I.I.T COLLEGE-JUNAGADH*
RAJNIKANT B. MALVIYA**
N.R.VEKARIA INS. OF BUSI. MGMT.-JUNAGADH**
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: COMPUTER SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION
Presentation is very powerful communication tools and can work to your advantage as well as
disadvantage. The style with which you present has a great importance in the success of your presentation.
The trick is to find the style that suits your personality and fits the situation; you will undoubtedly have to
present in a multitude a situation. If your style is always formal, you may find it hard to reach your audience in
an informal setting, your style should reflect your personality as closely as possible, however sometimes you
need to employ certain techniques to adapt to the situation and deliver your message effectively, actors, for
example, don’t always play parts that fully reflect their right, adding a personal touch to it. You can therefore
see personal characteristics of an actor in both the villain in the virtuous roles.
(1)
Creating your own style
1.1
Communication at the right level
The way you talk is a major contribution to the style of your presentation although you should be yourself and
talk as you normally do, you may tend to put on an artificial accent and behavior when put under pressure. To
be yourself under these condition is easier said than done.

Tell it like a story
Preparing your ideas in the same way that you would tell a story to a friend is very effective in gaining the
audience’s undivided attention and trust it . it involves a great deal of enthusiasm and a structured flow of
event leading to the conclusion. People enjoy listening to a story whether it is about the new stationery or the
annual operation plan.

Select with a moderate speed
If you talk too quickly, you may lose the listener. On the other hand, if you are telling your story with a low
space, you will bore them to death, moderation is the best option – it keeps the audience interested and
looking forward to hearing what is coming next

Avoid artificial accent
Do not worry too much about your accent. If you have a regional accent, or you are presenting a foreign
language , trying to change the way you talk adds to the things you have to thing about when presenting,
which may confuse you.
1.2
Selecting the right style
There are two main presentation styles
1
formal
2
informal
Variations and combination of both exist. Choose which to use according to the occasion.
In some situation it is necessary to five a formal talk to a group of people. Occasion like sales, meeting, public
lectures etc. require careful preparation and a formal style.
Again there isn’t one single right style for formal presentation. But there are some basic aspects of the
presentation. To which personal variation can be added, and which can be used on different formal
occasions…

Dressing appropriately
It is important to dress formally and to the standard by the occasion. A smart look could help boost your
confidence as well as the audience’s confidence in you.
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
Using the right language
Using formal but simple language with some funny remarks when appropriate, is one of the best way to
maintain you credibility and keep the audience interested.

Using cartoons or picture on your slides
Use your slides to tell some of the jokes, a formal slide in not necessarily one with words and complicated
sentences.

Introducing yourself and thanking the audience.
If there are people in the audience who don’t know who you? Make sure you introduce yourself, you should
also conclude by thanking everyone for being before there and answering any questions if applicable.
1.3
Using effective body language
When you look at people in the street. It is amazing how much you can tell about them by simply
observing their body language.
Your body language has a lot to do with the impression. People described as ‘charismatic’ are those
who are liked for no apparent reason. These people tend to be notices as they enter a room.

Using your hands
Use your hands to invite the audience to accept your point by having your palms upwards.. Keep your palms
open and your fingers together when moving your hands, release your fingers into a natural position.

Using facial expressions and eye contact
Use your eyebrows to articulate your feelings. When they point up, like when asking a question, you are
inviting people to accept your suggestion.
1.4
Taking control
By applying the technique discussed earlier, you leave little reason for the audience to be irritated or annoyed.
Now take a further step and try to keep them interested in your presentation.
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TEACHING STRATEGY AS EXCELLENCE
ORGANIZATION MISSION
DR. RAJKUMAR S. TOPANDASANI
Associate Professor,Arts & Commerce College, Mendarda - 362 260 (Gujarat)
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
ABSTRACT :
During the last decade, theoretical and empirical researches have indicated that organizational
teaching as a process occurs in various sites and situations, and it should not viewed from only economic profit
perspective. Individual organizational teaching in organization’s context includes the actions of key actors at
every level for creating value in the organization. Generally, teaching strategy behavior in organizations
regarded as a tool for organization’s growth and profitability, strategic innovation, organizational and
customer-oriented changes. This article attempts to explain the teaching plan strategy by patterns of thinking.
The importance of strategic, long-term policy and teaching plan strategy is very clear to planners. Teaching
managers like to follow a similar and routine teaching behavioral pattern. Teaching plan strategy, normally
taken, as a part of teaching planning, therefore also tends to run in cycles of around last years. Implementing
excellence organization can give a competitive advantage and help foster goodwill toward teaching strategy
approach. Studies organizational teaching have possessed an increasing growth. The rise of intense
competition among the domestic and global markets has revealed the crucial role of organizational teaching in
actualization and maintenance of competitive privilege development in the teaching organization.
INTRODUCTION :
The importance and growth of the products and services reviewed that it is expanding globally. The
percentage of growth of the different excellence organizational criteria in the products and services as learning
organization expectations is continuing to increase as the excellence organization base. Furthermore,
researchers believe that the primary objective of the corporate organizational teaching is creation of
dynamism, competitive structure and culture (Ergun et al., 2004). With the rise in the standard of living,
resulting from increased excellence organizational productivity changes in the needs and demands of the
population. Teaching strategy approach demands of the population. Teaching strategy approach has been
widely used to translate learning organization expectation to a products and services technical attributes.
Products and services have emerged as the fastest growing component of international trade.
Correctly rating the importance of every learning organization expectation is essential to the
teaching strategy approach process because it will largely affect the final target value of a products and
services technical attributes. This paper proposes a learning organization expectations method that considers
excellence organization’s information. In today’s excellence organizational environment there are usually
several products and services to fulfill certain functions. The success of a products and services depends not
only on whether it meets the learning organization expectations, but also on how it compares with other
excellence organization’s products and services. Teaching success is about lucrative financial gains or about
building something for excellence organization. It is about making a difference in excellence organizational
community, or creating the very best product or service on the market or simply doing something excellence
organization love to do. Most likely, excellence organization will quantify success in many ways.
 TEACHING STRATEGY APPROACH :
organizational teaching accompanies venturous innovation while people are escaping from
its risk. Innovativeness is the step of technology development process. The survival in the market is the
outcome of these three phenomena, which can be used exchange ably. A teaching strategy manager is a
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person who takes all the three steps simultaneously, whereas a successful teaching strategy mangers is one
who does the stages to gain the title of teaching strategy manager.
Innovativeness is an environmental requirement in the field of organizational teaching,
which refers to the capability of a corporation for creation of a new product and successful launch of it to the
market ( Avlonitis and Salavou, 2007). Striving for innovativeness brings about a lasting value which is part of
the teaching’s nature (Ergun etal, 2004:260). The concept of innovative products has attracted the attention
of some experts and researchers (Avlonitis and Salavou, 2007:567). Deshpande et al (1993) consider
innovativness as one of the essential competitive instruments for achieving success and long term survival of
teaching organizations.
The increase of attention to innovativeness can be a key factor in the success of enduring
competitive privilege of teaching organizations. By coupling quality with customer recovering satisfaction, a
few tactical actions as follow can make the challenge simpler and provide leadership (Johnson, M.D. and
Gustafsson, A, 2000, 288):
- teaching strategy obtain support from the board of directors for prepare an action plan,
- teaching strategy mission statement for establishes top level quality committee.
- Customer satisfaction survey by incorporate teaching strategy performance
in the current literature some existing methods incorporate excellence organization information to
prioritize learning organization expectations that they are follows:
1) Teaching strategy method: Teaching strategy approach has been widely used a multi functional design tool
to translate learning organization expectations to a products and services technical attributes. Thus, teaching
strategy approach used to help design teams to develop products and services with higher quality to meet or
surpass learning organization expectations. Correctly rating the importance of every learning organization
expectation is essential to the teaching strategy approach process because it will largely affect the final target
value of a products and services technical attributes. Traditionally, capturing learning organization
expectations involves three steps in teaching strategy approach.
- identifying learning organization expectations,
- Structuring learning organization expectations,
- Determine of the importance weight for the individual learning organization expectations.
Therefore, it is important to integrate excellence organization analysis into products and
services design and development. Then, the ranking of learning organization expectations for the allocation of
development resources should based also on excellence organization analysis.
2) Teaching strategy process: Analytic hierarchy process proposed to be used in rating learning organization
expectation s and the sensitivity (Akao, 1990, 341; Armacost et al., 1994, 187; Aswad, 1989, 95; Karsak et al.,
2002, 75) of the learning organization voice in teaching strategy approach analyzed (Xie, Goh, and Wang,
1998, 289). However, learning organization opinions are often vague and contain ambiguity and multiple
meanings (Fung et al., 1998, 322; Khoo and Ho, 1996, 95). From the learning organization perspective, all
methods have the same characteristics that coordinated with the basic spirit of teaching strategy approach,
learning organization driven design. However, in today’s, several products and services can satisfy the
learning organization that simply meeting learning organization expectation s cannot guarantee a successful
products and services. Excellence organization s must consider their positions to make sure that their products
and services would not lag behind other excellence organization s products and services.
The relative importance rating obtained from the traditional rating methods, such as learning
organization expectations survey, expert opinion, analytic hierarchy process method. The present point
method is very straightforward, and there are many papers discussing it in teaching strategy approach (Cohen,
1995, 112: Robertshaw, 1995, 331). Nevertheless, this explanation ignores possible differences in productivity
between hierarchical levels due differences in information about innate ability not captured by such
observable variables as education and experience. Teaching strategy managers promoted to higher teaching
strategy management for excellence organization, but these increases are lower than the differences in
average teaching between levels (Baker et al., 1994, 307). Managers who have held their positions for ill have
acquired more teaching strategy approach, and on the teaching strategy acquisition increases with the innate
ability of the managers (Gibbons and Waldman, 1999, 155). If managers who need less work experience to
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reach their current hierarchical position are, also those with higher innate abilities the marginal return from
one year of teaching strategy tenure should decrease with the age of the manager.
 TEACHING STRATEGY AS EXCELLENCE ORGANIZATION MISSION :
The marginal return of teaching strategy management tenure decreases with the age of the
manager, but cannot rule out the alternative explanation that investment in on the teaching strategy training
decreases, as managers get older. The evidence suggests that better assignment of managers to teaching
strategy positions because of learning competes with incentive/tournament reasons for explaining the
promotion of managers to higher-level teaching strategy, something that has often been ignored in previous
empirical tests of tournament models (Eriksson, 1999, 81; Conyon et al., 2001, 301). Implementing good
environmental and social practices is good teaching can give excellence organization a competitive advantage
and help foster goodwill toward excellence organizational teaching. Excellence organization should discuss
ways in which excellence organizational teaching honors ethical values and respects people, excellence
organizational community, and the environment.
Teaching strategy as excellence organization mission and target management structure
derive management system requirements as in teaching plan strategy:
1) Teaching strategy policy; Excellence organization should set up definite policy and target and the degree of
customer satisfaction should clarify.
2) Teaching strategy system: According to quality target, enterprises should plan total management system
structure, authority and responsibility control, operation process, in order to ensure comply with plan and
achieve enterprise quality target.
3) Teaching strategy staffs: Excellence organization should carry out communicating harmonization,
encourage staffs involvement and full commitment to customer satisfaction manager’s decision making should
comply with the teaching policy and target as the maximum guidance principle. Excellence organization s
provide all required resources, according to the plan then produce and sell products to learning organization.
4) Teaching strategy feedbacks: Excellence organization aim at learning organization after sales feedback
must verify the degree of customer satisfaction. If it does not achieve the expected degree of satisfaction, the
manager should identify the cause and work out an improvement scheme to enhance customer satisfaction.
Rectification and preventing methods can used through adjusting original quality policy and target, quality
rules, communication, training, resources and operation process, etc. after the adjustment and improvement,
enterprises should re-measure customer satisfaction, to ensure the improvement scheme is proper and
effective. Excellence organization should provide learning organization’ feedback information to management
for inspection and verify appropriateness and effectiveness of the definition of quality policy and target,
quality scheme and operation methods.
Relevant certifications, such as fair - trade certification, organic certification, or leadership in
energy and environmental design certification. Environmental programs and resources could influence
excellence organizational teaching, from greening your teaching to finding funding to become environmentally
efficient. In order to stay competitive in today’s market, excellence organization might want to consider where
corporate social responsibility fits into your operations. There is no consensus upon the sense of
innovativeness. This concept defined as creation of novelty, admission of a behavior or belief that is novel for
the organization. A number of the researchers (Kleinschmidt & Cooper, 1991: Olsen & Sallis 2006: Olson,
Walker, & Ruekert, 1995) describe innovativeness as degree of novelty that is in connection with corporate
and outside world. Although introducing a teaching strategy is necessary, it is not sufficient for starting
innovation. The innovative product or service should outrival the competitors in the market (Tajeddini, 2010).
 CONSEQUENCE :
teaching strategy management regarded as one of the prerequisites of success and survival
of the teaching organizations and classified into teaching plan and teaching strategy in economy and business.
The gradual teaching strategies are the outcome of a continuously improving process. Put differently, teaching
strategy could improve and develop the knowledge and the process. Radical teaching strategies are a
completely new phenomenon, which can obtain through investigation and development in the industrial,
investigative laboratories. The teaching organization are order to keep pace with technology, markets, and
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flow and even rebuild them. The teaching strategy is corporate culture, which persuades the staff for
innovativeness and gaining an organizational perception of developing new products or processes. The key to
excellence organization success is having a teaching plan in place. Whether excellence organization is about to
launch a start - up or excellence organization have been in teaching for years, excellence organizational
teaching direction guided by teaching plan. In spite of this general awareness, such long-term teaching,
strategic-level planning of teaching has been lacking in most excellence organization s. A central motivation
for this has been the public uneasiness towards many of the applications of gene excellence organization s
technology, as well as the general distrust of the public towards officials, scientists and representatives of
excellence organization s in the management of risks.
Excellence organizations compete with the quality level of their products and services that
managers cannot manage excellence organizational competition, will have problems surviving. In order to be
able to do this successfully, the products and services of excellence organization has to view its teaching and
its customer relationships from a expectation perspective. There are always relationships between products
and services of excellence organization and its learning organization expectations. The key issue is whether
the excellence organization wants to make use of these relationships in the way it manages learning
organization expectations or not, and whether a given learning organization wants to be an actively managed
relationship with the products and services provider, or not.
Forever, excellence organization should set up definite policy and target and the degree of
customer satisfaction should clarify. In according to teaching target, excellence organization should plan
teaching system and relative structure, authority and responsibility control, operation process and standards,
in order to ensure comply with plan and achieve enterprise teaching target.
In addition, excellence organization should carry out communicating harmonization,
encourage staffs involvement and full commitment to customer satisfaction, also manager’s decision making
should comply with the quality teaching and target as the maximum guidance principle.
Any how, excellence organization must provide all required resource, according to the plan
then produce and sell products to learning organization. After the adjustment and improvement, excellence
organization should re-measure customer expectations, to ensure the improvement scheme is proper and
effective. Teaching strategy is definable at least from two perspectives;
1) What the teaching organizations intends to do ? From this perspective, teaching is a comprehensive plan
for achieving an organization’s objectives and performing its own mission, with the underlying theory that the
strategy should formulated in the framework of a process.
2) What the teaching organizations does finally? From this perspective, teaching strategy is the pattern of the
organization’s reactions to its environment over time, with the assumption that the strategy developed
through insight and inspiration.
Teaching strategy as a pattern or a plan that integrates the objectives, policies, and action
sequences of an organization into a cohesive whole if well formulated, it can be useful in allocation of an
organization’s resources into a unique and viable posture based on its relative internal competencies and
shortcomings, predicted environmental changes, and intelligent rival’s contingent moves.
Teaching strategy as the determination of an organization’s major and long - term goals, can
select of actions, and allocation of the required resources for achieving the goals. Teaching strategy as the
large - scale and future-oriented plan for interaction with the competitive environment to optimize
achievement of an organization’s objectives, in other words, a game plan that although does not detail all of
the future needs associated with people, finances, or materials, it provides a framework for decision making.
 CONCLUSIONS :
The empirical prediction coming from this is that within teaching strategy teaching dispersion
will be lower among that teaching strategy management for whom the assessment of their ability was more
imprecise at the time of promotion. If teaching strategy management experience and formal education
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improve the precision of the assessment, then within teaching strategy teaching dispersion should decrease
with experience and education, whereas between teaching strategy dispersion is expected to increase with
these two variables, this distinction, new in the literature formalized and empirically supported by a large
sample of data for managerial teaching. Excellence organization s compete with the quality level of their
products and services which cannot manage excellence organization s competition, will have problems
surviving. In order to be able to do this successfully, the products and services excellence organization has to
view its teaching and its customer relationships from a products and services quality improvement
perspective. There are always relationships between a products and services and its learning organization
expectations. The key issue is whether the firm wants to make use of these relationships in the way it
manages learning organization expectations or not, and whether a given learning organization wants to be an
actively managed relationship with the products and services provider, or not. In this paper, the importance
and growth of the different economic criteria in the products and services is continuing to increase as the
manufacturing base declines. Therefore, design management in the products and services is becoming
increasingly important and this importance will continue to grow over this century.
Excellence organization s are facing fundamental issues such as how to design and
implement an effective quality service delivery system, which help to establish and to retain global market
share. Much of the published work on quality focuses on manufactured products and services, but managers
are paying more attention to emphasizing quality in services. The reason is the general perception that
products and services quality is not good.
Therefore, improving quality is becoming a major objective in excellence organization s
throughout the world. The recognition that survival much less growth in the excellence organization is a
function of quality led to the increasing emphasis on teaching strategy management.
Excellence organizations have witnessed what has happened to manufacturers that allowed
the quality of their products and services to deteriorate. They also recognize that providing high-quality
products and services to keep a customer is much less expensive than acquiring a new one. Products and
services quality has a major effect on the ability to attract and retain both learning organization and
employees, and it contributes directly to superior productivity.
For this reason, implementing good environmental and social practices is good teaching can
give excellence organization a competitive advantage and help foster goodwill toward excellence
organizational teaching. Excellence organization should discuss ways in which excellence organizational
teaching honors ethical values and respects people, excellence organizational community, and the
environment.
The empirical results that the assignment of a manager to a particular teaching strategy reveals the
information employers have about the teaching strategy management manager’s hidden ability at the time of
the assignment. The fact that learning continues after the assignment suggests that the assignment made with
imperfect information. If promotions based on the estimated teaching strategy management ability of the
individual managers, workers assigned to a given hierarchical level at the same moment in time will have
similar expected abilities, albeit assessed with different levels of precision. Consistent with teaching strategy
and learning models, there will be less to learn in the future for those workers whose ability has been better
assessed at the time of promotion.
References :
[1] Griffin and J.R. Hauser (1993), The voice of the customer, Marketing Science 12 (1), pp. 1-27
[2] Kaufmann and M.M> Gupta (1985)., Introduction to fuzzy arithmetic: Theory and application,
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
[3] Adebanjo, D. Kehoe, D. (2001), Teamwork and Customer Focus, Managing Quality,
Vol. 12, no. 10
[4] Akao, Y. Akao, (1990), Quality function deployment: integrating customer requirements into
product design, Productivity Press, Cambridge.
[5] Altonji, J.G. and C.R. Pierret (2001), Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination, The
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116.
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[6] Andersson, F. (20002), Career Concerns, Contracts, and Effort Distortions, Journal of Labor
Economics,20
[7] Ansoff, H. I. (1965). Corporate strategy: An analytic approach to teaching policy for growth
and expansion. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[8] Anton, J. Perkins, D. Feinberg, R.A. (1998), Voice of the Customer, Bard Press.
[9] Antoncic B and Hisrich R.D. (2004)”, Corporate excellence organizational wealth creation”,
Journal of Management Development, Vol. 23, No. (6), pp. 518 - 550
[10] Arash Shahin (2009), Growth of the service sector: a demand for the use of quality
improvement techniques to increase service quality, The Third International Conference on
Quality Management, University of Newcastle
[11] Indian Journal of Commerce & Management Studies
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A STUDY OF OPINION OF COLLEGE TEACHERS’
TOWARDS CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM
AFFILIATED TO GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
DR. ROHINI P. TRIVEDI
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (PG), AHMEDABAD
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
INTRODUCTION
Change is the continuous process or education is also changes accordingly. Time to time education system is
changes and with these changes the teaching methodology or evaluation system is also changed.
Gujarat University has also introduced new Choice Based Credit System to pace with the changing scenario
of education and the world. It is not necessary that the change is always good, effective or beneficial. The
present study was carried out to know the opinion of college teachers especially commerce, arts and
science colleges affiliate to Gujarat university about the Choice Based Credit System.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To study opinion of college teachers towards Choice Based Credit System.
2. To study effect of educational stream on opinion of college teachers towards Choice Based Credit
System.
HYPOTHESIS
Ho1. There is no significant difference between mean scores of opinion of science and Arts college teachers
towards Choice Based Credit System.
Ho2. There is no significant difference between mean scores of opinion of Arts and Commerce college
teachers towards Choice Based Credit System.
Ho3. There is no significant difference between mean scores of opinion of Commerce and Science college
teachers towards Choice Based Credit System.
CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM
It is an instructional package developed to suit the needs of students to keep pace with the development in
higher education and the quality assurance expected of it in the light of liberalization and globalization in
higher education.
OPINION TOWARDS CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM
In the present study the obtained score by college teachers in opinionnaire for Choice Based Credit System
was considered as opinion towards Choice Based Credit System.
COLLEGE TEACHERS
In the study the teachers teaching at graduate level of Commerce, Arts and Science colleges affiliated to
Gujarat University was considered as college teachers.
VARIABLES
Independent Variables
Educational Stream/College type: Science, Commerce, Arts
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Opinion of College Teachers
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POPULATION AND SAMPLE
The study was about the opinion of college teachers so all the college teachers of graduate level college of
Ahmedabad city was the population. Researcher has selected graduate level colleges by stratified random
sampling technique and 18 male and 18 female college teachers from Arts college, 16 female and 20 male
college teachers from Commerce college and 13 female and23 male college teachers were selected by cluster
sampling. Thus, total 108 college teachers of graduate level were selected by stratified random cluster
sampling method.
METHOD
In this study opinions were taken about the Choice Based Credit System so survey method was used.
TOOL
Standardized opinionnaire for Choice Based Credit System was used for data collection. It reliability
by test re - test was 0.81 and 0.78 by split – half method and validity is 0.89. There were total 67 items in
which 30 are positive and 37 were negative.
DATA COLLECTION
Data were collected from the college teachers from the colleges selected in sample.
N
108
X
189.26
S
36
M
191.94
Q
165.21
Q3
212.83
Q
23.31
Differences
0.33
Kurtosis
0.24
According to table – 1, null hypothesis were tested and interpretation is as following.
1. In context of Science and Arts college teachers’ opinion the calculated t – value was 2.27 and that
significant at 0.01 level. So it means there is significant difference between opinion of science and
college teachers towards Choice Based Credit System.
2. In context of Arts and Commerce college teachers’ opinion the calculated t- value was 2.27 and that
not significant at any level that means there is significant difference between opinion of Arts
Commerce college teachers towards Choice Based Credit System.
3. In context of Commerce and Science college teachers the calculated t- value was
was
arts
was
and
2.27 and that is significant at 0.01 level it means there is significant difference between opinion of
commerce and science college teachers towards Choice Based Credit System.
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
1. Opinion of college teachers of Arts college towards Choice Based Credit System were superior the
Science college teachers.
2. Opinion of Arts and Commerce college teachers towards Choice Based Credit System were equal.
3. Opinion of Science College teachers were superior then the Commerce college teachers.
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REFERENCE
1. www.bdu.ac.in
2. Agrwal J.C. (1966). Educational Research and Introduction. Arya Book Depot.
3. www.gujarat.university.org.in
4. Dr.Savliya.Bipin (3
rd
June 2011).Published Article in AdityaKiran, Kshiti Publication, Ahmedabad.
RISH MANAGEMENT IN BANKS
DR. DAKSHA PRATAPSINH CHAUHAN
PROFESSOR, HEAD & DEAN,DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRTION
SAURASHTRA UNIVERSITY- RAJKOT
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: MANAGEMENT
Banking is the business of money where high risks are involved. Regulation and globalization have introduced
few types of risks. Risk may be defined as an exposure to a transaction with loss, which occurs with some
probability and which can be expected, measured and minimized. An element of risk is inherent in the banking
operations. Banks have to manage and balance risks.
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MAJOR TYPES OF BANK’S RISKS
The banking system faces different types of risks. The Risk Profile Templates designed by the Reserve Bank of
India classifies risks in the key areas of a bank’s functioning into two broad categories as under:
MAJOR TYPES OF BANK’S RISKS
Business Risk
 Credit Risk
 Market Risk
 Settlement Risk
 Liquidity Risk
 Operational Risk
 Regulatory Risk
 Legal Risk
Control Risk
 Internal Control
 Organization
 Management
 Compliance
laws and
regulations
WHAT IS RISK MANAGEMENT?
Risk management is the practice of defining the risk level an institution desires, identifying the risk level the
institution has and using derivatives and such other financial instruments to control and adjust the level of risk
that the institution is expected to bear.
THE OBJECTIVES OF RISK MANAGEMENT:
The goals set for banks for risk management by the regulatory authorities may be summed up as follows:
To impose capital adequacy norms keeping in view the risk banks are required to take as the
competitive market demands.
To level the competitive field of banks by setting common benchmarks for all banks.
To control and monitor ‘systemic risk’ that may arise due to failure of the whole banking system.
To develop and prescribe appropriate business and supervisory practices to sustain risks taken by
banks under market commands.
To protect the interest of depositors and other stakeholders of banks.
It would be interesting to know in what way the need to develop some regulatory framework was thought of.
The risk that arose due to time difference in settlement of foreign exchange payments known as ‘Herstatt Risk’
compelled monetary authorities to consider the need to develop some regulatory framework for banks. To
minimize such risk arising out of The Herstatt Accident that occurred in June 1974, the G-10 (now called G-13)
was compelled to sit down to form the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) towards the end of
1974.
THE BASEL COMMITTEE
In order to have uniform standards internationally among banks, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
formed a committee known as Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS). It established by the Central
Bank Governors of the group of 10 countries i.e. G-10 at the end of 1974. viz. (Belgium, Canada, France,
Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States). The
Basel committee promotes and monitors principles of banking supervision.
BASEL – I
In July 1988, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published the document titled “International
Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards”, which is known as Basel Capital Accord or
Basel-I. The accord represented a major break-through in the international concerning capital adequacy. The
Accord primarily focused on credit risk i.e. the risk of counter party failure.
BASEL – II
In June 1999, the committee had initiated the process of reviewing the Accord and making it more
comprehensive and risk-based. Accordingly, the committee finalized Based-II Accord and released the same on
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June 26, 2004. It stipulates risk-sensitive capital charge for Credit Risk and Operational Risk. Basel-II
requirements drive the banks to improve methods for measuring and managing credit, market and operational
risk.
 Research Methodology:
The study is based mainly on primary data and supported by secondary data. The primary data is
collected from the managers with the help of questionnaires to evaluate the risk management practices in
banks and extent of BASEL-II implementation in banks.
For this purpose, the researcher has prepared a structured questionnaire asking questions or
statements regarding –
A.
1)
2)
3)
4)
CREDIT RISK ASSESSMENT SYSTEM
B.
C.
D.
OPERATIONAL RISK ASSESSMEMT SYSTEM
Financial Risk Parameters
Business Risk Parameters
Managerial Risk Parameters
Industrial Risk Parameters
SUPERVISORY REVIEW PROCESS
DIFFERENT POLICIES
 Selection Of The Sample :
With the help of random sampling method the selection has been made from public sector, private sector &
cooperative banks. The researcher has collected the data with five point scaling technique and it was tabulated
according to the need of the study. The researcher has got responses from 37 managers of the different
branches of different banks as under:
 Responses from the Managers in Banking Groups :
The following table indicates that out of 37 respondents, 25 respondents are from nationalized banks, 7 are
from private banks and 5 respondents are from cooperative banks.
SECTOR WISE RESPONSES FROM BRANCHES OF DIFFERENT BANKS
Nationalized Banks
Private Banks
Cooperative Banks
Name of the Bank
No.
Name of the Bank
No.
Name of the Bank
No.
Bank of Baroda
Bank of India
Central Bank of India
Corporation Bank
Syndicate Bank
Dena Bank
Indian Overseas Bank
India Bank
Punjab National Bank
State Bank Of India
2
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
Development Credit Bank
Indusland Bank
Kotak Mahindra Bank
ICICI Bank
HDFC Bank
UTI Bank
Bank of Rajasthan
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
RNSB
Jeeven Comm.
The Coop. Bank of Rajkot
RCC Bank
Rajkot Dist.Coop. Bank
1
1
1
1
1
TOTAL
7
TOTAL
5
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State Bank Of Saurashtra
Union Bank of India
Vijaya Bank
Punjab & Sind Bank
Bank Of Maharasthra
Allahabad Bank
Oriental Bank of Commerce
United Bank of India
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
TOTAL
25
 ANALYSIS OF CREDIT RISK ASSESSMENT SYSTEM :
For the purpose of analyzing the credit risk involved in the credit application each bank has designed
its own ‘CREDIT RATING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM’ (CRA). This CRA model is classified into different heads
consisting various parameters under each head. Each parameter carries specific score and the minimum score
is specified for each head that must be fulfilled. The decision to sanction the credit is based on the total of such
scores.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING FOR THE GROUP OF ALL BANKS:
F-TEST (TWO-WAY ANOVA):
Null Hypothesis (H0):
“There is no significant difference in agreement level of respondents and various types of credit risk
parameters”
Alternative Hypothesis (H1):
“There is significant difference in agreement level of respondents and various types of credit risk
parameters”
Level of Significance: 5 per cent
TWO-WAY ANOVA TABLE
(Level of Agreement and Financial Risk & Risk Mitigation)
Source of
Variance
Sum of
Squares
Degree of
Freedom
Mean
Square
F – Ratio
Calculated
Tabulated
Between Groups
Within Groups
Residual
Total
602121.6
93122.5
121682
816926.1
4
1
4
9
150530.4
93122.5
304205
-
0.49
0.31
-
6.39
5.99
-
Above table indicates the F- calculation for the data regarding agreement level of respondents (within
groups) and various types of risks parameters(between groups). Here, the calculated value in both the case is
lower than the table value. So, the Null Hypothesis is accepted which indicates that there is no significant
difference in the level of agreement of respondents from various banks regarding various types of financial risk
parameters and risk mitigation parameters.
 ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT SYSTEM:
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Operational risk policy framework is now a prerequisite for all scheduled commercial banks and in
most of the banks the same has been completed and circulated to the branch level also for the purpose of
early implementation.
Respondents’ views regarding Extent of Effect of Operational Risk
EXTENT OF EFFECT OF OPERATIONAL RISK
Operational Risk Components
Responses
NO.
%
1. Internal Process and System Related
27
72.97
2. People Related
9
24.32
3. Due to External Factors
6
16.22
4. Legal Non-compliance
9
24.32
BASEL – II has classified the operational risk into four major categories as shown in the table. The above table
represents the respondents’ views about the operational risk which is more affecting the functioning of a bank.
Majority of the respondents that is 72.97% have agreed that the Internal Process and System Related Risk is
the most affecting one to the functioning of the bank. 24.32% respondents believe that People Related Risk
and Legal Non-compliance Risk affect the bank’s operations whereas only 16.22% that is only 6 respondents
have given the priority to the risk due to External Factors.
RESPONSES OF MANAGERS REGARDING OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS
Responses
Parameters
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Operational Risk Policy
Frequent meetings of operational risk committee
Regular assessment of operational risk components
Risk Mitigants
Manual of Instructions
Arrangement of staff skilling/reskilling
Specific reward/punishment
Public Disclosure of Operational Risk Management
Yes
No
Total
No.
%
No.
%
33
31
35
33
36
36
35
20
89.19
83.78
94.59
89.19
97.30
97.30
94.59
54.05
4
6
2
4
1
1
2
17
10.81
16.22
5.41
10.81
2.70
2.70
5.41
45.95
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37
37
37
37
37
37
37
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OPERATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT SYSTEM
120.00
1. Operational Risk Policy
100.00
94.59
AGREEMENT LEVEL
89.19
2. Frequent meetings of
operational risk committee
97.30 97.30 94.59
89.19
83.78
3. Regular assessment of
operationa risk components
80.00
4. Risk Mitigants
60.00
54.05
5. Manual of Instructions
40.00
6. Arrangement of staff
skilling/reskilling
20.00
7. Specific reward/punishment
0.00
8. Public Disclosure of
Operational Risk Management
PARAMETERS
The above table and chart show the agreement as well as disagreement level of the respondents on the
various operational risk management components. 89.19% respondents have said that their banks have
designed the operational risk policy. The chart reveals that almost all the parameters are being considered by
all the banks to a high extent. The highest agreement is regarding the manual of instructions and arrangement
for staff skilling/reskilling that is 97.3%. Where as the lowest agreement is there for the public disclosure of
operational risk components that is 54.05%.
So, almost all the sampled banks have well designed operational risk assessment and management
framework that may strengthen the efficient functioning of banks if properly implemented.
 SUPERVISORY RIVIEW PROCESS
Majority of the respondents that is 97.3% have said that their bank has developed an internal process
for assessing capital adequacy and also bank’s processes and strategies are regularly reviewed by supervisors.
However, the frequency of such review differs from bank to bank.
The following table indicates the respondents’ views regarding the mode of review generally followed
in the banks.
RESPONDENTS' VIEWS REGARDING MODE OF REVIEW
Mode of Review
Responses
NO.
%
1. On-Site Inspection
28
75.68
2. Off-Site Inspection
16
43.24
3. Discussion with Bank's Management
23
62.16
4. Review of the work of External Auditor
23
62.16
5. Periodic Reporting
29
78.38
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The highest agreement level is for the periodic reporting that is 78.38% and then on the on-site inspection that
is 75.68% as shown in the above table. Other modes of review are also used in the banks having the least
weightage of the off-site inspection 43.24% compared to other modes of review. In most of the banks on line
reporting is made on daily basis.
 CONCLUSION
The Indian economy is booming on the back of strong economic policies and a healthy regulatory regime. The
BASEL-II Accord attempts to put in place sound framework of measuring and quantifying the risks associated
with banking operations. The Risk Management scenario will strengthen owing to the liberalization, regulation
and integration with global market. This would be adding depth and dimension to the banking risks. The
quantification and accounting of various risks would result in a more robust risk management system in the
industry. As the risks are correlated, exposure to one risk may lead to another risk, therefore, management of
risks in a proactive, efficient and integrated manner will be the strength of the successful banks.
India has one of the strongest banking systems as compared to many developing countries, but has to
go a long way in technology dissemination and risk management. The precondition for BASEL – II
implementation is that there should be a suitably developed national accounting and auditing standards and
framework, which are in line with the best international practices.
 REFERENCES
1)
Dr. Hamila Sadia Rizvi & R. Soundara Rajan, “Basel II and Risk Management”, The Chartered Accountant,
August,2006, p.254
2) S.K.Bagchi, “BASEL II : Operational Risk Management need for a structured operational risk policy in
banks”, The Management Accountant – ICWA, January, 2005, p.32
3) Aashika Agarwal & Sudhir Siroy, “Future of Risk Management in Indian Banking Industry”
4) S.K.Bagchi, “Building Blocks of Credit Risk Management in Commercial Banks – Influence of BASEL – II”,
Professional Banker, ICFAI University Press, January,2006, p.21
5) SN Ghosal, “Risk Management Techniques and Application in Banking Under Basel II Accord”,
Professional Banker, April,2006, p.49
6) Avijit Mandal, “Migration to BASEL–II : An Improvement over BASEL–I”, Rakshitra – Collection of Articles,
CCIL Publication, October 20,2006, p.581
7) Pathak Bharati V., Indian Financial System, Delhi, Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd., 2004
8) http://www.rbi.org.in
IBA BULLETIN SPECIAL ISSUE, JANUARY,2004
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RURAL DEVELOPMENT : IS IT THE
PERSPECTIVE IN THE INDIAN
PLANNING ?
Dr. A.B. Fafalei
2
Miss.Sonali H. Shah1
Assistant Professor, C.P.Patel&F.H.Shah Commerce College, Anand.
Assistant Professor, ShriP.M.Patel Institute Of Business Administration Anand
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: COMMERCE
ABSTRACT:
Over the past half a century of Indian economic planning, rural development has been remained as a secondary
development perspective. It is echoed in its various policies, measures, strategies etc. adopted since the
independence. The data on expenditure allotted on various development heads during five year plans, have
supported this observation. The endeavors have been centralized to provide services to the people who live in
rural areas, rather than creating physical infrastructure which is the pre requisite for development in these
areas.The efforts, if any ,are made in this direction, are a part of the overall development measures that are
basically designed for promoting urban development in the country.
INTRODUCTION
Indian planners have envisaged various strategies for development, echoed in policies ,plans ,
measures, operations, approaches etc. These endeavors are made by taking into account the liabilities and
assets presumed at the time of India’s independence. The features noticed were high volume of population ,
underdeveloped and unutilized resources , dominance of agriculture , dire poverty, illiteracy , lack of business
opportunities , undeveloped industrial sector , disintegrated trade and commerce, etc. It was the challenge as
how to attend these issues simultaneously through a well-designed development plan? Consequently, Five
Year Planning system is used to address these problems and their probable solutions. The present article
attempts to examine a status of rural development perspective in Indian Planning carried out since the period
of independence. It makes an endeavor to assess the rationale of the perspective, if any ,in the Indian planning
by using a secondary data on the plan efforts carried out hitherto by the Government.
A BRIEF REVIEW OF INDIAN PLANNING
The initial economic planning was posed with the three immediate challengesfor the country namely influx of
refugees, sever food shortage and mounting inflation. The country was required to correct a disequilibrium in
the economy caused by the Second World War and partition of the country. Consequently, the targets of the
First Five Year Plan were rehabilitation of refugees , rapid agricultural development ,self- sufficiency in food ,
control of inflation and attempt for all-round balanced
development. The plan was a great success in terms of the objectives achieved but a limited success found in
terms of price level. The plan period was partly favored by climatic conditions that has helped increase
agricultural production in the country . During this period the perspective of rural development was indirectly
adopted by giving emphasis on agriculture which is an important component of rural development.
Since the country had passed a marginal post –independence period , it began to concentrate on
creating an atmosphere of of economic stability, carried forward agricultural perspective and an ambition of a
fall in price level during the Second Five Year Plan.
The success of First Five year Plan had increased the expectations of the Second Plan.However ,it was
not succeeded due to an actuate shortage of Foreign Exchange money .The Planning Commission had to curtail
irrelevant targets. During this plan rural development received a jerk, following a limited success in the Second
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Plan. This Plan, one can presume as a limited success in the perspective. The Third Five Year Plan ,being
targeted for “Self –reliance” or “Self –generating economy”, had assigned a lower priority to agriculture but
had given the importance but had laid emphasize ion basic industries. It seems that there was a shift of focus
from rural development to industries during the plan. The country had faced two wars : China (1962) and
Pakistan (1965) ,had changed the perspective from development to defense.
The failure of the Third Plan led to the suspension and postponement of the Forth Five Year Olan, had instead
concentrated on forming three Annual Plans (1966-67,1967-68,1968,69). This is also knownas “Plan Holiday”.
These three plans witnessed unprecedented events in India’spolitical sector.
During this plan period , the country’s development perspective was confused as to what way it
should go? There looked to be no clear-cut insistenceon rural development. The draft outline of the forth Five
Year Plan was prepared during the three Annual Plans , had taught the lesion to the Indian planning.This plan
had two objectives:Growth with stability and progressive achievement of self- reliance. The plan had envisaged
5.5 percent rate of growth in the National Income and the provision of the National minimum for weaker
sections. The first two years were quit promising as a great success in food grain production and corresponding
rise in industrial production.However, next three years ( 1971-71,1972-73,1973-74),proved to be a great
disappointment with consecutive failure of monsoon, declined in food production. The reduction in industrial
production due to industrial unrest, power breakdowns, transport bottlenecks etc.In this plan period rural
development received the attention through creating economic infrastructure by emphasizing’ the National
Minimum for weaker sections’.
When the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-75) was introduced, the country had caught in the doldrums in
series of crisis : a run away inflation ,Emergency declared .The focus of the plan was shifted from the
implementation of the plan targets to the Prime Minister’s 20-Points Program. Subsequently, ascendance of
the non-conventional Government to the power , had changed the rationale of the assumption of the early
every Government at the centre and had declined the importance of the Planning Commission. In these
circumstances, the perspective of rural development had received a set back .
The Sixth Five Year Plan( 1978-79) was originally introduced by the non-conventional Government
which did not survive for the longer period ,was replaced by the newly formed Government. The plan
introduced by this Government is known as 1980-85 plan.During this Five Year Plan , the country had made
all-round progress and most of the target fixed were achieved. However during the last year of the plan period
, there was a sever famine in many parts of the country, this had declined agricultural output which was less
than the previous year.
The Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990) was on the growth in food grain production, the increase of
employment opportunities and raising productivity. In brief this plan had focused on food, work and
productivity.The plan proved to be a great success forIndian economy, recorded 6 % growth against the
targeted 7 % growth. During this plan period ,ruraldevelopment perspective received a direct the importance
as agriculture contributed substantially to economic development.
The Eighth Five Year plan (1990-95) was the stage when the Indian economy had entered into economic
liberalization. There was no emphasis on specific sector. All sectors were opened up and were assigned to
market forces. The state was asked to play a role of observer. The market forces started to use their
potentialfrom urban centers to rural areas.
The approach to this plan was approved in September 1989 and the plan was introduced in April
1990. However , the country at the center had reached politically transaction stage. There was a constant
efforts to reconstruct the Planning Commission and witnessed a series of versions of the approach to this plan
(1992-197). When the plan was approved the country had passed through a sever economic crisis vize,BOP
crisis, rising debt burden etc. The focus was shifted from rural development to the over all economic
development and concentration on rural development. In these circumstances the perspective of rural
development was blissfully forgotten and had become a part of the overall development.
The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) was prepared by the united front government and realized in
March 1998. The Ninth plan in the context of following objectives: Priority to agriculture and rural
development with the view to generating adequate productive employment, ensuring food and nutritional
security for all includes vulnerable sections of the society, provision of drinking water, primary health care,
primary education, shelter etc. Thus, this plan was targeted to rural development. The strategy evolved was to
strengthen the private sector for reaching it’s full potential in terms of productions, job creation and rising
income level of the society.In other words, the reliance was more on market forces but was required to
perform under the environment of competition and free market. However, the state’s role was decided as
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observer.In this manner,the earlier role was to make an indirect investment and made now a more
involvement for rural development by the state ,was evident.
Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) was prepared against the backdrop of high expectations arising out the
earlier plans These ambitions were: the target of 8.00 percent growth rate in GDP ,decline of povertyby 5.00
percent, gainful employment, infant mortality rate 45 per 1000 living births by 2007 and 28 per 1000 births by
2012. All villages to have access to potable water by 2012.Though , it looked to bedifficult in view of earlier
plans . The assumptions like continuous full capacity utilizationis not possible as it was found fluctuated. In the
Eighth plan ,it was increased and than in the Ninth Plan it was declined. There were doubts regarding the
target of employment . The reason being , at the GDP growth rate of 8 percent , the targeted employment was
30 million may not be achievable as it depends upon the performance of agriculture and manufacturing
sectors . It so happened that in the Ninth Planthe public sector allocation of expenditure was 21.4 percent
even though the GDP growth rate was not achieved , while in the present referred plan the extent of this
expenditure was at 20 percent , is looked to be difficult in achieving the targeted growth rate as well as
employment volume. Further , the investment by private sector is allowed in agriculture ,irrigation etc.
indicate that this sector would be inclined to invest in water extracting technology that would not serve the
purpose .
TRENDS IN GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Total expenditure allotted for the rural development indicates the importance of the parameter in
the national perspective and the State’s concern in the economic planning. The data available and analyzed
exhibit , Government expenditure allotted on agriculture , an important component for rural development is
declined from the period of Sixth Plan to the Eleventh Plan period. It was 6.1 percent in former was reduced
and had come to 3.7Percent. It signifies that as the process of economic liberalization is implemented , the
agriculture is gradually left to market forces. Also the Government has failed in achieving the desired results in
view of the national socio-economic objectives. The gradual increase in total expenditure on rural
development implies that the State alone is looked to be incapable to promote rural development in the
country but the task may be possibly materialized with the involvement of market forces.
The data , further guides that the large extant of allotment of the expenditure on social services
rather than on agriculture and rural development, show that the State or the Government had more
concentrated on services provided to rural areas , rather than creating physical infrastructure which is the prerequisite for the development in rural areas. It was increased from 14.6 percent in the Sixth Plan to 30.2
percent in the Eleventh Plan.
The Government had only centralized the attention only the one component i.e. agriculture, the
other ways like industry, trade, commerce , services etc. were not seriously attended . Though , they might be
perhaps used , they are thought to be a supportive measures to urban development. One may notice that the
total expenditure for the infrastructure in agriculture like irrigation is also declined over theplan period.
Plan Outlay (Percentage Distribution)
Five Year Plans
Heads
of Sixth
Seventh
Annual
Annual
Eight
Ninth
Tenth
Elevent
Develoment
Plan
Plan
Plan
Plan
Plan
Plan
plan
h Plan
(1980- (1985(1990-91) (1991(1992(1997(2002(200785)
90)
92
97)
2002)
07)
08,2008
-09,
1.Agricultural&
6.1
5.3
5.8
5.9
5.0
4.9
3.9
3.7
2009Allied Activities
10)
2.Rural
6.4
5.4
7.1
6.4
8.0
8.7
8.0
8.3
Development
3. Special Area
Programme
1.4
1.6
1.7
1.6
0.4
0.4
1.4
0.7
4. Social services
14.6
15.9
16.5
15.9
21.2
21.3
22.8
30.2
a. Education
b.Medical& Public
health
2.7
4.0
4.0
1.8
4.0
1.4
5.0
1.7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
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c.Family welfare
1.3
1.6
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0.2
NA
NA
NA
d.Housing
1.1
1.6
0.9
2.7
NA
NA
NA
e.
Urban
development
f.Other Services
1.1
1.3
1.2
1.7
NA
NA
NA
7.0
6.5
6.8
NA
NA
NA
5.
Total
(All
Heads)
6. Irrigation &
Flood Control
6.1
100.00
10.00
Source: Economic Survey, Statistical Outline
EVOLUTION AND SUMMERY
The Indian state has neither attempted rural development as a perspective , as efficiently as,it was required to
be attended with its relevant measures nor it has allowed the market forces to play their role in rural areas
during the pre-liberalization period . It happened because of basic principles of socialistic planning and the
Indian constitution. From the view point of economic planningand employment generation, the State has
motivated rural people to depend upon the Government oriented recruitment programs based on caste and
creed, have confused the rural population and left it in the dilemma .These programs have generated
unproductive employment and imbalance in rural and urban areas.
It was only , after economic liberalization ,that market forces are allowed to perform in the Indian
development perspective and withdrawing the controlled state endeavor in the field of creating phisycal
infrastructure in rural areas , have started showingthe desired results in rural development in India. A large
number of rural youth have diverted their attention from the state sponsored employment programsto
business oriented alternatives created by market forces , has started changing the face nad scope of rural
development in the country.
Though, it may be noted that the allotment of total expenditure under different plans , has
proportionately increased on rural development the rate of allocation of the expenditure on social services is
again far larger than rural development. It signified two points: One is that when market enters indirectly in to
rural areas and if social services are provided in the areas , it plays a speedy role to bring more economic
welfare in rural areasThe Government planning expenditure alone is not effective but the expenditure with
market access may prove as an effective alternative.
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
(1)
The Government of India , Ministry of Finance, “Economic Survey”, various volumes.
(2)
TATA Services Ltd. “Statistical Outline of India” Dept. of Economics and Statistics, Bombay, Various
Volumes
(3)
Observer Research Foundation , India 2005,New Delhi.
Datta, Ruddarand Sundharam , K.P.M. “Indian Economy”S. Chand & Co. New Delhi, 2004.
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સૌરાષ્ટ્રમાાં ઔધોગિક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંિઠિત ક્ષેત્રોના
શ્રમમકોના પ્રશ્ર્નો અને પડકારોનો અભ્યાસ
પ્રો.આર. ડી સેંજલીયા
લેકચરર, કણસાગરા મહિલા કોલેજ રાજકોટ
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: ECONOMICS
પ્રસ્તાવના
કૉઈપણ દે શના અર્થકારણમાાં ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના ઉધોગો ઉત્પાદન, રોજગારી અને મ ૂડીસર્જનમાાં
મિત્વનો ભાગ ભજવે છે . તેમાય આર્ર્િક ર્વકાસની પ્રહિયામાાં માનવ શ્રમનો ઘણો જ મોટો હિસ્સો િોય છે
તેમ કિી શકાય. ભારત જેવા ર્વકાસ સાધતા દે શમાાં જયાાં મ ૂડીની અછત િોય, અને માનવ શ્રમની
ર્વપુલતા િોય, ત્યાાં આર્ર્િક ર્વકાસનુ ાં ચાલકબળ માનવશ્રમ છે . આ ચાલકબળ વડે અર્થકારણના જુદાાં
જુદાાં ક્ષેત્રોનો ર્વકાસ ર્ાય છે . જેમ જેમ આર્ર્િક ર્વકાસની પ્રહિયા આગળ વધે છે , તેમ-તેમ તે ર્વકાસની
પ્રહિયાના પહરબળ સમાન શ્રર્મકોની આર્ર્િક અને સામાજજક પહરસ્સ્ર્ર્તમાાં સુધારો ર્વો જોઈએ, એ રીતે
આર્ર્િક ર્વકાસના લાભો શ્રર્મકોને પણ મળવા જોઈએ. ભારતમાાં આયોજનના સમયમાાં ર્વર્વધક્ષેત્રનો
ર્વકાસ ર્યો છે . પરાં ત ુ આ ર્વકાસના લાભો મોટાભાગના શ્રર્મકો સુધી પિોંચી શકયા નર્ી. આર્ી
ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના શ્રર્મકોના પ્રશ્ર્નો અને પડકારોનો અભ્યાસ કરવા માટે
પ્રયત્ન કરે લ છે .
મિર્ષક
“સૌરાષ્ટ્રમાાં ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના શ્રર્મકોના પ્રશ્ર્નો અને પડકારોનો અભ્યાસ”
સમસ્યા કથન
આ અભ્યાસમાાં સૌરાષ્ટ્રમાાં ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના શ્રર્મકોના પ્રશ્ર્નો, પડકારો જાણવા અને
તેને દુર કરવા માટેના સુચનો કયાથ છે . જેમાાં શ્રર્મકો પાસે પ્રશ્ર્નાવલી દ્વારા તેના પ્રશ્ર્નો જાણવાનો પ્રયત્ન
કરવામાાં આવેલો છે . પ્રશ્ર્નાવલી દ્વારા પ્રાપ્ત ર્યેલી માહિતીને આધારે કોષ્ટ્ટકીકરણ, ર્વશ્ર્લેષણ, અને
આલેખ રજૂ કરવામાાં આવેલ છે . આ પ્રમાણેના પ્રશ્ર્નો તપાસવામાાં આવેલા છે .
1. શ્રર્મકો સગહિત છે કે નિી તે તપાસવુ.ાં
2. શ્રર્મકોનુ ાં જીવનધોરણનો અભ્યાસ કરવો..
3. શ્રર્મક કુાંટુાંબમાાં સ્ર્ળાાંતર અંગેના કારણો તપાસવા..
4. મોટાભાગના શ્રર્મકોની રોજગારી અને આવક પરની અસરો તપાસવી.
સાંિોધન અભ્યાસના હેતઓ
ાં
1. અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોની આર્ર્િક સ્સ્ર્ર્ત અંગેની માહિતી તપાસવી.
2.અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોના કામના િેત ુ ાં માટે સ્ર્ળાાંતરની માહિતી તપાસવી.
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3.અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોની કામની સ્સ્ર્ર્ત સાંબર્ાં ધત બાબતોનો અભ્યાસ કરવો.
4.અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોના શ્રમસગિન અંગેની િકીકત તપાસવી.
5.અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોના વેતન સાંબધ
ાં ી પ્રશ્ર્નો અંગેનો અભ્યાસ કરવો.
સાંિોધન અભ્યાસની પઠરકલ્પના
1. ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રમાાં અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોની સમસ્યા વધુ ગાંભીર િોય છે .
2. ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રમાાં અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોને આધુર્નકરણર્ી આર્ર્િક સ્સ્ર્ર્તમાાં ફેરફાર ર્યો
છે .
3. ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રમાાં અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોના આર્ર્િક ઉત્ર્ાનનો આધાર તેમના ધાંધા
ઉધોગના
ર્વકાસ પર છે .
અભ્યાસન ાં મહત્વ
ભારતમાાં ર્યેલ વસ્તી વધારા સામે રોજગારીની તકોમાાં તેટલો વધારો ર્યો નિી. શ્રર્મકોનુ ાં
પ્રમાણ ઝડપર્ી વધ્ુ ાં તેની સામે રોજગારીની તકોમાાં ઓછો વધારો ર્યો અને રોજગારીની તકો ર્ોડા
પ્રમાણમાાં વધી તે પણ મયાથહદત ર્વસ્તાર પુરતી જ વધી. ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રમાાં શ્રર્મકોની મિત્વની ભ ૂર્મકા
છે . વતથમાન સમયમાાં શ્રર્મકો સાર્ે સાંકળાયેલી બાબતો કામની સ્સ્ર્ર્ત, વેતન સાંબધ
ાં ી પ્રશ્ર્નો, વેતન
ર્સવાયની અન્ય.સવલતો. વગેરે પ્રશ્ર્નો તપાસવા અગત્યના િોવાર્ી ઉધોગપતીઓને અંને સરકારને આ
સાંશોધન ખુબ ઉપયોગી સાગબત ર્શે.
સાંિોધનનો પ્રકાર
સાંશોધનના મુખ્યત્વે ત્રણ પ્રકારો પાડવામાાંઆવે છે . જેમાાં મ ૂલગત, વ્યવિાહરક અને હિયાત્મક
સાંશોધનનો સમાવેશ ર્ાય છે . પ્રસ્તુત અબ્યાસ ર્સિંધધાર્તક જ્ઞાનનાાં વ્યાવિાહરક ઉપયોગ પર આધાહરત
છે . આ અભ્યાસ માટે સાંશોધનનો પ્રકાર વ્યવિાહરક ગણાવી શકાય.
અભ્યાસની મયાષ દાઓ
કોઈ પણ મનુષ્ટ્ય સાંપ ૂણથ િોતો નર્ી અને સાંશોધન મનુષ્ટ્ય દ્વારા કરવામાાં આવતુ ાં િોય છે . તેર્ી
તેમાાં પણ મયાથદાઓ રિેવાની જ આ મયાથદાને સ્વીકારીને જો સાંશોધન કરવામાાં આવે તો વધારે માાં
વધારે સારા પહરણામો પ્રાપ્ત ર્ઈ શકે. પ્રસ્તુત સાંશોધનમાાં પણ નીચે જણાવેલ મયાથદાઓ છે .
1.પ્રસ્તુત અભ્યાસમાાં માત્ર અસાંગહિત ઉધોગોનો જ સમાવેશ કરવામાાં આવેલ છે .
2.પ્રસ્તુત અભ્યાસમાાં અસાંગહિત ઉધોગોના શ્રર્મકોને કેન્રમાાં રાખવામાાં આવેલ છે .
3. પ્રસ્તુત અભ્યાસમાાં માત્ર અસાંગહિત ઉધોગોના શ્રર્મકોના કામની સ્સ્ર્ર્ત, વેતન સાંબધ
ાં ી પ્રશ્ર્નો,
વેતન ર્સવાયની અન્ય.સવલતો. વગેરે પ્રશ્ર્નોને કેન્રમાાં રાખવામાાં આવેલ છે
4. પ્રસ્તુત અભ્યાસ સૌરાષ્ટ્રમાાં ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના શ્રર્મકોને પ ૂરતો મયાથદીત
રાખવામાાં આવેલ છે .
વ્યાપમવશ્ર્વ
પ્રયોગ માટેનો નમ ૂનો જે
સમુિમાાંર્ી પસદાં કરવામાાં આવે તે પાત્રોનો મ ૂળભ ૂત સમ ૂિ એટલે
વ્યાપર્વશ્ર્વ, સમગ્ર વ્યાપર્વશ્ર્વને પ્રયોગનાાં પાત્ર તરીકે સ્વીકારવુ ાં પ્રયોજક માટે સિજ મુશ્કેલી ઉભી કરે
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છે . પહરણામે પ્રયોજક દ્વારા યોગ્ય પસાંદગી પધધર્તનાાં આધારે વ્યાપર્વશ્ર્વનાાં તમામ લક્ષણોનુ ાં
પ્રતીનીર્ધત્વ કરતો નમ ૂનો પસાંદ કરવામાાં આવેલ છે .તેને વ્યાપર્વશ્ર્વ એકરૂપ સ્વીકારીને નમ ૂનાના પાત્રો
આધાહરત માહિતી મેળવવામાાં આવેલ છે .
પ્રસ્તુત અભ્યાસમાાં
સૌરાષ્ટ્રમાાં ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના શ્રર્મકોના પ્રશ્ર્નો અને
ઉકેલોના સ ૂચનોનો અભ્યાસ કરી વ્યાપર્વશ્ર્વમાાં સમાવેશ કરે લો છે .
સાંિોધન પધ્ધમત
સાંિોધન અભ્યાસની પધ્ધમતઓ
પ્રવતથમાન સાંશોધન અભ્યાસ ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના શ્રર્મકોના પ્રશ્ર્નો અને
પડકારોનો અભ્યાસ સૌરાષ્ટ્રના સાંદભથમાાં એક અભ્યાસ અંતગથત જરૂરી માહિતી મેળવવા માટે માહિતીના
બાંને સ્ત્રોત પ્રાર્ર્મક માહિતી સ્ત્રોત અને ગૌણ માહિતી ના સ્ત્રોતનો ઉપયોગ કરવામાાં આવ્યો છે .
પ્રાથમમક માઠહતીના સ્ત્રોત
પ્રસ્તુત સાંશોધનમાાં સૌરાષ્ટ્રમાાં ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના મજૂરોના પ્રશ્ર્નો અને
પડકારોનો અભ્યાસ અંતગથત અભ્યાસમાાં કેટલીક બાબતો એવી છે કે જેના માટે પ્રાર્ર્મક માહિતીનાાં
સ્ત્રોતનો ઉપયોગ કરવો આવશ્યક છે . જે અંતગથત સાંશોધકે અભ્યાસને અનુરૂપ ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્ર સાર્ે
જોડાયેલા ર્વર્વધ તજજ્ઞો પાસેર્ી તેમનાાં માંતવ્યો પ્રાર્ર્મક માહિતીના સ્વરૂપમાાં મેળવવામાાં આવેલ છે .
તેર્ી આ સાંશોધન અભ્યાસને પ ૂરક માહિતીનુ ાં પ્રાપ્પ્ત સ્ર્ાન પ્રાર્ર્મક માહિતી છે . જે મેળવવા માટે
સાંશોધન અભ્યાસને અનુરૂપ તૈયાર કરે લ પ્રશ્ર્નાવલી, રૂબરૂ મુલાકાત, ચચાથ, અને ર્નરીક્ષણ દ્વારા મળતી
માહિતીની નોંધ કરી અભ્યાસમાાં જરૂર મુજબ જે તે કક્ષાએ ઉપયોગ કરવામાાં આવેલ છે .
મનદિષ એકમની પસાંદિી
સાંશોધન અભ્યાસ માટેની જરૂરી પ્રાર્ર્મક સ્વરૂપને મહિતી સમગ્ર અભ્યાસ ક્ષેત્રના બધા જ
શ્રર્મકો પાસેર્ી મેળવવી સમય, શસ્તત અને ખચથની રીતે મુશ્કેલ જણાતા સાંશોધન અભ્યાસ અંતગથત
જુદાાં જુદાાં સૌરાષ્ટ્રના ઔધોગગક ક્ષેત્રના અસાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રોના 350 શ્રર્મકો પસાંદ કરે લ છે .જે ર્નદશથ પસાંદગી
સવેક્ષણ પધધતી મારફત કરવામાાં આવેલ છે .
િૌણ માઠહતીના સ્ત્રોત
પ્રસ્તુત સાંશોધન અભ્યાસમાાં સાંશોધક માટે કેટલીક સાંશોધનને અનુરૂપ પ્રારાં ગભક અને મુખ્ય
માહિતીની આવશ્યકતા પડે છે . આ માટે અભ્યાસ અંતગથત સૌરાષ્ટ્રમાાં આવતા જજલ્લા ઉધોગ કેન્ર અને
સાંલગ્ન ર્વભાગોમાાંર્ી માહિતી મેળવવામાાં આવેલ છે . આ ઉપરાાંત અભ્યાસ સાર્ે ર્વર્વધ પ્રકાશનો,
પ ૂસ્તકો, એમ.ફીલ તર્ા પી.એચ.ડી. ના અભ્યાસ લેખો, રાજય સરકાર અને કેબ્ર સરકારના અિેવાલો,
સેન્સસ, ર્વર્વધ સાંસ્ર્ાની લાઈબ્રેરીઓ, ઈન્ટરનેટન પરની જુદી જુદી વેબસાઈડોનો ઉપયોગ કરવામાાં
આવેલ છે .
માહિતીનુ ાં વગીકરણ અને ર્વશ્ર્લેષણ
ટકાવારી પધ્ધમત
ગૌણ માહિતી દ્વારા પ્રાપ્ત ર્યેલ જુદી જુદી ચલરાશીની આંકડાકીય માહિતીને આધારે
ચલરાશીના પ્રમાણમાાં ર્યેલ વધારા ઘટાડાને ટકાવારી પધધર્ત પ્રમાણે તપાસવામાાં આવેલ છે .
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કોષ્ટ્ટકીકરણ
સરે રાશ, ટકાવારી અને કુલ પ્રાપ્ત ર્યેલ આંકડાનુ ાં કોષ્ટ્ટકીકરણ કરી અભ્યાસમાાં તેનો ઉપયોગ
ૂ માાં રજુ કરવામાાં આવેલ છે .
કરવામાાં આવેલ છે . કોષ્ટ્ટકીકરણ દ્વારા માહિતીને સ્પષ્ટ્ટ રીતે અને ટાંક
આલેખ
ગૌણ માહિતીનાાં મળે લ આંકડાકીય માહિતીનાાં આધારે જે તે પ્રશ્ર્નોનાાં ઉત્તરદાતાના અગભપ્રાયોના
આધારે અન્યના અગભપ્રાયો સાર્ે સરખામણી કરવા માટે આલેખ પધધર્તનો ઉપયોગ કરવામાાં આવેલ
છે . જેના દ્વારા કોષ્ટ્ટકને સરળતાર્ી સમજી શકાય છે .
આ ઉપરાાંત જરૂર જણાય ત્યાાં સિસબાંધ, F-કસોટી, t-કસોટી, z-કસોટી, તેમજ આંકડાશાસ્ત્રીય અને
ગાગણર્તક પધધર્તઓનો ર્વશ્ર્લેષણ માટે ઉપયોગ કરવામાાં આવેલ છે . ર્વશ્ર્લેષણ ના આધારે મળતા
પહરણામોનુ ાં અર્થઘટન કરીને મળતા તારણો તારવવામાાં આવેલ છે .
સાંિોધનના મખ્ય તારણો
1. શ્રર્મકો અસગહિત જોવા મળે છે તેઓનુ ાં પ્રાદે ર્શક, રાજય કે રાષ્ટ્રીય કક્ષાએ કોઈ સાંગિન
જોવા
મળતુ ાં નર્ી. પહરણામે સાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રના શ્રર્મકોને પ્રાપ્ત ર્તા લાભો પ્રાપ્ત ર્યા નર્ી.
2. કાયદા પ્રમાણે કામના કલાકો કરતાાં વધુ કલાકો કામ લેવામાાં આવે છે .
3. મોટા ભાગના શ્રર્મક કુાંટુાંબમાાં મુખ્ય કમાનાર પોતે િોવાર્ી કુટુાંબીજનો સાર્ે સ્ર્ળાાંતર કરે લ
જોવા
મળે લ છે .
4. મોટાભાગના શ્રર્મકો ગબનાનુભવી અને અકુશળ િોવાર્ી રોજગારી અને આવક પર પ્રર્તકુળ
અસર પડે છે .
અભ્યાસના આધારે સ ૂચનો
1. શ્રર્મકોને કામના સ્ર્ળે કામ અંગેની માલીકો દ્વારા તાલીમ આપવાની વ્યવસ્ર્ા કરવી
જોઈએ.
2. શ્રર્મકોને કામના સમયે હરશેષ, આધુર્નક ઓજારો અને ર્વર્શષ્ટ્ટ પ્રકારના કામને અનુરૂપ
ગણવેશ
આપવા જોઈએ.
3. કામના સ્ર્ળે માલીકોનુ ાં વતથન અને વ્યવિાર સુયોગ્ય િોવા જોઈએ.
4. શ્રર્મકોના સ ૂચનો સાભળીને યોગ્ય લાગે તો માગલકોએ તેનો અમલ કરવો જોઈએ.
5. શ્રર્મકોની સારી કામગીરી બદલ જાિેરમાાં તેન ુ ાં સાંન્માન કરવુ ાં જોઈએ.
6. શ્રર્મકોને ગબમારીના સમયે યોગ્ય સારવાર મળી રિે તે માટે આરોગ્યલક્ષી પ્રાર્ર્મક સુર્વધાઓ
ર્વકસાવવી જોઈએ.
7. શ્રર્મકોને સલામતીના લાભો જેવા કે વેતન સાંબર્ાં ધત લાભો, પ્રાંસોગપાત રજાના લાભો અને
ગબન
નાણાકીય લાભો મળી રિે તેવી વ્યવસ્ર્ા ગોિવવી.
સરકારશ્રી સાંબમાં ધત સ ૂચનો
1. શ્રર્મકોને વ્યવસાર્યક ર્શક્ષણ અને તાલીમ આપવી જોઈએ તે માટે સ્ર્ાર્નક કક્ષાએ તાલીમ
કેન્ર
ખોલવા જોઈએ.
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2. શ્રર્મકોનુ ાં વેતનદરનુ ાં માળખુ અને વેતન દરોમાાં સુધારાઓ સાંગહિત ક્ષેત્રની જેમ નક્કી કરવા
જોઈએ. .
3. લધુતમ વેતન વ્યવસ્ર્ાનો યોગ્ય અને અસરકારક અમલ માટે કડક નીર્ત ર્નયમો ઘડવા
જોઈએ.
4. અસાંગહિત શ્રર્મકો માટે કેન્ર સરકાર અને રાજય સરકાર તરફર્ી અલગ ર્વભાગ અને નીર્ત
ર્નયમો િોવા જોઈએ.
5. શ્રર્મકોના સાંતાનો માટે ર્શક્ષણ સાંબર્ાં ધત સુર્વધા, આરોગ્ય સાંબર્ાં ધત સુર્વધા અને ભાવી ર્વકાસ
સાંબર્ાં ધત યોગ્ય પગલા ભરવા જોઈએ.
6. મહિલા શ્રર્મકની સમસ્યાઓ િલ ર્ાય તે માટે સાંરક્ષણ અને સામાજજક સલામતીની યોજના
ર્વકસાવી જોઈએ.
7. વેતન ર્સવાયની અન્ય સવલતો જેવી કે રાિત દરે કેન્ટીન, આરોગ્ય-ર્વષયક સવલતો,
રિેવાની સગવડ, ઋતુ ાં પ્રમાણે કપડા, વીમા કવચ અને ર્નવ્રુર્તના લાભો વગેરે સુર્વધાઓ મળી
રિે તે અગેં સરકારે ર્વચારવુ ાં જોઈએ.
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
77
RESEARCH PAPER
Volume 1/Issue 7/FEB 2014/ISSN 2321-7073
ÊxÉMÉÖÇhÉÆ ¥ÉÀ ºÉiªÉ¨Éʽþ¨ÉÉvɨÉǶSÉ:
BEò¨ÉxÉÖ¶ÉÒ±ÉxɨÉÂ
Dr. SURENDRANATH SARANGI
Reader in Sanskrit,Dhenkanal (Auto) College,Dhenkanal, Odisha
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: LANGUAGE
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RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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RESEARCH PAPER
Volume 1/Issue 7/FEB 2014/ISSN 2321-7073
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RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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´ÉänùÉxiɶÉɺjÉä ""xÉäÊiÉ xÉäÊiÉ"" ´ÉÉCªÉºªÉ ʴɺiÉ®ú¨ÉjÉ ±É¦ªÉiÉä* +iÉÉä%ºªÉ +lÉÇ& xÉ
ʴɺiÉɪªÉÇiÉä*
<ilÉÆ ¥ÉÀhÉ& º´É°ü{ÉÆ Ê´ÉSÉɪªÉÇ ¨Éʽþ¨Éɺ´ÉÉʨÉxÉÉ ´Éè®úÉMªÉºªÉ ªÉä ={ÉɪÉÉ&
ÊxÉÌqù¹]õÉ& nèùxÉÎxnùxÉ+ÉSÉÉ®ú´ªÉ´É½þÉ®äú iÉä ={ÉɪÉÉ& +iªÉxiÉÆ EòÊ`xÉiÉ®úÉ& ºÉÎxiÉ* {É®ÆúiÉÖ
¨ÉxÉÖ¹ªÉ& iÉnùxÉÖºÉÉ®Æú MÉi´ÉÉ +ÎxiɨÉä ¨ÉÖËHò ±É¦ÉiÉ <ÊiÉ iɺªÉ vɨÉǺªÉ ºÉÉ®úÉƶÉ&*
{ÉÖxÉ& ´Éʶɹ`ö¨ÉÖÊxÉ& ®úɨÉSÉxpÆù EòlɪÉÊiÉ (+ÉäÊc÷+ɦÉɹÉɪÉÉÆ)RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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´Éè®úÉMªÉ ªÉä´Éä xÉ lÉÉ< YÉÉxÉ +É= EòÉʽþÄ
+Éi¨ÉÉYÉÉxÉ Ê´ÉxÉÉ Eäò´Éä ¶ÉÉÎxiÉ|Énù xÉÉʽþÄþ
®úÉVÉÉ ®úɨÉ, ÊVÉ<ù lÉÉ= ¨ÉÞiªÉÖ®ú ºÉ¨ÉÉxÉ*
¸ÉÒ¨ÉnÂù¦ÉMÉ´ÉnÂùMÉÒiÉɪÉɨÉÊ{É ¦ÉMÉ´ÉiÉÉ +VÉÖÇxÉÆ |ÉiªÉÖHò¨É –
""+¦ªÉɺÉäxÉ iÉÖ EòÉèxiÉäªÉ ´Éè®úÉMªÉähÉ SÉ MÉÞÁiÉä *""
+iÉ& ´Éè®úÉMªÉºªÉ SÉ®ú¨É{É®úÉEòɹ`öÉ +κ¨ÉzÉä´É vɨÉæ |ÉÊiÉ{ÉÉÊnùiÉÉ*
Reference Books :
1.
´Éè¶ÉäʹÉEònù¶ÉÇxɨÉÂ
2.
3. ¸ÉÒ¨ÉnÂù¦ÉÉMÉ´ÉiɨÉÂ
4.
5. ¨ÉÖhb÷EòÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù
6.
7, ¥ÉÀ´Éè´ÉkÉÇ {ÉÖ®úÉhɨÉÂ
8.
9. Eò`öÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù
10.
11. qùÉxnùÉäMªÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉiÉÂ
12.
13. {É\SÉnù¶ÉÒ
14.
15. ¨ÉÉhbÖ÷CªÉEòÉÊ®úEòÉ
16.
17.
ºiÉÖÊiÉ ÊSÉxiÉɨÉÊhÉ (+ÉäÊc÷+É)
¤ÉÞ½þnùÉ®úhªÉEòÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù
<ǶÉÉ´ÉɺªÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù
·ÉäiÉÉ·ÉiÉ®ú ={ÉÊxɹÉnÂù
´ÉänùÉxiɺÉÚjɨÉÂ
iÉèÊkÉ®úÒªÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù
¥ÉÀºÉÚjÉ - ¶ÉÉRÂóEò®ú¦ÉɹªÉ¨ÉÂ
+vªÉÉi¨ÉÉä{ÉÊxɹÉnÂù
+±ÉäJÉ{É®Æú¥ÉÀ nù¶ÉÇxɨÉ (+ÉäÊc÷+É)
18.
+ÉÊnùºÉiªÉºÉxÉÉiÉxÉ vɨÉÇ (+ÉäÊb÷+É)
fons”kh efgyk dgkuhdkjksa
dh dgkfu;ksa esa L=h&foe”kZ
MkW0 lhek flg¡
lgk;d izksQlj]fgUnh foHkkx]bfUnjk xka/kh fo”ofo|ky;]
]jsok³h ]gfj;k.kk
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: SOCIOLOGY
L=h dk vkRe la?k’kZ viuh fujUrjrk esa izR;sd ;qx esa fo|eku jgk
gSA ijEijkxr n`f’V ls L=h ds izfr O;oLFkk dk joS;k fuf”pr
ekun.Mksa] vkn”kksZa ds fuer O;ogkjksa ls lapkfyr gksrk jgk gS
ftlesa L=h dks r; dj nh xbZ Hkwfedk esa fu/kkZfjr vkn”kZ vkpj.k
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dk vf/kdkj “krkfCn;ksa ls iq#’k us vius ikl lqjf{kr j[kk gSA mlus
L=h Nfo dks oSlk gh x<k] cuk;k tSlk mlds vkSj fir`lÙkkRe lekt ds
fgr essa FkkA bldks pqukSrh nh ukjhoknh fopkjdksa vkSj L=h
ys[ku us] fQj pkgs oks Hkkjrh; ysf[kdk,a gksa ;k fons”khA izLrqr
“kks/k&i= fgUnh esa vuqfnr fons”kh Hkk’kkvksa dh dgkfu;ksa
esa L=h eu dh i³rky djrk gSA
L=h ys[ku] L=h vfLerk ds iz”u dks L=h Hkk’kk ds lkFk O;Dr djrk
gSA oSls rks iq#’k Hkh ml Hkk’kk esa fy[k ldrk gS ijUrq izeq[k
varj gS] og blls vkn”kZ x< ldrk gS] efgek eaMu dj ldrk gS ;k
efgek eaMu dk iz;kl dj ldrk gS tcfd nwljh rjQ efgyk ;FkkFkZ dk
nkeu Fkkes vius la?k’kZ dh O;Fkk dks O;Dr djrh gSA efgyk
ys[ku okLro esa efgyk vuqHkwfr] ftls fir`lÙkkRed lksp us lekt o
lkfgR; ls cfg’d`r dj j[kk Fkk] dks eq[kjrk ls lkeus j[krk gSA lkfgR;
ds }kjk og Lo;a dks iqulZ`ftr djrh gqbZ eq[;/kkjk esa “kkfey gksuk
pkgrh gSA ysf[kdk lw;Zckyk dgrh gS]Þ vuqHko rks ;gh dgrk gS
fd ysf[kdkvksa ds {ks= vf/kdrj ?kj vkSj ukjh eu jgk gS] tcfd iq#’k
ys[ku dk ?kj vkSj ckgj nksukasA ysfdu ge bl {kfr dh iwfrZ Hkh
rks dj ysrh gSa& ukjh eu dh vFkkg xgjkbZ;ksa esa iSBdjA vkSj
bruk rks eSa nkos ds lkFk dg ldrh gw¡ fd ukjh ds vanj brus xw<
fryLe] xqQk,a vkSj izkphj gSa fd bUgsa Hksn ikuk vklku ugh gS]
ftruh LkR;rk vkSj bZekunkjh ls ukjh Hksn ldrh gS] iq#’k ughaAÞ2
tc L=h vius oxZ ds fy, fy[krh gS rks mlesa mldh izekf.kdrk dh
lR;rk mldk mu vuqHkoksa ls nks&pkj gksuk Hkh gksrk gS] ftuls
oks xqtjrh gSA D;k iq#’k ys[ku ;s fo”ys’k.k dj ldrk gS fd vkf[kj ,d
L=h dh jpukRedrk dSls vadqj.k ls igys gh ne rks³ nsrh gS] ijUrq
,d L=h tkurh gS] ßmlus viuh ftanxh lkekU;r% Bhd&Bkd <ax ls
gh “kq# dh FkhA mlds ikl cqf)] ckrphr djus dk lyhdk vkSj dykRed
Hkkoukvksa dk vikj HkaMkj FkkA fdarq og v/kZf”kf{kr FkhA tehu
ij gy pyk fn, x, Fks vkSj cht Hkh Mkys tk pqds FksA vkSj rHkh
fookg gks x;k vkSj o`f) #d xbZAß3
L=h ds vuqHko dh izekf.kdrk dh ckr ;|fi egknsoh oekZ *J`a[kyk
dh df³;k¡* esa cgqr igys dj pqdha Fkh ijUrq mUgksaus *L=h
iz”u* dks iq#’k ds fy, oftZr {ks= ugha ekuk FkkA ßiq#’k ds }kjk
lkIrkfgd fgUnwLrku] vukfedk] 11 ebZ 1995] i`0 39
Eksjh ¶ysxu ¼vesjhdk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd] banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0 99
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ukjh fp=.k vf/kd vknZ”k rks cu ldrk gS ijarq vf/kd lR; ugh] fod`fr
ds vf/kd fudV igq¡p ldrk gS fdUrq ;FkkFkZ ds vf/kd lehi ughaA
iq#’k ds fy, ukjhRo vuqeku gS rks ukjh ds fy, vuqHkoA vr% vius
thou dk tSlk ltho fp= og gesas ns ldsxh oSlk iq#’k cgqr lk/kuk ds
mijkUr Hkh “kk;n gh ns ldsAß4 tkWu LVwvVZ fey bl fopkj dks
cgqr igys gh ekU;rk nsrs gq, dgrs gSa fd]ÞL=h ds ckjs esa Kku
rc rd v/kqjk vkSj mFkyk jgsxk tc rd fd fL=;k¡ Lo;a og lc dqN ugh
crk nsrh tks muds ikl crkus dks gSAß5
vc iz”u vkrk gS fd vkf[kj efgyk ys[ku gS D;k \ bl laca/k esa
xhrkJh dk dguk gS fd ßukjhokn] L=h&foe”kZ vius ewy esa
fL=;ksa dh nqfu;k esa tkdj vyx rjg ls lkspus dk ,d rjhdk gSA
iq#’kksa dh cukbZ ijaijk ls leku jkgsa [kksyuk gSA vkSj bu
jkgksa dh ryk”k esa L=h&foe”kZ dks iq#’koknh vk{ksiksa ds
na”k dks >syuk i³rk gSA6
L=h dh vfLerk dh y³kbZ vk/kh nqfu;k dks euq’; dk ntkZ fnykus
dh y³kbZ gSAvkt Hkh euq’; dh vo/kkj.kk esa L=h vkSj iq#’k
nksuksa dks “kkfey ugha fd;k tkrkA cs”kd nkok fd;k tk, fd if”pe
esa fL=;ka csgrj fLFkfr esa th jgh gSa ijUrq izLrqr dgkfu;ka bu
nkoksa dh iksy [kksyrh gSaA njvly muds ikl vius fy, pquus dk
dksbZ gd ugh gksrk ß rqEgkjs ikl pquus dks vkSj rks dqN gS gh
ugh]ß mUgkasus mÙkj fn;k] ßtc rqe bl [kkunku dk fgLlk gks
tkvksxh] rc rqEgsa Hkh ;gha jguk gksxkA ;gka rd fd rqEgkjk viuk
ifjokj Hkh rqEgsa vius chp nQu djus dks rS;kj ugh gksxkAß7 uk
gh og vius fy, dksbZ ekax j[k ldrh gS vkSj uk bPNk] fQj pkgs
oks fdruh gh izkd`frd vkSj LokHkkfod gh D;ksa uk gksA ßtc
mldh ubZ&ubZ “kknh gqbZ Fkh rks mlus vius vanj tyrh dkekfXu
dh ekax ds vuq:Ik vius ifr dks dqN nsj vkSj djrs jgus ds ladsr fn,
Fks] ijaijkvksa ls ca/kh gksus ls og viuh bPNk dks [kqydj dgus
esa “kekZrh FkhA viuh fookfgrk lgsfy;ksa ls vuqHko dh dxkj ij
jgus dh QqlQqlkgVsa lqu mlus viuh bPNk dks Li’V O;Dr Hkh dj
fn;k FkkA---------------ysfdu ,sls voljksa ij-------og tSls tkucw> mls
dsoy oafpr l[kus ds fy, viuh fdz;k rsth ls djds lekIr dj nsrkA ------egknsoh oekZ *J`a[kyk dh df³;k¡] jk/kkd`’.k izdk”ku] 1995] i`0 66
tkWu LVwvVZ fey] fonzksgh L=h] vuqoknd e/kq ch- tks”kh] jktdey izdk”ku 2001] i`0 15
vkmVyqd ] xhrkJh] tuojh 2011 i`0 46
guku vy “ks[k ¼yscuku½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku] eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0 30
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-------------- blds ckn tSls mlds vanj “keZ dk xksnuk xksn fn;k x;k
FkkA dHkh dHkkj og Lo;a ls iz”u vo”; dj ysrh]ß “kk;n] eSa gh xyr
gwaA esjh ekaxsa gh xyr gSa vkSj njvly eq>s gh irk ugha gS fd
eq>s mlds lkFk dSlk O;ogkj djuk pkfg,Aß8 Lo;a dks nks’kh eku
ysus esa ;k le>kSrk dj ysus esa gh mldh ijf.krh gksrh gS
D;ksafd mlds ikl pkgus dk vf/kdkj ugha gksrk gSA ßfQj lc dqN
ifjofrZr gks x;k le>kSrs esaA dsV eSxthu dks ^vkWy n jst^
iqdkjuk pkgrh Fkh] ysfdu cksMZ dks jst ds lkFk tq³s dzks/k ds
Hkko ds dkj.k ;g uke Lohdkj u FkkA mUgsa yxrk Fkk] uke dqN
vfr&ukjhoknh gSA ß;g rks pkyhlosa n”kd dk Loj gS]ß ij dsV us
dgk Fkk] ß pkyhlosa n”kd dh okilh gks pqdh gS] D;k vki yksxksa
dks ;g le> esa ugh vk jgk gS]ß ysfdu mUgsa ugh vk;kA os
eSxthu dks ^vksj^ iqdkjuk pkgrs FksA ^vksj^ Qzsap esa Lo.kZ
dk i;kZ;] ewY; vk/kkfjr] ysfdu okLro esa ewY;&ghu] tSlk dsV us
muls dgk FkkAß9 dsV dk fopkjoku vkSj L=h ds fy, lkspuk mlds
f[kykQ gh tkrk gS] og lc dh utj esa vfo”oluh; gks tkrh gSA ßeSa
rqEgas vxys g¶rs rd ;g [kcj nsus okyk Fkk]ß og dgrk gSA og mls
[kcj lquk nsrk gSA cksMZ ds Mk;jsDVlZ dh lksp gS fd rqe dqN
T;knk gh vfo”oluh; gks] muds fopkj ls og cgqr vkxs pyh tkrh
gksA----------------------eSa rqEgkjs fy, cgqr I;kjk flQkfj”kh i= fy[k
nwaxk] og dgrk gS] bldh fpark er djukA vkSj gka] ge ,d&nwljs ls
rks feyrs&tqyrs gh jgsaxsA lp ekuks eq>s rqEgkjs lkFk xqtkjh
nksigjksa dh ;kn vk;k djsxhA10
lpsr :Ik ls L=h dks euq’;rk ls vyxkus dh dksf”k”ksa [kRe ugha
gqbZ gSaA ;|fi le;≤ ij Lo;a L=h us vius vki dks euq’; le>s
[email protected] uk le>s tkus ds loky dks mBk;k gSA djhc lkS lky igys
*uksjk* us gsYej ls iwNk *rqe D;k ekurs gks] esjk lcls ifo= drZO;
D;k gS\ vkSj tc mlus tokc fn;k fd vius ifr vkSj cPpksa ds izfr
rqEgkjk drZO;] rks og vlger gksrs gq, cksyh----------- eSa ekurh
gw¡ fd lcls igys eSa ,d euq’; gw¡A mruh gh fd ftrus rqe gks-------------;k gj lqjr esa eSa og cuus dh dksf”k”k rks d#axh ghA eSa
vPNh rjg ls tkurh gw¡ rksjokYM fd T;knkrj yksx rqels lger
vfyQk fjQkr ¼felz½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0 34
ekxZjsV ,BoqM ¼dusMk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0
63
ekxZjsV ,BoqM ¼dusMk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0
66
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gksaxs] fdrkcksa ls rqEgas bldk ijokuk feyk gSA ysfdu vc eSa ]
T;knkrj yksx tks dgrsa gSa vkSj tks fdrkcksa esa fy[kk gS mlls
larq’V ugh gks ikm¡xh] eq>s phtksa ij [kqn lksp fopkj djuk gksxk
vkSj mUgsa le>us dh dksf”k”k djuh gksxhAß11 gks ldrk gS mls
blds fy, dqN dBksj QSlys Hkh ysus i³s] ßeSaus lkspk fd eSa
Qjhn dks crykÅaxh fd eSaus fudkg ds laca/k esa jk; dcz vkSj
xqcan ds dkj.k vFkok eSa dgka nQukbZ tkÅaxh] bu dkj.kksa ls
ugh cnyh gS----------------------eSaus fu”p; fd;k gS fd eq>s vdsys
jgus dh vknr Mkyuh gh i³sxh] ftank jgrs vkSj eqnkZ gksus ds
ckn HkhA12 mls vdsysiu ls y³us ds fy, rS;kj jguk gksxkA
L=h dks dsoy nsg le>k tkuk Hkh L=h&foe”kZ ds dsUnz esa gSA
mldh ;kSuhdrk dks Hkh ge nsg ds ?ksjs esa gh ns[krs gSaA
ßVkaxksa dks ekaly vkSj tka?kksa dks Hkjk&iwjk gksuk pkfg,-----------bruk etcwr fd Hkkjh dwYgksa dk otu laHkky lds------------------rHkh cPps iSnk dj ik,axh y³fd;kaAß13 ;s fiÙk`lÙkkRed lksp
gS] tks dsoy L=h dks dsoy cPpk tuus rd lhfer djuk pkgrk gSA
tcfd lSDl vkSj ts.Mj nksuksa vyx gSa] nsg fopkj dh LFkkiuk
efgyk ys[ku esa gSA lSDl dk vFkZ gS] L=h dh tSfod fLFkfr vkSj
ts.Mj dk vFkZ gS mldh eukslkekftd fLFkfrA L=h ds fj”rksa dh
ifjf/k vis{kkd`r ladh.kZ gksrh gSA ml ij Hkh mlds iq#’k
vfHkHkkod ;k lgpj dh Lohd`[email protected] vLohd`fr dh fuxkg jgrh gSA fdlh
vkSj dh bPNk ls cus fj”rksa esa L=h dh Lora=rk izHkkfor gksrh
gSA vf/kdrj yksxksa dk ekuuk gS fd L=h&foe”kZ dk vFkZ ;kSu
mPNa`[kyrk] ;kSu fj”rksa dh pkgr] vly esa nksuksa vyx&vyx
“kCn gSaA efgyk&foe”kZ esa vfLrRo cks/k gS tcfd nwljs esa
ldkjkRedrk dk loZFkk vHkko gSA
Ekfgyk&foe”kZ ds fojks/kh vdlj ;g iz”u Hkh mBkrs jgrs gSa fd
L=h dks vkf[kj fdlls eqfDr pkfg,\ vius cPpksa ls\ cPpksa ds tud
ls\vFkok ml ?kj ls] ftls og frudk&frudk tks³dj Lo;a gh cukrh gS\
ijUrq D;k ,d bUlku ds :Ik esa mls vius fy, dqN vodk”k pkgus dk
Hkh gd ugh gksrk] ßdsoy yhMh;k dks ;g vglkl gS fd og ,dkdh
gS] tks dHkh lekIr u gksus okyh vfuok;Z fdarq vFkZghu
teZu xzh;j] fonzksgh L=h] vuqoknd e/kq ch- tks”kh] jktdey izdk”ku 2001] i`0 19
guku vy “ks[k ¼yscuku½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku] eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0 32
vek vrk vkbMw] ¼vQzhdh½] y³dh D;k dqN dj ldrh gS] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ fnYyh] twu
2013] i`0 115
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fdz;kvksa esa O;Lr gS] ,slh fdz;k,a tks nwljksa ds LoIuksa rd
lhfer jgrh gSaA ,sls Åy&tqywy dke] ftUgsa iwjk djuk vko”;d gS
vkSj tks ?kj ds vU; lnL;ksa dks mudh O;fDrxr [kqf”k;ksa esa
Mwcs jgus ds fy, vfuok;Z gSAykaMªh ds fy, di³ksa dks bdV~Bk
djuk] QVs&iqjkus di³s ftUgsa ;ksa gh vyx dj fn;k x;k gS] vyx
j[kuk] nar fpfdRld] xSl daiuh] Iyacj dks Qksu] nks uUgs
izkf.k;ksa ds ?kj ls ckgj tkus ds igys dh vufxur foLr`r rS;kfj;ka
vkSj vkSj fQj muds okfil vkus ij mUgsa O;ofLFkr djuk] fnu esa
irk ugha fdrus ckj mi;ksx dj dgha Hkh Nks³ nh tkus okyh mi;ksxh
oLrqvksa dks ckj&ckj ;FkkLFkku j[kuk]?kj ds izR;sd lkeku ij
vkdze.k djrs vjcksa /kwy d.kksa dks fujk”k gks ns[krs jgukAiwjs
fnu QSyh varghu fdz;k,aA bruh yach&pkS³h foLr`r fdz;k,a]
ftuesa vius vki dks [kik, j[kusa dh etcwjh gksrh gS] tks O;rhr
gksrs le; dk Lej.k yxkrkj djokrh jgrh gSAiwjs ?kj esa QSyh
yach&pkS³h fdz;k,a] tks i;kZ; gSa ek= ruko dh]ruko vkSj
rukoAß14 bl ruko ls uk dsoy Hkkjr cfYd lHkh nwljs ns”kksa dh
fL=;ka Hkh =Lr gSaA
vly esa uk mls ?kj ls eqfDr pkfg, uk ?kjokyksa ls bl iz”u dk mÙkj
cgqr NksVk gS& mls eqfDr pkfg, ml frjLdkj ls] ftldk lkeuk L=h
fujarj thou Ik;ZUr djrh jgrh gSA oukZ vxj L=h cPpksa dk gksuk
ck/kk gh ekurh rks de ls de mudh LobPNk rks ugh gh djrh ]ijUrq
og muds gksus esa lq[k ns[krh gS] ßysfdu rqe okdbZ cgqr
LekVZ gks dSjksy vkSj rqEgkjh ilan Hkh mruh gh “kkunkj gSA
;g Qwynku gh ys yks-------uktqd gS uk----------tgka ,slh uktqd
phtsa gksa\ ogka dksbZ cPpk dSls [ksy ldrk gS\ ysfdu dSjksy tc
rqe esjs ftruh cw<h vkSj v”kDr gks tkvksxh] ml oDr ;s uktqd
Qwynku rqEgkjh ijokg ugh djsxk------- dbZ ckj rks cPps Hkh ugh
djrs------ ysfdu bldk ;s eryc rks ugh fd os gksa gh ugha\ß15
vly esa L=h&foe”kZ fo[kaMu ugh cfYd lekurk vkSj lEeku ds
ekuokf/kdkj ij vk/kkfjr gSA mls eqDr gksuk gS “kwU;rk ls]ßeSa
rks /khjs&/khjs “kwU; gksrh tk jgh gwaAeq>s dqN vodk”k dh
csgn vko”;d gS ugh arks eSa ikxy gks tkÅaxhAß16 rkfd oks ikxy
gksus ls cp ik,A oks cgqr n;koku ugh gksrh gS tSlk fd vusdksa
/kkfeZd xzUFk gesa crkrs gSa cfYd oks laosnu”khy gS vkSj
Eksjh ¶ysxu ¼vesjhdk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd] banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0 99
uk;jk dqtfep] dkWQh di]¼vesZfu;k½] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ fnYyh] twu 2013] i`0 129
Eksjh ¶ysxu ¼vesjhdk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd] banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0 111
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lEeku djuk tkurh gS] ßunh ds fdukjs pyrs os NksVh >kf³;ksa ds
ljljkus dh vkoktsa lqurs gSa] nch nch lh galh] ftls jksduk laHko
ugh Fkk vkSj dqN QqlQqlkrs “kCnA eEek dgrh gS ]oks yacs
ckyksa okyh okjk gS] tks rkyk yxs Hkwjs edku esa jgrh gSA ikik
dgrs gSa] vkSj oks nwljs fdukjs ls vkrk gS] og rEckdw okys dk
csVk rsjtkjbu gSAeEek dgrh gSa] pyks ;gka ls tjk vkxs c<ks]
rkfd oks ijs”kku u gksAikik dgrs gSa] blls mUgs lh[k feysxh fd
ifCyd txgksa esa la;r O;ogkj djuk pkfg,A eEek fojks/k djrh gS]
unh dk fdukjk ifCyd dh lkekU; txg ugha gSA17
L=h ds fy, fnu NksVk i³ tkrk gS ?kjckj dks lEHkkyus ds fy,] lkFk
gh ifr dh varghu T;knfr;ka Hkh mlds iRuh/keZ essa tks³ nh xbZ
gSa] ß,Urksfu;k ds fy, fnu ds pkSchl ?kUVs dkQh ugh Fks
D;ksafd ?kj esa cPpksa dh vkSj ck³s esa eqfxZ;ksa dh ijofj”k ds
vykok og iqfyl okyksa ds fy, nksigj dk [kkuk idkdj vkSj Ldwy dh
/kqykbZ & iqaNkbZ dj vius fy, Hkh dqN iSls dek ysrh FkhA dbZ
ckj mlds “kjhj ij L;kg uhys fu”kku ns[k dj Hkh dksbZ mlls dqN
loky ugh iwNrk Fkk D;ksafd lc mlds ifr dh djrwrksa ls okfdQ
FksA---------------------,Urksfu;ks us vius ifr dh cgqr lh T;knfr;ka
Hkh cnkZ”r dh Fkh] ftlesa mldk viuh j[kSyksa dks xkgs cxkgs
?kj esa ys vkuk Hkh “kkfey FkkAß18
ijUrq og laosnughu ugh gS cfYd vius ifr dh j[kSy ds vf/kdkjksa
ds fy, vius funZ;h ifr ls yksgk ysus ds fy, Hkh rS;kj gks tkrh gS]
;gka ,d vkSjr dk nwljh vkSjr ds fy, la?k’kZ fn[krk gSA ßdksapk
dh rdyhQ us ,Urksfu;k dks vius iqjkus fnuksa ds dqN Vqd³s ;kn
fnyk fn,] tc og Fkh] vkSj igyh ckj xHkZorh gqbZ FkhA og ugh
pkgrh Fkh fd dksapk ds vkus okys fnu Hkh mlds fnuksa dh rjg
;kruknk;d gksaA---------------------tc rksekl oxkZ”k us mls okil
ykSV tkus dks dgk rks ,Urksfu;k vius dwYgksa ij gFksfy;ka /kjs
eqLrSnh ls lkeus vkbZA cw<s [kwlV dk jkLrk jksdus dh etcwrh
ftanxh esa igyh ckj mlesa fn[kkbZ ns jgh FkhA rksekl us ges”kk
dh rjg ,Urksfu;k dh /kqukbZ djus ds fy, viuh csYV dks pkcqd dh
rjg gok esa QVdkjk ij og ftl rjg [kwa[kkj fuxkgksa ls mldh vkSj
vkxs c<h] rksekl ds dne gSjr ls fiNs gV x, vkSj mldk pkcqd Hkh
,suh lkvkseka ¼Qzkal½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku] eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0 34
blkcsy vysans] Rkksekl oxkZl vkSj nks vkSjrsa ¼Lisfu”k½] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ fnYyh]
twu 2013] i`0 125
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chp jkLrs esa gh <hyk i³ x;kA mlds fiNs gVrs gh ,Urksfu;k ds fy,
;g le>uk vklku gks x;k fd dkSu T;knk rkdroj FkkAß19
vr% fulUnsg uk dsoy Hkkjr esa ijUrq nwljs ns”kksa dh fL=;ka
Hkh mUgha vuqHkoksa ls xqtj jgh gSa] ftuls ;gka dh L=h xqtjrh
gS] cl varj gS rks fMxzh esaA gj txg cl ,d gh [email protected]?k’kZ
fn[kkbZ ns jgk gS vkSj oks gS igpku dk] ,d euq’; ds :Ik esa
igpku dkA ,slk ugh gS fd ukjh dk eu iq#’k ds eu ls i`Fkd oLrq
gS]tks lekt vkSj le; ls vius lEcU/k dks vyx&Fkyx rjhds ls ns[krk
gSA fQj Hkh ,sfrgkfld vkSj lkaLd`frd dkj.kksa ls lekt vkSj mlds
L=h lnL;ksa ds chp vyx fj”rk cuk jgk gSA20 ;gha ls L=h dk
vuqHko mldh izekf.kdrk curk Gsa
REFERENCE :
-lkIrkfgd fgUnwLrku] vukfedk] 11 ebZ 1995] i`0 39
- Eksjh ¶ysxu ¼vesjhdk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd] banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 99
- egknsoh oekZ *J`a[kyk dh df³;k¡] jk/kkd`’.k izdk”ku] 1995] i`0 66
- tkWu LVwvVZ fey] fonzksgh L=h] vuqoknd e/kq ch- tks”kh] jktdey izdk”ku 2001] i`0 15
- vkmVyqd ] xhrkJh] tuojh 2011 i`0 46
- guku vy “ks[k ¼yscuku½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku] eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 30
- vfyQk fjQkr ¼felz½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ] 2004] i`0
34
- ekxZjsV ,BoqM ¼dusMk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 63
- ekxZjsV ,BoqM ¼dusMk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 66
- teZu xzh;j] fonzksgh L=h] vuqoknd e/kq ch- tks”kh] jktdey izdk”ku 2001] i`0 19
- guku vy “ks[k ¼yscuku½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku] eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 32
- vek vrk vkbMw] ¼vQzhdh½] y³dh D;k dqN dj ldrh gS] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ
fnYyh] twu 2013] i`0 115
- Eksjh ¶ysxu ¼vesjhdk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd] banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 99
- uk;jk dqtfep] dkWQh di]¼vesZfu;k½] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ fnYyh] twu 2013] i`0
129
- Eksjh ¶ysxu ¼vesjhdk½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd] banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku]]eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 111
- ,suh lkvkseka ¼Qzkal½] mldk ,dkar] vuqoknd banzef.k mik/;k;] laokn izdk”ku] eqEcbZ]
2004] i`0 34
- blkcsy vysans] Rkksekl oxkZl vkSj nks vkSjrsa ¼Lisfu”k½] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ
fnYyh] twu 2013] i`0 125
blkcsy vysans] Rkksekl oxkZl vkSj nks vkSjrsa ¼Lisfu”k½] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ fnYyh]
twu 2013] i`0 127
eZnqyk xxZ] ehjk ukph L=h&eu dh dgkfu;ka] okXnsoh izdk”ku] 2012] i`0 9
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- blkcsy vysans] Rkksekl oxkZl vkSj nks vkSjrsa ¼Lisfu”k½] vgk ftanxh] vkyksd JhokLro] ubZ
fnYyh] twu 2013] i`0 127
- eZnqyk xxZ] ehjk ukph L=h&eu dh dgkfu;ka] okXnsoh izdk”ku] 2012] i`0 9
;\TvSlJ SALZ S[ A|ï;\A\WL
lJRFZ
0F¶P .gãN[J VFZP l;\U
zLDlT VFZP5LP EF,Ml0IF DlC,F SM,[H4SM,SL DFU"4 p5,[8F
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: LANGUAGE
lCgNL ;FlCtI S[ .lTCF; D[\ ‘;\T˜ XaN pG SlJIM\ S[ l,ˆ 5|I]ÉT CMTF C{ HM
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SL 5|D]B lJX[QFTF C{ š ElÉTSF,LG lCgNL ;FlCtI S[ ;\T SlJIM\ D[\
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SALZ SL SlT5I ZRGFˆ¥ ;\Sl,T C{\ š
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SALZ AC]z]T Y[4 lSgT] lXl1FT GCL\ Y[ š DF{lBS 5Zd5ZF ;[ CL pgCM\G[
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S[ l,ˆ pgCM\G[ ‘ZFD˜ SM :JLSFZ lSIF YF4 pGS[ IC ZFD NXZY ;]T G
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VG]EJ CMTF ZCTF C{ š SALZ SF lGU]"6 A|ï .TGF ;FDyI"JFG C{ lS JC
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SALZ SF A|ï ˆS C{4 JC ;J"jIF5L C{4 JC lGU]"6 VF{Z ;U]6 ;[ 5Z[ C{4 JC
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KEYWORDS: Avi[T (vÅl[PN
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
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T*>ksir
(Sxk p\(SxN K*bj mhRvn&> an[ jvibdir) viL&> kiy< C[. ai kiy<k\m
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bn[. ai bibtn[ piyimi> riK)n[ s>AYin&> Avi[T (vÅl[PN Úiri m*Ãyi>kn krvi
p\At&t a¿yis hiY Friyi[ hti[.
a¿yisni h[t&ai[
a¿yisni m&²y h[t&ai[ n)c[ m&jb hti.
1.
Avi[T (vÅl[PNn) mi¹ymY) (Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) {xmtiai[, tk,
nbLieai[, an[ By s>dB[<} jiNkir) m[Lvv).
2.
(Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) g&Nv_ii s&Firvi {nbLieai[ an[ By d*r krvi}
s*cni[ krvi.
a¿yisni p\Åni[
h[t&ai[n[ k[ºWmi> riK)n[ n)c[ m&jbni p\Åni[ni u_ir m[Lvvimi> aiÄyi hti.
1.
(Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) xmtiai[ ke ke C[?
2.
(Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\m smx ke ke tki[ rh[l) C[?
3.
(Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\mmi> ke ke nbLieai[ rh[l) C[?
4.
(Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\m sim[ kyi kyi ByAYini[ C[?
5.
(Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) nbLieai[ an[ ByAYini[ ke r)t[ d*r kr) Skiy?
a¿yisn&> mhRv

p\At&t a¿yisY) (Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) xmtiai[ an[ nbLie jiN) SkiS[.

a¹yipn an[ til)mn[ ci[kks (dSi aip) Skiy.
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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
p\i¼t mi(ht)n[ aiFir[ Bir aipvi yi[³y pisi> (nFi<>(rt kr) p\(SxNn[
aY<p*N< an[ g&Nv_iy&kt bniv) Skiy.

smg\ a¿yis s&FirNilx) kiy<n&> p\Ym si[pin bn) Sk[ C[.
s)mi>kn

p\At&t a¿yis mi¹y(mk (SxN s>AYi ~) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT
b).a[D`. ki[l[j, pi>D[sri - s&rt p*rti[ s)(mt hti[.

ai a¿yis a>tg<t` s>AYin) mi(ht) m[Lvvi Avi[T p#ikni[j upyi[g krvimi>
aiÄyi[ hti[.

a¿yismi> nm*ni tr)k[ S[x(Nk vP< : 2010-11ni 100 p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[
l[vimi> aiÄyi hti.
s>Si[Fn - yi[jni
Äyip (vÅv an[ nm*ni[
p\AtZt a¿yismi> (vwiBirt), g&jrit p\d[S s>l³n #iN b).a[D`. ki[l[ji[ni 300
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ Äyip (vÅv hti. j[ p]k) ~) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT b).a[D`. ki[l[j,
pi>D[sri Kit[ a¿yis krti> vP< : 2010-’11ni 100 p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ sh[t&k
nm*ni tr)k[ ps>d kyi< hti.
s>Si[Fn upkrN
p\AtZt a¿yismi> h[t&ai[ s>dB[< mi(ht) p\i(¼t miT[ Avi[T (SWOT) ni
GTki[ dSi<vti p#ikni[ upyi[g krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[.
mi(ht) p\i(¼tn) p\(v(F
a¿yis a>tg<t` si] p\Ym p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ Avi[T (vÅl[PN (vSd` ²yil
ai¼yi[ hti[. t[mj a¿yisni[ aiSy jNiÄyi[ hti[. Ryirbir p\(SxN kiy<k\m a>tg<t`
Yy[li an&Bvi[ni aiFir[ (Sxk p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) xmtiai[, nbLieai[, tk an[ Byn)
(vgti[ rj* krvi> s*cÄy&> ht&>
mi(ht) (vÅl[PNn) r)t
p\AtZt a¿yismi> Avi[T p#ik Úiri m[Lv[l mi(ht)n&> vNi<niRmk
ai>kDi>SiA#in) r)t[ (vÅl[PN krvimi> aiÄy>& ht&> j[mi> p\(tBivi[n) aivZ(t
m[Lv) t[n[ sirN) Av$p rj* krvimi> aiv) ht).
sirN) - 1
(SxN p\(SxN kiy<k\mn&> Avi[T (vÅl[PN
xmtiai[ {+}
nbLieai[ {-}
(SAt
a¹yipki[ g&Asi[ vF& kr[ C[.
n)(t-(nymi[ni[ aig\h
smyni aBiv[ a¿yis upr CÃli[
Bi](tk s&(vFiai[
p\(SxNiY)<ai[n)
AviY<vZ(_iY)
Yti[ s>GP<
xmtiai[ viLi a¹yipki[
hijr)ni[ aig\h
(SxNkiy< u_im
y&(nfi[m<
v>dnin&> B(ktmy vitivrN
s>AYini[ vF& smy
ÄyvAYipn sir&>
g\>Yilymi> p&Atki[n) myi<(dt
s>²yi
shkirmy vitivrN
p\d&PNy&kt vitivrN
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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s>AkZ(tn[ pi[Pk (k\yiklipi[
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni g&N(vkis
Volume 1/Issue 7/FEB 2014/ISSN 2321-7073
p\vZ(tai[ min(sk tniv vFir[
nbLi
(vwiY)<ain[
p\i[Rsihn
mLt&> nY).
tk {+}
p\g(tn) Skytiai[
uµc a¿yisn) tki[ sj<v)
By {-}
n>br vn tr)k[ p\AYi(pt Yv&>.
g>\Yily an[ kÀ¼y&Trn) s&(vFi p*r)
piDv)
p\(SxNiY)<ai[mi> m*Ãy(vkis
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni bdlti mni[vlN
aigv) ai[LK sj<v)
a¹yipki[n&> aºy#i jv&.
(SAtb¹F JvnS]l)ni[ (vkis
ai(Y<k bibti[mi> Tkv&>.
Äyivsi(vk sfLtini[ dr vFirvi[
pr>privid) vlNY) sji<ti[ avri[F
k&SL n[tZRv Yk) (vkis
s>²yini p\Åni[
Jvt (SxN p\Nil)n&> (nmi<N
myi<(dt smymi> g&Nv_iiy&kt kiy< n
Yv&>.
s&P&¼t S(ktai[ni[ (vkis
p\(SxNiY)<ai[n) a(ny(mtti s>klnni[
aBiv

5 k[ t[Y) vF& aivZ(t viL) bibti[ n[ j a#i[ rj* kr) C[.
tirNi[
(S©iN 5\(SxN Avi[T (vÅl[PNni p(rNim[ n)c[ni tirNi[ p\i¼t Yyi hti.

Birt)y (SÈiN dSˆn aiFi(rt (SÈik p\(SÈiN kiyˆk\mmi> Bi](tk an[ minv)y
s>Si[Fni[ trf ´yin apiy&> ht&>. n)(t-(nymi[ an[ (SAt pr (vS[P Bir aipvimi>
aiv[ C[. t[v&> p\(SÈiNiY)ˆai[a[ Av)kiy&ˆ C[. ÄyvAYipn, (SÈiNkiyˆ, v>dni
an[ (k\yi-klipi[ Ùiri p\(SÈiNiY)ˆai[ni[ g&N(vkis Yti[ hti[.

(SÈik p\(SÈiN kiyˆk\mn) m&²y nbLiEai[mi> a´yipki[ni[ g&Asi[,
smyni[ aBiv p\(SÈiNiY)ˆai[n) AviYˆvZ(tY) Yti[ s>GPˆ, y&(nfi[mˆ, hijr)ni[
aig\h, p&Atki[ni[ aBiv, s>AYini[ vF& smy, p\d*PN y&kt vitivrN, nbLi
p\(SÈiNiY)ˆai[ trf ´yin n apiv& an[ min(sk tniv m&²y hti.

s>AYiai[n) simi(jk Cip sir) ht). t[mj kiyˆk\mmi> p\(SÈiN m[Lvnirmi>
n[tZRv, m*Ãy(vkis, (SAtbÜti (vkst) ht). j[ uµc a¿yis t[mj Äyvsi(yk sfLti Ùiri
p\g(t YS[ a[v) Skytiai[ dSiˆvt) ht).

(SÈik p\(SÈiN kiyˆk\mmi> ai(Yˆk bibti[, s>²yini p\Åni[, a´yipki[n&>
Äyivsiy aY[ˆ aºy#i jv&> t[mj p\(SÈiNiY)ˆai[ni bdliti mni[vlNi[ (vkisni m&²y
avri[Fi[ hti.
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S]Èi(Nk s*(ctiYi[ˆ
p\At&t a¿yisni tirNi[ni aiFir[ n)c[ m&jbni s*(ctiYi[ˆ p\i¼t Yyi hti.

Avi[T (vÅl[PNY) (SÈiN p\(SÈiN kiyˆk\mn[ m*lv) Skiy t[ni aiFiri[ p\i¼t
Yiy C[.

Avi[T (vÅl[PNY) (SÈiN p\(SÈiNni GTki[ j[vi k[ minv s>b>Fi[, (k\yiklipi[, S]Èi(Nk piqi[, p\(SÈiNiY)ˆai[ s>dB[ˆ a¿yis kr) sFirNi liv) Skiy.

Avi[T (vÅl[PNY) (vÅl[PNiRmk a(Bgm s&FirNi an[ g&Nv_iin) (dSimi>
ag\[sr bnivS[.

s>cilki[, ÄyvAYipki[, p\(SÈiki[ an[ Bi(v p\(SÈiNiY)ˆai[ miT[ migˆdSˆk
mi(ht) p&r) piD[ C[. j[ni aiFir[ Äy*rcni an[ n)(t GDtr t[mj (nNˆyi[ l[vimi> mdd
mLS[.
Avi[T (vÅl[PN m*LB*t r)t[ s>cilnSiA#i siY[ s>kLiy[l ²yil C[. j[ m&²yRv[
k>pn)ai[ni a¿yis Ùiri n)(t (nwirNi an[ Äy*rcnimi> mdd$p Yiy C[. (SÈiN
p\(SÈiN Èi[#i[ p\(SÈiNiY)ˆ p\(SÈikni Äy(ktgt an[ pÜ(t, (vPyi[ k[ smg\
s>AYiai[ni[ sim*(hk r)t[ a¿yis kr) kiyˆk\m GDiyti[ vF& asrkirk an[
g&Nv_iip*Nˆ kiyˆ Ye Sk[.
s>dBˆs*(c :
rivl an[ aºyi[ . {2009}. S]x(Nk p\i]Fi[(gkni> m*LtRvi[ an[ SiLi ÄyvAYipnni>
tRvi[ amdivid : (nrv p\kiSn
en. Wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_ analysis
www.Philau. Edu./infolit/sba/ SWOT Analysish and out
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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riOT^n) a[kti an[ (vÅvkÃyiNmi>
Birt)y (Sxi p\Nil)n&> yi[gdin
p\i. m(nOiib[n k[. r)bD)yi
ai(sATºT p\i[f[sr,~) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT b).a[D`. ki[[l[j, pi>D[sri, s&rt.
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
siri>S
ki[e pN simi(jk, ai(Y<k, ai]]Fi[(gk k[ rijk)y an[ si>AkZ(tk uRYinn) yi[jni
GDvin) kiy<vih)ni k[ºWmi> (SxNn[ m*kvin&> aRy>t j$r) bn) jiy C[.(SxN a[
a[k minva(Fkirni[ mhRvni[ m&Ñi[ l[Kiy C[ an[ t[Y) riOT^ni k&l Kc<mi>Y)
t[n) piCL GNi[ mi[Ti[ Big vprivi[ ji[ea[. ji[ t[m Yiy ti[ t[niY) sj<nS)ltini[ (vkis
Sky bn[, j[ riOT^)y s&FirNi kiy<k|mmi> ai(Y<k, simi(jk an[ si>AkZ(tk
B*(mki Bjv) Sk[. riOT^)yti, AvipN<n)Bivni, minvti, sha(AtRv, (vÅvb>F&Rv,
ºyiy, S&(Ûti, p\imi(Nkti, n)(tmy Äyvhir, pirAp(rk shkir, (vÅv nig(rkti,
smijmi> t>d&rAt pr>prini[ (vkis, p\kZ(t-pyi<vrNn&> rxN. li[ki[ (v(vF p\vihi[
an[ siFni[ oiri Xin, ki]SÃy m[Lv[ C[ an[ Jvnn) j&d) j&d) bibti[ p\Ry[ni> vlNi[
pN k[Lv[ C[. ai p\vihi[ k[ siFni[mi> SiLi oiri apit&> v](Fk (SxN, pi]Q (SxN,
av]Fi(nk (SxN an[ (DATºs a[jy&k[Snni[ mhRvni[ fiLi[ rh[ C[.
p\Ativni:
ki[e pN Äy(kt, smij k[ riOT^n) p\g(t an[ aibid) j[ #iN bibti[ upr (nB<r
C[, t[mi> (SxN si]Y) mh_vn&> p(rbL. albt, aY<kirN an[ kZ(P-uwi[g j$r) Kri,
pr>t& hk)ktmi> t[ b>n[ piCi p\jin) (SxNxmti upr aiFir riK[ C[. ai Ø(OTa[ jyir[
riOT^ k[ srkir t[n) p\jini> minvs>SiFni[ni[ (vkis krvin&> (vcir[ C[, Ryir[ t[ni
k[ºWmi> (SxN aiv[ C[. aYi<t ki[e pN simi(jk, ai(Y<k, ai]]Fi[(gk k[ rijk)y an[
si>AkZ(tk uRYinn) yi[jni GDvin) kiy<vih)ni fi[ksmi> (SxNn[ m*kvin&>
aRy>t j$r) bn) jiy C[. a[k r)t[ a[m kh[vin&> pN yi[³y l[KiS[ k[ Birt srkirn&>
smg\ minv s>siFn (vkis Kit&> t[ni (SxN s[kTr upr si]Y) vF& Bir m*k[ C[.
li[ki[ (v(vF p\vihi[ an[ siFni[ oiri Xin, ki]SÃy m[Lv[ C[ an[ Jvnn) j&d)
j&d) bibti[ p\Ry[ni> vlNi[ pN k[Lv[ C[. ai p\vihi[ k[ siFni[mi> SiLi oiri apit&>
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v](Fk (SxN, pi]Q (SxN, av]Fi(nk (SxN an[ (DATºs a[jy&k[Snni[ mhRvni[
fiLi[ rh[ C[.
(SxNmi> ri[kiN krvin& mhRv:
p\iY(mk (SxN a[klin) j asr riOT^n) uRpidnS)lti, ai(Y<k (vkis, AviA¸y
an[ sih(skti upr k[Tl) bF) pD) Sk[ C[, t[ ji[vi miT[ aipN[ (vÅvni Yi[Dik
(vkisS)l d[Si[ trf ji[v&> ji[ea[. a[ li[ki[a[ t[mn) riOT^)y aivkni[ GNi[ mi[Ti[
(hAsi[ (SxN(vkis piCLni> ri[kiNmi> vipyi[< C[.
(SxN a[ a[k minva(Fkirni[ mhRvni[ m&Ñi[ l[Kiy C[ an[ t[Y) riOT^ni
k&l Kc<mi>Y) t[n) piCL GNi[ mi[Ti[ Big vprivi[ ji[ea[. ji[ t[m Yiy ti[ t[niY)
sj<nS)ltini[ (vkis Sky bn[, j[ riOT^)y s&FirNi kiy<k|mmi> ai(Y<k, simi(jk an[
si>AkZ(tk B*(mki Bjv) Sk[.
riOT^)y ai(Y<k (vkis miT[ (SxN a[k aivÆyk Srt Kr), pN t[ j mi#i a[v&
p(rbL nY). t[m Cti> d[Smi> ai]Fi[(gk an[ tk(nk) (vkis miT[n) p(rvt<np\(k|yi
miT[ (SxN a[k piyin) B*(mki Bjv) Sk[ C[, a[ vit Av)kiyi< (vni n(h cil[.
(vkisS)l d[Si[n[ t[mni pi[tini Äyivsi(yki[, a[(ºj(nyri[, s>Si[Fki[, v]Xi(nki[,
kir)gri[, ÄyvAYipki[ an[ (v(vF k&SL kimdiri[ t]yir krvin) j$r pD[ C[, k[m k[
t[mni (sviy a[ d[Si[ aigL vF) Sk[ n(h. an[ t[Y) j, a[ kiy<k|mn[ aigL lE jvi miT[
(SxN[ K*b agRyn) B*(mki Bjvvin) rh[ C[.
ai (sviy pN (SxN[ a[k a(Fk m*Ãyvin B*(mki Bjvvin) C[ an[ t[ C[,
minv) an[ pyi<vrN vµc[ni sb>Fi[ s&Girvin), vF& s&ØQ bnivvin), prApr
an&k*ln siFvin). aim, ji[ (SxNni> tmim liBi[ m[Lvvi hi[y ti[, dr[k riOT^[ t[
a>g[ a[v) n)(tai[, kiydiai[ an[ ÄyvAYiai[ FDv) ji[eS[, j[ smti[l hi[y, s&s>vid)
an[ sv<g\ih) pN hi[y. aiv) Äy*hrcni aºvy[ biLki[Y) mi>D)n[ p&²ti[ an[
pi]Qi[ni> tmim j*Yi[n[ aivr) l[vi> ji[eS[. vL), t[n) siY[ siY[ p\iY(mk, mi¹y(mk,
y&(nv(s<T) an[ T[k`(nkl (SxNn) s>AYiai[ vµc[ sGn ji[DiN an[ s>yi[jnni[ pN
p\b>F krvi[ pDS[. t[ oiri riOT^n) ai(Y<k an[ aºy ai(Y<k s[kTri[- kZ(Oi,
uFi[g, ~m, AviAY, s>d[SiÄyvhirni[ T[ki[ m[Lvvin) ji[gvie pN krv) pDS[. a[
s&cir& ÄyvAYi an[ sfLtini[ aiFir s&(c>(tt yi[jniai[ an[ s&(n(át kiy<k|mi[ni
aml)krN tYi g&Nv_ii an[ kd-j¸Yi vµc[ smt&lini (nmi<N upr rh[ C[.
riOT^[ m[Lv[l) (s(Ûai[ k[ j[mni> jtn miT[ riOT^ p\vZ(tai[ krt&> hi[y an[
ci[kks kiydikin*n h[qL pN t[mn[ aivr) l[viy[li hi[y.
1986n) nv) riOT^)y (SxNn)(tmi> an[k (Sxki[ siY[ (vcir (vmS< kr)n[
“riOT^)y p>cS)l” ni nim[ pi>c riOT^)y m*Ãyi[ s*cÄyi C[. j[mi> AvµCti,
sRypriyNti, sKt p(r~m, sminti an[ shkir j[vi m*Ãyi[ni[ smiv[S krvimi>
aiÄyi[ C[. aivi m*Ãyi[ oiri riOT^n) a[kti jiLv) Skiy C[. an[ t[ni aiFir[ j
(vÅvkÃyiNn) Bivni ud`Bv[ C[.
Birt)y (Sxi p\Nil)ni hid<$p t_vi[:
riOT^)yti:
riOT^)yti a[Tl[ k[ ‘riOT^ prRv[n) aidS< Bivni’ a[vi[ Yiy C[. riOT^
miT[n) a[k aidS<y&kt Bivni j[mi> riOT^(ht m&²y an[ Äy(kt ps>dg) gi]N
gNvimi> aiv[. riOT^)y a[kti siY[ Kis ji[Diy[l& C[. aiY) j Äy(kta[ (vS[P
m*Ãyi[n&> jtn krv&>
AvipN< Bivni:
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riOT^)y k[ simi(jk (hti[ miT[ pi[tini> (hti[n[ gi]N gNvi yi jti> krvi> riOT^
miT[ Fsie C*Tvin) k[ Ryign) Bivni.
minvti:
aºy Jv Äy(ktn) sd`Bivni k[ t[ni prni[ p\[m, Jvnn&> ai piyin&> m*Ãy
C[.
sha(AtRv:
Äy(kt sm(OT siY[ a[kiRmkti siF[ an[ shkirY) Jvvin) mYimN kr[. siY[
Jvvini[ Biv
(vÅvb>F&Rv:
(vÅvni (v(vF d[Si[ an[ t[mn) p\ji siY[ Biecirini[ Äyvhir kr[. aipN&>
k&T&>b a[ aipN&> (vÅv yi aipN&> (vÅv a[ aipN&> k&T&>b. aipN[ si]
Xi(t-ji(tni k[ p\id[(Sktini viDin[ B*l)n[ a[k Bie C)a[ a[vi[ vti<v.
ºyiy:
ji(t, Xi(t, Fm< k[ (l>gni kirNsr B[dBiv krvin) rijyn[ mnie frmivvimi>
aiv) C[. an[ dr[kn[ miT[ smin tk an[ dr¶jin) ji[gvie krvimi> aiv) C[. pCit
vg<ni li[ki[ni (htni rxNiY[< Kis ji[gvie krvimi> aiv) C[.
S&(Ûti:
Äy(ktni Si(rr)k k[ min(sk ji[DiNi[ k[ lgivi[Y) pr hi[y an[ p(v#itini[ ²yil
aip[ t[v&> Äy(ktn&> aicrN. ai m*ÃyY) UBrt&> m*Ãy C[.Äy(ktn) biH an[
ai>t(rk AvµCti mh_vn) C[.
p\imi(Nkti:
j[n[ len[ sm(OT oiri nÊ) kriy[li> FiriFi[rNi[ k[ Äyvhirmi> c&AtpN[ piln
Yiy C[. ai pilnn) jvibdir) Äy(ktn) pi[tin) hi[y C[.
n)(tmy Äyvhir:
smij, aidS< j[vi aºy Xinni> A#ii[t oiri s*cv[li n)(t(nymi[n&> Äy(kt piln
kr[. t[ni d](nk an[ p\Ry[k Äyvhirmi> n)(tm_ii hi[y.
pirAp(rk shkir:
a[k d[S b)ji d[S siY[ an[ a[k Äy(kt b)J Äy(kt siY[ (vkis krvi arsprsni[
shkir m[Lv[ an[ ai shkirn) agRyti smj[. shkirni t_v vgr aijni (vÅvmi> Jvv&>
aSky C[ a[v&> Äy(kt jiN[.
(vÅv nig(rkti:
s>k&(ctti Ci[D)n[ (vÅv hv[ pi[tin& Fr C[ an[ t[ni[ t[ s¿y C[, nig(rk C[
a[v) Bivni k[Lv[, (vSiLti an[ udirtini s>dBi[< an[ mh_v smj[.
smijmi> t>d&rAt pr>prini[ (vkis:
Äy(kt (vkisn) j[Tl) jvibdir) k&T&>b an[ SiLin) C[ t[Tl) j jvibdir) smijn)
pN Yiy C[. j[ smij pCit pr>priai[ Friv[ C[ t[ smijmi> m*Ãyi[ni[ Av)kir Yti[ nY).
(vkis krvi mi>gt) Äy(kt nbLi smijmi> m*Ãyi[ vµc[ni[ s>FP< an&Bv[ C[. t[Y)
simi(jk kiy<kti<ai[a[ a[v) simi(jk ÄyvAYi UB) krv) ji[ea[ k[ j[Y) smijmi>
m*Ãyi[ vµc[ni[ s>FP< uÑBv[ nh).
p\kZ(t-pyi<vrNn&> rxN:
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mn&Oy p\kZ(tn&> sj<n C[ an[ jyir[ mn&Oy vF& n[ vF& aiF&(nk bn[
C[ Ryir[ t[ vF& n[ vF& kZ(#im bn[ C[. kZ(#imti Jvnmi> tNiv an[ s>FP< p[di
kr[ C[. minv Jvn j[Tl>& kZ(#im bn[ t[Tl& t[ pyi<vrNni m*Ãyi[Y) v>(ct bn[
C[. aivi s>ji[gi[mi> pyi<vrNni> m*Ãyi[ an[ aiF&(nktini m*Ãyi[ vµc[ s>FP<
p[di Yiy C[. ai s>FP<n[ TiLvi minv h>m[Si pyi<vrNni si(n¹ymi> Jv[ t[vi
p\yRni[ krvi ji[ea[.
riOT^)y a[kti miT[ j$r) tRvi[:
1. Birtni Avit>#y cLvLni[ e(this
3. riOT^)y a]ky
5. simi(jk avri[Fi[ d*r krvi
7. pyi<vrNn) jiLvN)
9. Si>(tY) an[ SA#ii[ (vni a[k Yvin) Bivni
2. b>FirN)y jvibdir)ai[
4. sv< sminti
6. jit)y sminti
8. riOT^ p\[m
10. Jvn m*Ãyi[n&> (SxN
s>dB< s*(c:
pT[l, a[n.D). an[ aºy.{2012}m*Ãy (SxN. b)l)mi[ri: ~)r>g (SxN mhi(vwily
ki(ryi, a[. a[n. Birt)y b>FirN. s). jmnidisn) k>pn)
p>cil, a[m. {2003}S]x(Nk (c>tn. nvBirt si(hRy m>(dr
pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy
p(rvir" n&> (SxNmi> yi[gdin
p\i. (r(¹Gb[n air. d[sie
ai(s. p\i[f[sr,â) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT b). a[D`. ki[l[j, pi>D[sri
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
siri>S
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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v)sm) sd)mi> Bi[gvid an[ Bi](tkvid[ minvn&> aF:ptn ai·y&> C[.
y>#ii[ni stt s>pk<Y) minv jD, BivS*ºy, AviY<priyN, tksiF& t[mj
ki>cnm*Ãyvid) bºyi[ C[. Ryig an[ tp, An[h an[ shkirni piyi pr UB[l&>
k&T&>bJvn aij[ Biv krti> Bi[gn[, Fm< krti> Fnn[ an[ An[h krti> AviY<n[ j
k[ºÚmi> riKt&> ji[vi mL[ C[. smij Jvnmi>Y) AvAYti, Si>(t smiFin Ki[viy[li>
C[. y&vip[Q) Avt>#itini ai[Yir n)c[ AvµC>d) an[ uµC^>Kl bn) j*ni> m*Ãyi[n[
B&l) (vd[S) s>AkZ(t piCL di[Dt) Ye C[. BÄy Birt)y s>AkZ(tn) (vD>bni Yt)
rh) C[ Ryir[ Birt)y s>AkZ(tni m*Ln[ Jv>t riKnir t[mj (SxNx[#imi> avnvi
p\yi[gi[ p\AYi(pt kr) nv) (dSi c)>Fnir ai¹yi(Rmk s>AYi a[Tl[ pi>D&r>gSiA#i)
aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir". p\At&t s>Si[Fnp#imi> s>Si[Fk[ p\v<tmin
smymi> (SxNx[#imi> Avi¹yiy p(rvirn&> S]x(Nk p\din a>g[ kiy< krvini[
an&k\m hiY Fyi[< hti[. ai s>dB[< s>Si[Fk[ h[t&ai[ni aiFir[ (vPyvAt&
pZ¸YkrN kr) ti(k<k-(ngmniRmk g&NiRmk s>Si[Fnn) p\y&(kt Üiri Avi¹yiy
p(rvir an&sir (SxNn) (vBivni, a¿yisk\m, (SxN pÜ(t, t[mj (SxNx[#ini (v(vF
p\yi[gi[ tirÄyi hti.
p\Ativni
v)sm) sd)mi> Bi[gvid an[ Bi](tkvid[ minvn&> aF:ptn ai·y&> C[. y>#ii[ni stt
s>pk<Y) minv jD, BivS*ºy, AviY<priyN, tksiF& t[mj ki>cnm*Ãyvid) bºyi[
C[. Ryig an[ tp, An[h an[ shkirni piyi pr UB[l&> k&T&>bJvn aij[ Biv krti>
Bi[gn[, Fm< krti> Fnn[ an[ An[h krti> AviY<n[ j k[ºÚmi> riKt&> ji[vi mL[ C[.
smij Jvnmi>Y) AvAYti, Si>(t smiFin Ki[viy[li> C[. y&vip[Q) Avt>#itini ai[Yir
n)c[ AvµC>d) an[ uµC^>Kl bn) j*ni> m*Ãyi[n[ B&l) (vd[S) s>AkZ(t piCL
di[Dt) Ye C[. BÄy Birt)y s>AkZ(tn) (vD>bni Yt) rh) C[ Ryir[ Birt)y
s>AkZ(tni m*Ln[ Jv>t riKnir t[mj (SxNx[#imi> avnvi p\yi[gi[ p\AYi(pt kr) nv)
(dSi c)>Fnir ai¹yi(Rmk s>AYi a[Tl[ pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy
p(rvir". Swadhyay is a Hindu philosophy, emphasizing on self-realization
(swadhyaya literally means self-study).21'Avi¹yiy" a[Tl[ p\vZ(t- p\B&n&> kim
krvi miT[ p\vZ(t; Fm< an[ s>AkZ(tn[ smjvi miT[ni[ sici[ Ø(OTki[N; smjdir),
p\kiS, ¹y[y-aidS<(nOqi. 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ai j tRvXinn[ an&sr[ C[.
'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" a[ ai¹yi(Rmk s>AYin) siY[ simi(jk s>AYi pN C[; an[ (SxN
ÄyvAYi ki[epN smijn&> ãdy C[. ãdy S&Ü, S(ktSiL) an[ Bivp*N< hi[y ti[
smij (nri[g), smY< an[ (dÄy bn[; ¹y[ylx), g&Niki>x) an[ t[jAv) rh[ an[
p\g(tni> aigL vFti[ rh[. aim ji[ti> ai s>AYi Üiri Yt) (v(vF p\vZ(tai[ p]k) a[k
S]x(Nk pN C[. 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" j[ tRvXinn[ an&sr[ C[ t[n&> pZ¸YkrN krti>
mil*m pD[ C[ k[ t[mn&> S]x(Nk (c>tn Birt)y s>AkZ(tni s>vF<n, s>rxN an[
hAti>trN krvi miT[ t[mj p\v<tmin (SxNp\Nil)n) Kim)ai[ d*r krvi miT[ a[k
am*Ãy (dSis*cn C[.
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SmAyikYn
p\At&t s>Si[Fn s>dB[< s>Si[Fk[ n)c[ dSi<v[l smAyi ps>d kr) ht):
pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" n&> (SxNmi> yi[gdin
a¿yisni h[t&ai[
1. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni tRvXinmi> (nOpºn Yt)
(SxNn) (vBivni tYi (SxNni h[t&ai[ jiNvi.
2. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" a[ aip[li a¿yisk\m tYi
(SxNpÜ(tni[ a¿yis krvi[.
3. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" a[ aip[li (SxN a>g[ni
(v(vF p\yi[gi[ni[ a¿yis krvi[.
a¿yisni p\Åni[
1. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni tRvXinmi> (nOpºn Yt)
(SxNn) (vBivni ke C[ tYi (SxNni h[t&ai[ kyi C[?
2. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" a[ aip[li a¿yisk\m k[vi[ an[
kyi[ C[ t[mj (SxNpÜ(t ke C[?
3. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni (SxN a>g[ni (v(vF
p\yi[gi[ kyi kyi C[?
Äyip(vÅv an[ nm*ni[
pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir"ni tRvXin pr aiFi(rt tmim p&Atki[
p\At&t a¿yisn&> Äyip(vÅv rH&> ht&>. p\At&t a¿yis miT[ pi>D&r>gSiA#i)
aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir"ni tRvXin pr aiFi(rt tmim p&Atki[ p]k) #iN p&Atki[
{'s>AkZ(t (c>tn", 'a[Oi pºYi a[tRkm<" an[ 'si>AkZ(tk (vcirFiri"} sh[t&k
nm*ni ps>dg) Üiri nm*ni tr)k[ ps>d krvimi> aiÄyi hti.
upkrNi[
p\At&t a¿yis g&NiRmk p\kirn&> hi[viY) s>Si[Fk[ pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[
p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir"ni tRvXin pr aiFi(rt #iN p&Atki[ {'s>AkZ(t (c>tn", 'a[Oi
pºYi a[tRkm<" an[ 'si>AkZ(tk (vcirFiri"}mi> smi(vOT S]x(Nk (vciri[ p\At&t
a¿yis miT[ upkrNi[ bºyi hti.
a¿yispÜ(t
p\At&t a¿yis pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir"ni tRvXinmi>Y)
(nOpºn Yt&> S]x(Nk p\din s>dB[< hi[viY) s>Si[Fk[ h[t&ai[n[ aiFir[ tirNi[
p\i¼t krvi g&NiRmk s>Si[Fnn) (vPyvAt& pZ¸YkrN pÜ(tni[ upyi[g krvimi>
aiÄyi[ hti[.
a¿yisn&> s)mi>kn
1.
p\At&t a¿yis pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir"ni tRvXin pr
aiFi(rt #iN p&Atki[ p*rti[ myi<(dt rHi[ hti[.
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2.
p\At&t a¿yis n)c[ dSi<v[l m&Ñi miT[ s)(mt rH&> ht&>:
(SxNn) (vBivni, (SxNni h[t&ai[, a¿yisk\m an[ (SxNpÜ(t, (SxN a>g[ni (v(vF
p\yi[gi[
mi(ht) a[k#i)krNn) r)t
p\At&t a¿yis pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir"n&> (SxNmi> p\din
hi[viY) s>Si[Fk[ p\Ym pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir"ni tRvXin
pr aiFi(rt tmim p&Atki[ p]k) j[ p&Atki[mi> S]x(Nk (c>tn f(lt Yt&> hi[y a[vi
#iN p&Atki[n) ps>dg) kr) ht). Ryirbid p\i¼t mi(ht)n&> pZ¸YkrN kr) t[n[
aiFir[ sirN)ai[ t]yir krvimi> aiv) ht).
mi(ht) pZ¸YkrNn) r)t
p\At&t a¿yis g&NiRmk p\kirn&> hi[viY) s>SiFk[ g&NiRmk s>Si[Fnn)
(vPyvAt& pZ¸YkrN t[mj ti(k<k-(ngmniRmk pÜ(tni[ upyi[g kr) sirN)ai[ t]yir
kr) ht).
p\At&t a¿yis s>dB[< sirN)ai[ n)c[ m&jb dSi<vvimi> aiv) C[:
h[t&-1 pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni tRvXinmi> (nOpºn Yt)
(SxNn) (vBivni tYi (SxNni h[t&ai[ jiNvi.
sirN)-1.1 (SxNn) (vBivni tYi (SxNni h[t&ai[
p&Atkn&>
(SxNn) (vBivni
(SxNni h[t&ai[
nim

j[niY) biLki[ni[ miti-(pti 
biLki[ni[ svi<>g)N
prni[ p\[m vF[ t[ C[ (SxN.
(vkis.

Äy(ktmi> Avt>#i Jvn(nOqi 
biLki[mi>
Ryig,
t[mj Avt>#i Äy(ktm_v UB&> kr[ s[vivZ(t,
n](tkti
j[vi
t[ (SxN.
g&Ni[ni[ (vkis.
s>AkZ(t (c>tn 
Ryig,
s[vivZ(_i,
n](tk 
biLki[mi> miti-(pti
vitivrN an[ AvFm<ni[ a¿yis a[Tl[ miT[ni[
p\[mn&>
(SxN.
ai(vOkrN .

a>t:(SxN an[ biH(SxNni[ 
biLki[mi> Avt>#i
smºvy a[Tl[ sic&> (SxN.
Jvn(nOqi (vkis.

Jvn(vkisni> #iN a>gi[viN), Sr)r an[ mnni[ yi[³y (vkis
a[Tl[ (SxN.

smijn[ (nri[g), smY< an[ 
simi(jk upyi[(gtini[
(dÄy bniv[; tYi biLki[n[ ¹y[ylx), h[t&
g&Niki>x) an[ t[jAv) bniv[ t[ 
biLki[mi> ¹y[ylx)ti,
(SxN.
g&Niki>x)ti an[ t[j(Avti
a[Oi
pºYi 
miti-(pti miT[ni[ aidr, smij j[vi g&Ni[ni[ (vkis
a[tRkm<
p\Ry[n) frj, (m#i-k&T>&b miT[n) 
Birt)y s>AkZ(tn&>
ligN), d[Sdiz, ä(Oi pr>pri miT[ni[ s>vF<n an[ gi]rv krvini[
p\[m, s>AkZ(t miT[n&> gi]rv an[ h[t&
Jvn p\Ry[ni[ (vFiyk Ø(OTki[N 
d[Sp\[m
an[
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uBi[ kr[ t[ (SxN.
si>AkZ(tk
(vcirFiri

To Educate= to draw out.

aÄykt S(kt an[ g&Ni[n[
jigZt kr[ t[ Kr&> (SxN.

k[vL upi(F m[Lvv) a[Tl[
(SxN n(h pN Jvn k[m Jvv&> t[
smjiv[ t[ a[Tl[ (SxN.

Jvn(vkisni> #iN a>gi[viN), Sr)r an[ mnni[ yi[³y (vkis
a[Tl[ (SxN.
d[Sdiz UB) krvini[ h[t&

(vFiyk Ø(OTki[N
uBi[ krvi[.

S)ls>vF<n

Aviây

Jvn(nvi<h clivvi
yi[³y bnv&>

kt<ÄypriyNti

p\ic)n
s>AkZ(tn&> s>rxN
h[t&-2 pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni tRvXinmi> (nOpºn
Yti[ a¿yisk\m tYi (SxNpÜ(t jiNv).
sirN)-1.2 a¿yisk\m tYi (SxNpÜ(t
p&Atkn&> nim
a¿yisk\m
(SxNpÜ(t
s>AkZ(t (c>tn

miti-(pti siY[ aiRm)y 
tpi[vn
s>b>F AYi(pt krniri[
(SxNpÜ(t

smij upyi[g) t[mj riOT^ 
p\vZ(tlx) (SxN
upyi[g)

an&Bvlx) (SxN

(v(vF m*Ãyi[ ujigr krniri[

(vwiY)<n[ aY<priyNn[
bdl[ XinpriyN an[ s[vipriyN
bn[ t[vi[
a[Oi
pºYi 
Birt)y s>AkZ(tn&> jtn, 
an&Bvlx) (SxN
a[tRkm<
s>vF<n krniri[

v]Xi(nk pÜ(ta[

eÅvr pr ØQ (vÅvis UBi[ K[t)n&> Xin
krniri[

p\vZ(tlx) a¹yyn

minv)y g&Ni[n[ (Klvniri[

yi[g, (c>tn, a>t:
Af*rNi

u_im nigr)ki[ bnivniri[

mn an[ b&(Ü K)lv[ t[vi[

stt
a¿yis&vZ(_i
UB)
krviviLi[
(vPyi[: #iN BiPi-a>g[\J, s>AkZ(t
an[ (hºd); aY<SiA#i, smijSiA#i,
simiºy Xin, kZ(P(vwi, Birt)y
tRvXin, gZh uwi[g, lG& uwi[g,
s>g)t, (c#ikim, hAtkim, l(ltkLi
si>AkZ(tk

mn, viN) an[ Sr)rn[ p&OT 
tpi[vn
(vcirFiri
krniri[
(SxNpÜ(t
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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
Jvn an[
smºvy krniri[
(SxN
vµc[ni[ 
s>Akir
(SxN

rimkil)n
pÜ(t
Üiri
(SxN
h[t&-3 pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" a[ aip[li (SxN a>g[ni
(v(vF p\yi[gi[ni[ a¿yis krvi[.
sirN) 1.3 (SxN a>g[ni (v(vF p\yi[gi[
(SxNni
(SxNx[#i[ p\din
p\yi[gi[
bils>Akir k[ºÚ AYipni e.s. 1950, m&>be
p(rBiPi âÜi an[ (vÅvis p&OT krvi miT[ni k[ºÚ
(vOiyv ci(r#y GDt) viti<, s>AkZtni Åli[ki[, p\[rNidiy)
At&
c(r#ii[ni[ p(rcy
s>b>F
aiRm)y
smy
S(nvir aYvi r(vvir a[k klik
s>cilkn 'mi"n) B*(mki, p\[rNidiy), s>Akiri[n&> (s>cn krnir,
)
piyin) k[LvN) aipnir, (SAt an[ s>Akir miT[ni[ Biv
B*(mki UBi[ krnir
AYipni e.s. 1956, YiNi
p(rBiPi Jv>t JvnSiLi an[ pi>D&r>gSiA#i)n) m>gLkir)
tRvXin
(vOiyv d&(hti
(vwip)q, YiNi At&
Km<ki>Dn&> b&(ÜgÀy SiA#)y Xin, a>g\[J, (hºd),
s>AkZt, si>AkZ(tk (vPyi[, tRvXin
s>b>F
aiRm)y an[ p\[mByi[<
p(rBiPi p\v<tmin pr)xi an[ D)g\) pr aiFi(rt (SxNÄyvAYin[
pDkir an[ aih`vin
h[t&
U>c) D)g\) siY[ u_im minv)y g&Ni[ s>k\i>t krvi
Jvn
p\Xi smy
#iN vP< SiLi an[ cir vP< ki[l[j
(vwilyi[
a¿yisk\ a[s. a[s. s). smkx, ki[l[j smkx
m
(nOqivin, p\B&p\[mmi> ali](kk p*jyBiv Frivti
(Sxki[
vinp\AYi[
s>AYi
tRvjyi[(t, rij&li {si]riOT^}, eÅvrBivni, vi>Qiy {kµC},
Bicsi]rB, li[NrviD) {ni(sk}, Biv(nz<r, amdivid
(vnyi(Fgm`
p(rBiPi p\v<tmin smymi> Ci[kri-Ci[kr)n[ a[ksrKi[ a¿yisk\m
rj* krviY) ud`Bvt) smAyin[ d*r krvi m*kiy[li[ S]x(Nk
h[t&
p\yi[g
g&Ni[n mn an[ b&(Üni[ (vkis krvi[
&>
Grkimmi> ki]SÃy, kLi p\Ry[n) a(B$c), viRsÃy,
s>k\mN Biv, si]Àyti
a¿yisk\
m
BiOiiai[n&> sGn Xin, s>g)t, (c#ikim, hAtkim,
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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l(ltkLi
a¿yisni tirNi[
1. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni mt[ (SxN a[Tl[ 'to draw
out', aÄykt S(kt an[ g&Ni[n[ jigZt kr[ an[ Jvn k[m Jvv&> t[ smjiv[.
2. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni mt[ (SxN a[Tl[a>t:(SxN
an[ biH(SxNni[ smºvy tYi (SxN a[Tl[ s>AkZ(t miT[n&> gi]rv an[ Jvn
p\Ry[ni[
(vFiyk Ø(OTki[N uBi[ kr[.\
3. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni mt[ biLki[ni[ svi<>g)N
(vkis,
biLki[mi> Ryig, s[vivZ(t, n](tkti j[vi g&Ni[ni[ (vkis, biLki[mi>
miti-(pti miT[ni[ p\[mn&> ai(vOkrN, simi(jk upyi[(gti j[vi> (SxNni h[t&ai[
jNivvimi> aiÄyi C[.
4. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni mt[ (SxN miT[ni[ a¿yisk\m
mn,
viN) an[ Sr)rn[ p&OT krniri[, Jvn an[ (SxN vµc[ni[ smºvy
krniri[, eÅvr pr ØQ (vÅvis UBi[ krniri[, minv)y g&Ni[n[ (Klvniri[, u_im
nigr)ki[ bnivniri[ hi[vi[ jiea[.
5. a¿yisni (vOiyi[ tr)k[ #iN BiPi-a>g[\J, s>AkZ(t an[ (hºd); aY<SiA#i,
smijSiA#i, simiºy Xin, kZ(P(vwi, Birt)y tRvXin, gZh uwi[g, lG& uwi[g,
s>g)t, (c#ikim, hAtkim, l(ltkLi j[vi> (vOiyi[ riKvi an&ri[F pi>D&r>gSiA#i)
aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" kr[ C[.
6. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" tpi[vn (SxNpÜ(t, s>Akir Üiri
(SxN, rimkil)n (SxN pÜ(t, an&Bv Üiri (SxN j[v) (SxNpÜ(tni[ an&ri[F kr[
C[.
7. pi>D&r>gSiA#i) aiqvl[ p\[(rt 'Avi¹yiy p(rvir" ni (SxNx[#i[ (v(vF p\yi[gi[mi>
bil s>Akir k[ºÚ, tRvXin (vwip)q, Jvn p\Xi (vwilyi[, (vnyi(Fgm`ni[ smiv[S Yiy
C[. ai upri>t, mi¹y(mk kxia[ pN (v(vF p\yi[gi[ hiY Fyi< C[.
s>dBi[<
1. zv[r), v). {1994}. s>AkZ(t (c>tn. dsm) aivZ(t. st` (vcir dS<n, m&>be.
2. zv[r), v). {1991}. a[P pºYi a[tRkm<. CÎ) aivZ(t. st` (vcir dS<n, m&>be.
3. zv[r), v). {1994}. si>AkZ(tk (vcirFiri. dsm) aivZ(t. st` (vcir dS<n,
m&>be.
http:// Pratik's Blogging Park /Blog Archive/ Principles of Swadhyay
Parivaar.html
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Birt)y (SxNmi> Avim) (vv[kin>dni
(SxN (c>tnn&> yi[gdin
p\i. a(nlib[n a[n. si[n)
ai(s. p\i[f[sr,â) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT b). a[D`. ki[l[j, pi>D[sri
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
siri>S
Avim) (vv[kin>da[ kãi&> C[ k[, ‘k[LvN) a[Tl[ p*v<Y) j minvmi> rh[l)
p*N<tin) a(BÄy(k(t.’ ai Xin minv)mi> virsin&sir aiv[ C[. ki[E Xin bhirY) nY)
aivt>&, a[ bF&> ai>t(rk C[. (SxN a[Tl[ aipNi mgjmi> Brvimi> aiv[l) aiK)
J>dg) s&F) phi[>µyi (vni Ryi> pD) rh)n[ ti[fin mcivnir) mi(ht)ni[ Qgli[ nh)>;
aipN[ Jvn GDniri, mn&Oy GDniri, ci(r#y GDniri (vciri[n&> g\hN an[ mnn
krv&> ji[ea[.Avim) (vvkin>dn&> JvndS<n Äyipk an[ v]S[(Pk ht&>. t[ai[
p\v<tmin (SxN p\Yini (vri[F) hti. t[ai[ p\Ån kr[ C[, ‘(vd[S) BiPimi> b)ji
(vciri[n[ gi[K)mir)n[ tmiri mgjmi> a[ bF&> Br)n[ t[mj (vÅv(vwilyi[n) upi(Fai[
m[Lv)n[ tm[ tmir) jitn[ (S(xt gNi[ Ci[? ain[ aipN[ k[LvN) kh)S&>? t[ni[ ud[S
Si[? tmiri (vSiL d[Sn[ ainiY) Si[ liB? tmir) k[LvN) gr)b li[ki[ni[ ai>k\d d*r kr)
Sk[ C[? " p\v<tmin (SxNp\Nil)n) nbL) p(r(AY(tn) s&FirNi tYi Birt)y s>AkZ(t
virsin&> sv<Fnni h[t&Y) s>Si[Fnkir[ p\At&t s>Si[Fn hiY Frvin&> (nFi<r)t
ky&<> ht&>. p\At&t s>Si[Fnni h[t&ai[ k[LvN)n) (vBivni, ud[Si[, pÜ(t an[
piqyk\m jiNvi s>dB[< hti. t[mj p\At&t s>Si[Fnmi> Avim) (vv[kin>dni (vciri[
aiFi(rt cir p&Atki[n[ sh[t&k nm*ni ps>dg)n) r)t Úiri ps>d krvimi> aiÄyi hti.
p\At&t s>Si[Fnmi> s>Si[Fk[ h[t&ai[n[ aiFir[ tirNi[ p\i¼t krvi g&NiRmk
s>Si[Fnn) (vPyvAt& pZ¸YkrN pÜ(tni[ upyi[g krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[.
p\Ativni
Avim) (vv[kin>d sRyn[ j eVr min[ C[. sRy Si[F k[ pi[tini Jvnni> p\Ry[k
piyimi> sRyn) Si[F krv) ji[ea[ t[mN[ Fm<n[ Äyvhi(rk Av$p[ rj* kyi[< C[.an[
(vXinn[ Av)kiy>&< C[. t[mN[ SIkt an[ sihsn) p\i(¼t miT[ g)ti an[ up(nPdni>
a¿yis pr Bir m*kyi[ C[. t[ai[ Fm<n[ tk< k[ S¾di[n[ (vPy minti nY). t[ai[ a[v)
k[LvN)mi> ~Üi Frivti hti k[ j[Y) ci(r#yn&> GDtr Yiy, mgjn) S(kt vF[, b&(Üni[
(vkis Yiy an[ mn&Oy aiRm(nB<r bn[ C[. t[ai[ s]Üi>(tk (SxN krti> Äyvhi(rk
(SxN pr Bir m*kti hti. t[ai[ s*cvti k[ tmiri smg\ kiy<x[#ii[mi> tmir[ Äyvhir)k
bnv&> ji[ea[. mi#i (sÜi>ti[ni Qgl[-QgliY) smg\ d[S (vniSn[ air[ aiv)n[ UBi[
C[. Birtni y&viFnn) aK*T SIktai[ni> A#ii[tn[ Birt d[Sn) prmvd>n)y
s>AkZ(tni jtn, s>rxN an[ s>vG<n miT[n) k\i>(t sj<nir Avim)Jn&> Jvn
Birtni> nig(rki[ miT[ ~[Oq aidS< C[. aim, Avim) (vv[kin>dn&> (SxN(c>tn
Jvnlx) an[ Jvnk[ºW) ht&>.
smAyi kYn
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p\At&t s>Si[Fn s>dB[< s>Si[Fk[ n)c[ dSi<v[l smAyi ps>d kr) ht):
Birt)y (SxNmi> Avim) (vvkin>dni (SxN (c>tnn&> yi[gdin
s>Si[Fnni h[t&ai[
p\At&t s>Si[Fnni h[t&ai[ ai m&jb C[.
1.
Avim) (vvkin>d[[ aip[l) (SxN a>g[n) (vBivni jiNv).
2.
Avim) (vvkin>d[ aip[li k[LvN)ni ud[Si[ a>g[ mi(ht) m[Lvv).
3.
Avim) (vvkin>d[ aip[l) k[LvN)n) pÚ(tai[ a>g[ mi(ht) p\i¼t krv).
4.
Avim) (vvkin>d[ aip[l k[LvN) miT[ni[ piqyk\m jiNvi[.
s>Si[Fnni p\Åni[
1.
Avim) (vvkin>d[ aip[l) (SxN a>g[n) (SxNn) (vBivni ke C[?
2.
Avim) (vvkin>dni mt[ k[LvN)ni ud`[Si[ kyi kyi C[?
3.
Avim) (vvkin>dni mt[ k[LvN)n) pÚ(tai[ ke an[ k[v) C[?
4.
Avim) (vvkin>dni mt[ k[LvN) miT[ni[ piqyk\m k[vi[ C[?
Äyip(vÅv an[ nm*ni[
Avim) (vvkin>dni (SxN (c>tn pr aiFi(rt tmim p&Atki[ p\At&t a¿yisn&>
Äyip(vÅv rH&> ht&>. p\At&t a¿yis miT[ Avim) (vvkin>dJni (SxN an[ (vciri[
pr aiFi(rt tmim p&Atki[ p]k) cir p&Atki[ {'k[LvN)", 'avi<c)n Birtni GDtrmi>
(Sxki[n) B*(mki an[ t[mn) jvibdir)" an[ '(Sxk ti[ C[ jyi[(tF<r",Avim)
(vv[kin>dn&> Jvn an[ s>d[S} sh[t&k nm*ni ps>dg) Üiri nm*ni tr)k[ ps>d
krvimi> aiÄyi hti.
s>Si[Fnni upkrNi[
p\At&t a¿yis g&NiRmk p\kirn&> hi[viY) s>Si[Fk[ Avim) (vvkin>dJni (SxN
an[ (vciri[ pr aiFi(rt cir p&Atki[ {'k[LvN) ",'avi<c)n Birtni GDtrmi> (Sxki[n)
B*(mki an[ t[mn) jvibdir)" an[ '(Sxk ti[ C[ jyi[(tF<r",Avim) (vv[kin>dn&> Jvn
an[ s>d[S }mi> smi(vOT S]x(Nk (vciri[ p\At&t a¿yis miT[ upkrNi[ bºyi hti.
s>Si[Fnni pÜ(t
p\At&t a¿yismi>Y) Avim) (vvkin>dJni (SxN an[ (vciri[ pr aiFi(rt (nOpºn
Yt&> S]x(Nk p\din s>dB[< hi[viY) s>Si[Fk[ h[t&ai[n[ aiFir[ tirNi[ p\i¼t krvi
g&NiRmk s>Si[Fnn) (vPyvAt& pZ¸YkrN pÜ(tni[ upyi[g krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[.
s>Si[Fnn&> s)mi>kn
3.
p\At&t a¿yis Avim) (vvkin>dJni (SxN an[ (vciri[ pr aiFi(rt cir p&Atki[
p*rti[ myi<(dt rHi[ hti[.
4.
p\At&t a¿yis n)c[ dSi<v[l m&Ñi miT[ s)(mt rH&> ht&>: (SxNn)
(vBivni, (SxNni ud[`Si[[, a¿yisk\m an[ (SxNpÜ(t.
mi(ht) a[k#i)krNn) r)t
p\At&t a¿yis g&NiRmk p\kirn&> hi[viY) s>SiFk[ g&NiRmk s>Si[Fnn)
(vPyvAt& pZ¸YkrN t[mj ti(k<k-(ngmniRmk pÜ(tni[ upyi[g kr) sirN)ai[ t]yir
kr) ht).
h[t&- 1 Avim) (vvkin>dni k[LvN)n) (vBivni:
Avim) (vv[kin>d ni mt[, “k[LvN) a[Tl[ p*<vY) j minvmi> rh[l) p*N<tin)
a(BÄy(k(t.” ai Xin minv)mi> virsin&sir aiv[ C[. ki[E Xin bhirY) aivt&>
nY).a[ bF&> ai>t(rk C[.udihrN tr)k[ ai g&r&_vikP<Nni[ (nym jgtmi> ki[e
K*Nimi> S&> ºy*Tnn) rih ji[ti[ b[qi[ hti[? ni, a[ (nym ºy*Tn ni mnmi> j hti[;
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smy pikyi[ Ryir[ a[ ºy*Tnn[ mÇyi[. jgtn[ hm[>Si mLt&> smg\ Xin mnmi>Y)
aiv[ C[. aipNi mnmi> j smg\ (vVn&> an>t p&Atkily C[; bihy jgt a[ mi#i s*cn
C[.mi#i p\s>g C[.j[ mi#i aipNi mn n[ a¿yis krvi p\r[ C[. an[ aipNi a¿yisni[
(vPy aipNi mnmi> j hiy C[.
Avim) (vv[kin>d kh[ C[ k[, li[ki[ n[ rcniRmk (vciri[ j aipvi ji[ea[.(nP[Fk
(vciri[ Bir aipn[ kh[ C[ k[ (SxN a[Tl[ aipNi mgjmi> Brvimi> aiv[l) aiK) J>dg)
s&F) phi[>µyi (vni Ryi> pD) rh)n[ ti[fin mcivnir) mi(ht)ni[ Qgli[ nh): aipN[
Jvn GDniri, mn&Oy GDniri, ci(r#y GDniri (vciri[n&> g\hN an[ mnn krv&>
ji[ea[.aipN[ a[v) k[LvN)n) j$r k[ j[ni Wiri ci(r#y GDtr Yiy. a¿yisY) eµCi
SIktni[ p\vih an[ a(BÄyk(t (ny>#iNmi> liv) Skiy tYi fLdiy) bniv) Skiy, t[ C[.
k[LvN) a>g[ t[ai minti hti k[, ‘k[LvN)a[ Ki[jn) p\(kyi C[.’ Avim)Jni mt[
‘k[LvN) a[ (KlvN)n&> kiy< C[. n(h k[ (KÃli qi[kvin&> Jvnmd_i p*N<ti an[
eµCiSIktn&> siY<k (ny#i>N krvin) p\(kyi a[Tl[ k[LvN)’. (Sxka[ mn&Oyni
mgjmi> Br[l) mi(ht)ni[ j¸Yi[ n(h, (vwiY)<ni Jvnn&> GDtr krnir sici minv)n&>
(nmi<N krnir, ci(r#yGDnir, (vciri[n[ aiRmsit krnir p\[rNiA#i[itn&> jºmAYin
a[Tl[ k[LvN).
h[t& -2 Avim) (vvkin>dni k[LvN)a>g[ni ud`[Si[
k[LvN)ni> ud`[Si[ a>g[ Avim) (vv[kin>d[ alg (vcir kyi[< nY).
pr>t& t[mni (vcir an[ lKiN mi>Y) ApOT r)t[ tr) aivti k[LvN) ni> ud`[Si[ n)c[
m&jb C[.
1} p*N<tin[ p\i¼t krvini[ ¹y[y.
2} ci(r#y GDtrni[ ¹y[y.
3} g&r& an[ (SOyni> vcc[ni> si>n&k*L
s>b>Fni[ ¹y[y.
4} n](tk an[ ai¹yi(tmk (vkisni[ ¹y[y.
5} aiRm(vVis, ~oi t[mj aiRmRyign) Bivnini[
¹y[y.
6} Äy(kt_vni> (vkisni[ ¹y[y.
1. p*N<tin[
p\i¼t
krvini[ ¹y[y:- Avim)Jni mt[ (SxNni[ p\Ym ¹y[y a>t(n(h<t p*N<tin[ p\i¼t krvini[ C[.
- Äyvhi(rk an[ ai¹y(Rmk Xin ti[ mn&Oymi> p\YmY) j C[.t[ni pr pD[li>
aivrNn[ hTivv&> a[ j k[LvN). aiY)j (SxNn&> p\i¼t ¹y[y mn&Oymi> rh[l)
p*N<tin&> p\gT)krN C[.
2. ci(r#y GDtrni[ ¹y[y:- (vv[kin>dJa[ ci(r#yni> (nmi<Nn[ (SxNn&> mh_vn&> ¹y[y min[ C[.
- ai miT[ t[mN[ b\Hcy< piln pr Bir l)Fi[ C[.an[ jNiÄy&> C[ k[ b\Hcy<
Wiri Äy(ktmi> bi](ok an[ ai¹yi(Rmk SIktai[ni[ (vkis YS[, siY[ siY[ mn, vcn
tYi km<Y) miNs p(v#i YS[.
3. g&@ an[ (SOyni> vµc[ sin&k*L s>b>Fni[ ¹y[y:- (Sxkni a>gt Jvn siY[ni s>pk<< (sviy (SxN s>Bv[ n(h.
- k[Tl)k yi[³ytiai[ (SOymi> hi[v) ji[e t[mj g&r&mi> pN t[ ji[e j[Y) t[mn)
vµc[ yi[³y sin&k*L s>b>F b>Fiy C[.
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4. n](tk an[ ai¹yi(tmk (vkisni[ ¹y[y:- ki[e pN d[Sn) mhinti mi#i t[ni ss>d)y kiyi[<Y) nY) hi[t) t[ ti[ d[Sni
nig(rki[n) mhinti hi[y C[.
- nig(rki[n[ mhin bnivvi t[mni[ n](tk an[ ai¹yi(Rmk (vkis K*b aivÆyk C[.
miT[ ai bibtn&> (SxNmi> mh_v C[.
5. aiRm(vVis, ~âi t[mj aiRmRyign) Bivnini[ ¹y[y:- Avim)Ja[ ÄyIktmi> aiRm(vVis, aiRm~âi aiRmRyig, aiRm(ny>#iN,
aiRm(nB<rti, aiRmXin j[vi> ali](lk sd`g&Ni[ni> (vkis krti> (SxNn[ vF&
mh_v ai¼y&>. t[mN[ khy&> C[ k[ ‘uqi[, jigi[ an[ ¹y[y p\i(¼t s&F) m>Dyi
rhi[".
6. Äy(kt_vni> (vkisni[ ¹y[y:
- yi[gSIktni> a[Tl[ k[ yi[gSiA#ini> (nymi[ an[ p\Nil)n&> piln krviY) dr[k
miNs pi[tin&> ÄyIkt_vn[ (vksiv) an[ mjb*t bniv) Sk[ C[
- aipNimi> rh[l) s*ÈmSIkt a[Tl[ s&P&¼tSIkt k[ j[ni Wiri pN ÄyIkt_vni[
(vkis Yiy C[. ai upri>t;
1. (v(vFtmi> a[ktin) Si[Fn&> ¹y[y
2. Fi(m<k (vkisn&> ¹y[y
3. s&T[vi[ni> GDtrn&> ¹y[y 4. mn&Oymi> minvp\[m,smijs[vi,(vVc[tni an[
(vVb>F&Rv (vksivvini[ ¹y[y
Avim) (vv[kin>d[ upr dSi<v[li h[t&ai[n) p\i(¼t miT[ n)c[ni migi[<
s&cÄyi hti.

Xinn) (v(Bºn SiKiai[ siY[ a>g\[J BiPi, si(hRy an[ a¿yis.

p\(v(Fk (SxN oiri uFi[gi[ni[ (vkis an[ t[ oiri ri[jgir)n) p\iI¼t.

Fm< siY[ Xinni[ smºvy,Bi](tkti siY[ ai¹y(mktini[ smºvy.

Sr)r, mn an[ aiRmi up>rit Avim) (vv[kin>d ãdyn) k[LvN pr Bir m*k)n[
t[n[ ¹y[yn) (s(oni[ mh_vni[ mig< gN[ C[.
h[t&-3 Avim) (vvkin>dni k[LvN)n) po(tai[
Avim) (vv[kin>dni> mt[ k[LvN)n) po(tai[ n)c[ m&jb C[.
1} a[kig\ti
2} a[kig\tin) SIkt
3} a[kig\tin) p\miNmi> tfivt
4} a[kig\tini> p(rNimi[
5} Xinn) a[kmi#i k*>c)
1} a[kig\ti:
6} a[kig\ti
- Xin m[Lvvin)
mi#i a[kmiT[
j r)t C[. j[n[ a[kig\ti kh[vimi> aiv[ C[.
- k[LvN)ni[ sir mnn) a[kig\ti j C[.
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- udihrN tr)k[ p\yi[gSiLimi> kim krti[ rsiyNSiA#i) pi[tin) SIkt a[k
(b>d&mi> k[(ºãt kr) m*Lt_vi[ upr p\yi[g kr[ C[.Ryir[ a[ t_vi[n&> pZ¸ikkrN
Yiy C[. an[ ai r)t[ t[n[ Xin mL[ C[.
2} a[kig\tin) SIkt:
- j[Tl) tmir) a[kig\tin) SIkt t[Tl&> tmn[ vFir[ Xin mLS[.kirNk[ Xin
m[Lvvini[ ai mi#i a[kj upiy C[.
3} a[kig\tini> p\miNmi> tfivt:- simiºy miNsmi> t[n) (vcirSIktni[ 90% Big ÄyY< Yiy C[.an[ t[Y) t[ stt
B*li[ kyi< kr[ C[. k[Lviy[l&> mn aYvi minv) kd) B*l kr[ nh).
- hlkimi> hlki miNsn[ mhinmi> mhin miNs siY[ srKiv) j&ai[; bn[>mi>
tfivt a[kig\tin) mi#ini[ j hi[y C[.
4} a[kig\tini p(rNimi[:
- ki[e pN ki<yx[#i[ prY)bF) sfLtiai[ aia[kig\tin&> j p(rNimC[. kli,g)t an[
s>g)t vg[r[ prY) u_im (s(Úai[ a[kig\tini> p(rNimi[ C[.
- jgtmi> yi[g a[Tl[ e(ºãyi[, eµCiSIktai[ an[ mnn[ kib*mi> riKvi>.
- g\)k li[ki[a[ pi[tin&> (Amt biHjgt pr k[(ºot ky&< an[ p(rNim[ kli an[
si(hRy vg[r[mi> p*N<ti kr).
5} Xinn) a[kmi#i k*>c):
- ¹yin a[Tl[ a[k\ig (vOiy upr (c_i k[(ºãt krv&> t[.
- a[kig\ti an[ a(l¼ttin) SIkt j k[Lvv) an[ pC) s>p*N< sjj minv$p) siFn vD[
eµCi m&jbn) hk)kti[ a[kq) kr[ C[.
- Xinni B>Dirn) a[kmi#i civ) ai a[kig\ti C[.
6} a[kig\ti miT[ b\Hc<y aivSyk:
- sp*<N b\Hcy< aipNn[ mi[T) bi](ok an[ ai¹yi(Rmk SIkt aip[ C[.
- s>ymmi> riK[l) EµCi svi[<µc p(rNim[ le jiy C[. e(ºWai[ Bi[gn) SIktn[
ai¹yi(Rmk SIktmi> f[rv) niK[ C[.
- b\Hcir)a[ e(ºãy Bi[gi[n) bibtmi> (vcir , viN) an[ vt<n ãiri p(v#i rh[v&>.
7} j[v) Bivni t[v) (s(Ú :
- aiv) S&Ú Bivni ~Úi bn)n[ minvsmijn&> sv<Fmi[<n&> a[k SIktSiL)
a>g C[.
- si]p\Ym ÄyIkta[ pi[tinimi> ~Úi riKv), t[ j t[n) (s(Ún&> p(rNim bn[ C[.
- aw:ptnn) S$ait jyirY) ÄyIkt pi[tin) ~âi Ki[e C[. RyirY) Ye C[ aiRm~Úi
Ki[v) a[Tl[ EVrmi> ~Úi Ki[v).
8} sv< (vkisni[ piyi[ - aiRm~Úi :
- ÄyIkta[ pi[tin) jitmi> (vVis jig\t krvi[ ji[ea[. Ryir[ t[ j aipNi d[Sn) smx
pD[l) tmim AmAyiai[ni[ k\(mk aipN[ pi[t[ j uk[l liv) Sk)S&>.
- tmim p&Atki[ an[ p\ic)n ä(Pai[ bFi a[k j upd[S kr[ C[. k[ aiRmin) an>t
SIktmi> ~Úi riKi[.
- Avim)Ja[ jNiv[l (SxNn) pÚ(tmi> gi[KNpÍ)n[ (blk&l AYin nY). t[mni
(vciri[mi>Y) f(lt Yt)n[ (SxNn) aºy (ny>#iN pÚ(tai[ ai p\miN C[.
1. yi[g Wiri (v_i vZ(_iai[n) (ny>#iN pÚ(t.
2. a[kig\ti aYvi k[ºÚ)krN pÚ(t.
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3. tk<,(vcir-(vm<S tYi Äyi²yin pÚ(t.
4. p\Ryx an&Bvi[ Wiri Xin p\i(¼tn) pÚ(t.
5. avli[kn pÚ(t.
“p&Atki[ Wiri Xin” n[ bdl[ “ p\Ryx an&Bv Úiri Xin”n[ t[mN[ K*b j
agRyn&> jNiÄy&> C[.
h[t&-4 piqyk\m{a¿yisk\m} :
Avim) (vv[kin>d Wiri rj* Yy[l k[LvN)ni[ a¿yisk\m n)c[ m&jb C[.
1. (vXin an[ v[di>tni[ smºvy.
2. klin&> (SxN
3. s>AkZtn&> BiPiy
4. riOT^BiPi
5. p\id[(Sk BiPiai[n[ p\i[Rsihn.
6. Sir)(rk (SxN
7. Fi(m<k (SxN
8. gr)bi[n) s[vi
9. A#i) k[LvN)
10. simiºyjn vg<n) k[LvN)
11. riOT^)y (SxN
12. si¹y an[ (SxN
s>Si[Fnni tirNi[
- Avim)Jni> Jvn dS<n an[ piqyk\mmi> ai¹yi(Rmk smºvy Yy[li[ C[.
- (c>tn an[ (k\yimi> ki[e a>tr rh[v&> ji[ea[ nh).>
- (SxNn) tki[ smin hi[v) ji[ea[
- t[mni m>tÄy m&jb (SxN an[ Xin, km< an[ BIktni[ (#iv[N) s>gm C[.
- k[LvN) a[ smij uRYin siY[ riOT^)yti uRYinn) p\(kyi C.[
- mitZBiPi oiri jnsimiºyn[ (SxN aipv&> ji[ea.[
- k[LvN) a[Tl[ minvmi> rh[l) p*N<tin&> p\igTy.
- p&Atki[ Wiri Xinn[ bdl[ p\Ryx an&Bv Úiri Xin pr Bir m*kyi[.
-‘uqi[ jigi[ an[ ¹y[y p\i(¼t s&F) m>Dyi rhi[ni s*#i oiri d[Sni y&vi vgi[<n[
¹y[yn) p\i(¼t miT[ yi[³y di[rvN) an[ mig<dS<n p*ri piD)n[ t[mni ÄyIkt_vni[
(vkis krvimi> aiv[ C[.
s>dBi<[
1. p\sid b\ïBÎ.{2012}.Avim) (vv[kin>dn&> Jvn an[ s>d[S. amdivid:
g*j<r g\>YrRn kiyi<ly.
2. r>gniYin>d. {2011}. avi<c)n Birtni> GDtrmi> (Sxki[n) B*(mki an[
t[mn) jvibdir). amdivid: ~) rimkZON ai~m.
3. (vv[kin>d. { 20011}. (Sxk ti[ C[ jyi[(tF<r. amdivid: ~) rimkZON
ai~m.
(vv[kin>d. {2011}. k[LvN). rijki[T: Avim) F\&v[n>d rijki[T.
Jt;tobttlt mtbtgtbttk dtw~fwG
vt{Kttjteltwk btn;Jt
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ztU. rltbtojt fu. vtxujt
`e btntJteh rJt$tbtkr’h x[mx cte.yuzT. ftujtus,vttkzumtht, mtwh;t.
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION

vt{m;ttJtltt &
%%’uNtltu nJtu s~h Au yurlxcttgtturxfTmtlttu ftumto, _tumtelt nJtu ftbt
ytvt;te lt:te.^^
mttCtth-%dtwsht;t mtbttatth 'irltf Jt;tobttlt^
Jt;tobttlt vt*tltt vt{:tbt vttltt Wvth Ègtthu yt vt{fthltwk jtFttKt JttkatJtt btGu
;gtthu ftuE vtKt Jgtr³;t sultu vttu;ttltt htMx[vt{;gtu yt’h ntugt, vt{ubt ntugt ;tu
natbtate Sgt Au. vthk;tw Jttm;trJtf;tt mttate Au. sultu mtbt:tolt ytvt;ttk
atu;tlt Ctdt;tu vttu;ttltt vtwm;tf %Jntux gtkdt Erlzgtt JttulxTmt^bttk
lttuk"gtwk Au fu,- %Ctth;tltt 28 htÈgttu vtife ltfmtjtJtt’eytulte Ctthu
ymthJttGtk 7 htÈgttu, [email protected] ;tbttbt 7 htÈgttubttk ftkE ltu ftkE
;ttuVtlttu yltu nt ftNbtehbttk ;ttu nhnkbtuNt attjt;te CttkdtVtuz ytbt fwjt 15
htÈgttubttk ;ttu ytk;trhf fu cteB dthctztu attjtw s ntugt Au. Wvthtk;t ytvtKtu
;gttk "tbto/|ttr;t/vt{t’urNtfJtt’ yt"ttrh;t ;ttuVtlttu ;ttu 'uNtltt cteS Cttdttubttk
attjt;ttk s ntugt Au.^ ;gtthu ftuEvtKt Jgtr³;tltt btltbttk *tKt vt{Plttu W’TCtJtu
Au- yt ct"twk Ntwk attjte hÏwk Au? yt ct"twk ytvtKtltu ³gttk jtE sNtu? ;t:tt yt
ct"tt bttxu Ntwk :tE Ntfu? Wvthtuf;t vt{Plttultt yltwmtk"ttltbttk Su ratk;tlt
fhJttbttk ytJtu ;ttu vt{:tbt vt{Pltltt vt{;[email protected] mtk’Ctuo SKtJtt btGu Au fu,
Dttuhyk"tuh. cteS vt{Pltltt [email protected] rltrPat;t vt;tlt yltu *teS vt{Pltltt
sJttctbttk rNtHtKtbttk ytbtqjt vtrhJt;tolt.

mtbtmgtt f:tlt
vt{m;tw;t yCgttmt y"gtu;ttyu lteatu vt{bttKtultt NteMtof mtt:tu nt:t "tgtto
n;ttu.
%%Jt;tobttlt mtbtgtbttk dtw~fwG vt{Kttjteltwk btn;Jt^^

yCgttmtltt nu;twytu
vt{m;tw;t yCgttmt lteatultt nu;twytu mtk’Ctuo nt:t "thJttbttk ytJgttu n;ttu.
1.
rNtHtKt :tfe mtbtts vtrhJt;tolt mtk’Ctuoltt ²gttÃttuºttu yCgttmt fhJttu.
2.
Jt;tobttlt rNtHtKt vt{Kttjte mtk’Ctuolte cttct;ttuºttu yCgttmt fhJttu.
3.
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtelte s~rhgtt;t mtk’Ctuolte cttct;ttuºttu
yCgttmt fhJttu.

yCgttmtltt vt{Plttu
y"gtu;tt «tht yCgttmt 'hbgttlt lteatultt vt{Plttultt [email protected] btuGJtJttltt
vt{gt;lttu :tgtt n;tt.
1.
Ntwk rNtHtKt :tfe mtbtts vtrhJt;tolt Nt³gt Au?
2.
Jt;tobttlt
rNtHtKt
vt{KttjtebttkfE-fE
cttct;ttuºtu
vt{t"ttlgt
ytvtJttbttkytÄtu Au?
3.
mttkvt{;t mtbtgtbttk Ntt bttxu dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtelte s~he Au?

yCgttmtltwk btn;Jt
vt{m;tw;t yCgttmt lteatu vt{bttKtultwk btn;Jt "thtJtu Au.
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1.
rNtHtKt :tfe mtbtts rltbttoKt mtk’Ctuolte SKtfthe vt{tv;t fhe NtftNtu.
2.
mttkvt{;t mtbtgtlte rNtHtKt vt{:ttlttu Fgttjt vtqhtu vtzNtu.
3.
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{:ttltwk btn;Jt SKte NtftNtu.

yCgttmtltwk mtebttkflt
vt{m;tw;t yCgttmt lteatu vt{bttKtultt mtebttkflt mtt:tu nt:t "thtgttu n;ttu.
1.
vt{m;tw;t yCgttmt yu dtwKtt;btf vt{fthlttu ntugt bttxu btt*t
mtk’Cttuoltu ytr"tlt hÏtu n;ttu.
2.
vt{m;tw;t yCgttmt *tKt vtwm;tftultu ytr"tlt hneltu ;tigtth fhJttbttk
ytJgttu n;ttu. su *tKt vtwm;tftu dtw~dte;tt, mJttbte rJtJtuftltk’ & BJtlt yltu
mtk’uNt, yltu rJt$t:teoltu vt*t.

JgttvtrJt# yltu ltbtqlttu
vt{m;tw;t yCgttmt mtk’Ctuo dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjteltt 'Ntolt :ttgt yu
;tbttbt vtwm;tftu JgttvtrJt# ctltu Au. Ègtthu ltbtqltt ;thefu y"gtu;ttyu
%dtw~dte;tt, mJttbte rJtJtuftltk’ & BJtlt yltu mtk’uNt, yltu rJt$t:teoltu vt*t^
yu *tKt vtwm;tflttu mtbttJtuNt fgttuo n;ttu.

yCgttmtltt ;tthKttu
dtwKtt;btf vt{fthltt yCgttmtltt yk;tu lteatu vt{bttKtu ;tthKttu vt{tv;t :tgtt n;tt &
1.
rNtHtKt :tfe mtbtts vtrhJt;tolt mtctk"te ;tthKttu
yuf atelte fnuJt;t Au fu, %Su ;tbtu yuf JtMtoltwk ytgttuslt fh;tt ntu ;ttu Atuz
JttJttu, vttkat JtMtoltwk ytgttuslt fh;tt ntu ;ttu Jt]Ht JttJttu yltu Su vtattmt
JtMtoltwk ytgttuslt fh;tt ntu ;ttu btt:tt JttJttu.^^ yuxjtu fu- lttdtrhftultu
rNtHtKt vtqhwk vttztu. rNtHtKt :tfe btltwMgtltwk Dtz;th :ttgt Au yltu
btltwMgtltt Dtz;th :tfe mtbtts Dtz;th. ytbt Ègtthu mtbttsltwk Dtz;th fhJttltwk
ntugt, su vt{bttKtultt mtbttslte yvtuHtt ntugt, ;tu vt{bttKtultwk rNtHtKt
vtqhwk vttzJtwk SuEyu. fthKt fu, ytslttu rJt$t:teo yu ytJt;te ftjtltwk
CtrJtMgt Au. bttxu rNtHtKt :tfe s mtbtts vtrhJt;tolt Nt³gt ctlte Ntfu Au.
2.
mttkvt{;t mtbtgtlte rNtHtKt vt{Kttjte mtctk"te ;tthKttu
ynek ytvtKtu yu Jtt;t ctFtqcte mtbtB jtuJte SuEyu fu, ytslte rNtHtKt
vt{Kttjte yu atth %vt^ lte yk’h mtbttgtujt Au. (1) vttXTgt vtwm;tf (2)
vterhgtz (3) vtheHtt (4) vtrhKttbt. ytbt atth %vt^ rmtJttgt ytsltwk rNtHtKt
ytdtG Jt"t;twk lt:te. ytsltwk rNtHtKt yu Jgtr³;t rltbttKtoltu btwFgt dtKt;twk
lt:te. mttkvt{;t rNtHtKt JgtJtm:ttltu btt*t htusdtth furlY;t rNtHtKt JgtJtm:tt
fne Ntftgt. su Jgtr³;t rltbttoKtltu dttiKt yltu y:toWvttsoltltu btwFgt dtKtu Au.
bttxu htMx[bttk rJtrJt"t vt{fthlte mtbtmgttytu W’TCtJtu Au. Wvthtk;t Jgtrf;t
btt*t %vtimttu btthtu vthbtu#h nwk vtimttlttu ltt:t^ lte CttJtltt:te ytdtG Jt"tu
Au. sgttk vthmvth vt{ubt, yt’h yltu rbt*t;ttlte CttJtltt vt{;gtu 'wjtoHt mtuJttgt
Au. ytsltwk rNtHtKt su yu CttJtltt lt:te NteFtJt;twk fu, Ègttk btt;t]’uJttu CtJt,
rvt;t]’uJttu CtJt, ytattgto 'uJttuCtJt, yr;tr:t 'uJttu CtJt, bttxu s mtbttsbttk
Jt]}t`bttu ;t:tt rNtHtKt sdt;tbttk Jtuvtthe-dt{tnflte CttJtltt 'uFttgt ytJtu Au. yu
CttJtltt ;gtthu s lttctq’ :tNtu Ègtthu vtwlt& dtw~fwG vt{Kttjte yrm;t;Jtbttk
ytJtNtu.
3.
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtelte s~rhgtt;t mtctk"te ;tthKttu &
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ytsltt Elxhltux gtwdtbttk yt dtw~fwG vt{Kttjte ytJtNgtf Au Fthe? yt vt{Pltltt
[email protected] vtqhtu vttzJtt yuf 'jtejt mttkCtGJtt suJte Au. dtw~fwG rNtHtKt
vt{Kttjtebttk fulYm:ttltu dtw~ n;ttu. dtw~ vttu;ttltt rNtMgtltu JgtJtntrhf
rNtHtKt vtq~k vttz;ttu. ;tu vttu;ttltt rNtMgtlte Fttrmtgt;ttu SKt;tt, dtbttuyKtdtbttu, ltctGtEytu:te vtrhrat;t n;tt bttxu yu vt{bttKtulte rNtHtKt JgtJtm:tt
vtqhe vttz;tt. mt;t;t btqjgttkflt fh;tt, Snuh vtheHttlttu zh lt n;ttu. Wvthtk;t
Jgtr³;tlte htMx[, htÈgtlte sJttct’the vtKt sKttJt;tt. vtrhKttbt mJt~vt rNtMgt
vttu;ttlte sJttct’the:te vtKt JttfuV n;tt.
vtrhJtr;to;t vttXTgt_bt &
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtebttk rlt"ttorh;t vttXTgt_bt lt n;ttu. vtrhKttbt mJt~vt
mtbttslte bttkdt, htÈgtlte vtrhrm:tr;t, rNtMgtlte ytJtz;t, yltwmtth dtw~
rNtHtKt vtqhwk vttz;tt. rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtebttk htMx[-htÈgtvt{ubtltu Áatwk
m:ttlt vtqhwk vttzJttbttk ytJt;twk. fthKt fu, dtw~ltt BJtltlte mtkvtqKto
sJttct’the htÈgtt`gte n;te. bttxu dtw~ vtKt htÈgt vt{;gtu fxect} n;tt.
mJt;tk*t vtheHtt JgtJtm:tt &
Wvthtk;t dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtebttk mttkvt{;t mtbtgtltt rNtHtKtlte bttVf
rlt"ttorh;t vttXTgt_bt lt n;ttu, fu lt ;ttu yu vttXTgt_bt fuxjtu ykNtu dt{nKt
:tgttu yu bttxulte vtheHtt JgtJtm:tt. vtrhKttbt mJt~vt rNtMgtlttu
mtJttOdteKt rJtftmt :t;ttu. Ègtthu Jt;tobttlt mtbtgtbttk btt*t vtheHttltt
vtrhKttbtltu yt"tthu s lt²e fhJttbttk ytJtu Au fu rJt$t:teo fuxjttu ctwr}NttGe
Au. su:te rJt$t:teo btt*t vttXTgt_bt yltu vterhgtzbttk ctk"ttgtujt hnu Au.
Wvthtk;t ytsltt rJt$t:teoytultu lttvttmt :tJttlttu zh vtKt yltwCtJttgt Au.
rNtHtKt mtbtgt:te vth &
rNtHtKtltt mtbtgtlte Jtt;ttu fheyu ;ttu dtw~fwG vt{Kttjtebttk rNtHtKtltt mtbtgt
fh;ttk rNtHtKt-dtwKttu dt{nKt vth Jt"tw vt{t"ttlgt ytvtJttbttk ytJt;twk.
vtrhKttbt mJt~vt rNtMgt rNtHtKt btuGJgtt ctt’ vtdtCth :tE Ntf;ttu. Ègtthu
mttkvt{;t mtbtgtltt rNtHtKtlttu ;tct²tu rltrPat;t mtt:ttu-mtt:t rNtHtKt yuJte
Ftt*te lt:te vtqhwk vttz;twk fu, rNtHtKt btuGJgtt ctt’ ;tbtu vtdtCth ctlte s
NtfNttu, bttxu Waat yCgttmt fhujt Jgtr³;t vtKt mtbttsbttk Ctxf;te yltu ctufth
SuJtt btGu Au.
BJtlt Wvtgttudte rNtHtKt JgtJtm:tt &
dtw~fwG vt{Kttjtebttk dtw~ytu «tht ;tubtltt rNtMgttultu BJtlt Wvtgttudte
ftgttuo Wvthtk;t vttu;ttlte htushtuxe fbttEltu dtwshtlt atjttJte Ntfu yuJtt
JgtJtmttgttu NteFtJtJttbttk ytJt;tt su:te yCgttmtftG ctt’ Jgtr³;t htMx[ltu
Wvtgttudte ctlte Ntfu. ytsltwk rNtHtKt yt mtVG;tt yvttJte Ntfu Fthwk? yuf
;ttjtebtvt{tv;t Jgtr³;t vttu;ttltt ftgtoHtu*t ctnthlte cttct;t rJtatthe vtKt Ntfu ltnek
;ttu vtAe ylgt JgtJtmttgtlte ;ttu Jtt;t s Nte fhJte? vtrhKttbt mJt~vt r’Jtmtur’Jtmtu rNtrHt;t ctufthtulte mtkFgttbttk Jt]r} :t;te SuJtt btGu Au.
btqjgtltu Áatwk m:ttlt &
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtebttk btqjgtltu Áatwk m:ttlt vtqhwk vtzt;twk. btqjgt
fulYm:ttltu n;twk. su:te s fnuJttgtwk Au fu, %hDtwfwjt he;t mt’t atjte ytE
vt{tKt Sgt vth Jtatlt ltt Sgtu^ Wvthtk;t 'gtt, vt{ubt, mtntltwCtqr;t,
mtrnMKtw;tt suJtt btqjgttultwk s;tlt fhJttbttk ytJt;twk. dtw~ytu vttu;ttltt
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rNtMgttubttk btqjgttultt mtkatgt, mtkJt"tolt yltu Jt]r} bttxultt vt{gttmttu fh;tt
vtrhKttbt mJt~vt Ct{Mxtatthltwk lttbttu-rltNttlt lt n;twk. vttu;ttltt n² fh;ttk
Jt"tw vt{tv;t fhJttlte 'tlt;t ftuE vtKt Jgtr³;tltu lt n;te. htS vttu;ttlte vt{Sltwk rn;t
Su;tt. Ègtthu mttkvt{;t mtbtgtbttk ytltt:te yuf’bt rJtvthe;t vtrhrm:tr;t SuJtt
btGu Au. bttxu vtKt Jt;tobttlt mtbtgtbttk dtw~fwG vt{Kttjte [email protected] sKttgt
Au.
dtw~-rNtMgt mtkctk"t &
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtebttk dtw~-rNtMgtlttu mtctk"t yuf ylttuFttu n;ttu.
dtw~ vttu;ttltt rNtMgtlte mtkCttG htFt;tt. vttu;ttltt vtw*tlte bttVf mttatJt;tt
dtww~btt;tt vtKt vttu;ttltt yt`btlttk rNtMgttu Wvthtk;t yt`btlte ;tbttbt cttct;ttu
mtk’Ctuo yuxjtt s dtkCteh n;tt. dtw~ ;t:tt rNtMgt Jtaatu yuf yt’Nto mtctk"t
m:tvtt;ttu. rNtMgt vttu;ttlte ;tbttbt mtbtmgttltwk rlthtfhKt vttu;ttltt dtw~
vttmtu btuGJt;tt. rNtMgtltu vttu;ttltt dtw~ vth y:ttdt `}t n;te. dtw~ bttxu su
ftkE fhNtu yu mtthwk nNtu yuJte CttJtltt rNtMgtbttk mtbttgtujt n;te. dtw~
fvthtbttk fvthe fmttuxe fheltu vttu;ttltt rNtMgttultu btqjtJt;tt vthk;tw rNtMgttu
`}t htFteltu vttu;ttlte sJttct’the y’t fh;tt. mttkvt{;t mtbtgtltt rNtHtKtbttk ctlltu
vtHtu ftkE fattmt hne ntugt yuJtwk SuJtt btGu Au. ytsu ;tbttbt rNtMgttu
vttu;ttltt dtw~ vth `}t htFteltu ftgto fh;tt ntugt yuJtwk SuJtt btG;twk lt:te.
vtrhKttbt mJt~vtu DtKte JtFt;t dtw~-rNtMgttu Jtaatu ;tfhthltt rfmmtt vtKt
vt{ftrNt;t :t;tt hnu Au. yt vt{Kttjte ct’jtJtt bttxu vtKt dtw~fwG rNtHtKt
vt{Kttjte ytJtNgtf ctltu Au.
rNtHtKt vt{'tltlttu nu;tw &
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtebttk dtw~ lttu ytNtgt
vttu;ttltt rNtMgtltu
vttu;ttltt:te mtJttgttu ctlttJtJttlttu n;ttu. lt fu rNtMgtltu |ttlt JtuatJttlttu. dtw~
vttu;ttltt rNtMgtltu |ttlt vtqhwk vttz;tt yltu s~h;t vtzgtu rNtMgt dtw~ltu dtw~
'rHtKtt vtqhe vttzJte vtz;te. vthk;tw yu ;tbttbt cttct;ttubttk dtw~ vttu;ttltt
rNtMgtlte rm:tr;tltu ltsh mtbtHt htFt;tt. yltu f’tat ftuE rNtMgt vttmtu dtw~
'rHtKtt lt vtKt btkdtt;te. Jt;tobttlt rNtHtKt JgtJtm:ttbttk yts cttct;t yuf
Jtuvtthe ;t:tt dt{tnf mtbttlt ctlte dtE Au. Áate rfkbt;t vt{'tlt fhlttht rNtMgttu
ltdthtubttk mtthe mtkm:ttytubttk yCgttmt fhu Au. yltu ytJte Áate rfkbt;t
vt{'tlt fheltu CtKtujtt rNtMgttu vttmtu 'gttlte-f~Kttlte CttJtlttlte yvtuHtt
htFtJte btwNfujt ntugt Au. yvtJtt’tu Ftqct ytuAt SuJtt btGu Au.
ytathKt «tht rNtHtKt &
dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjtebttk ytathKt «tht rNtHtKt vt{'tlt fhJttbttk ytJt;twk.
%ytathu ;tu ytattgto^lte mtwr³;t mtt:tof n;te.
%%mJtgtbttath;tu gtmbtt’tatthk m:ttvtugt;gtrvt >
ytratlttur;t at Nttm*ttrKt ytattgtom;tult attuagt;tu >>^^
ct{ÍttKz vtwhtKt. vtqJto 32/32
ytattgto vttu;ttltt ytathKt:te vttu;ttltt rNtMgtltu rNtHtKt vtqhwk vttze 'u;tt yltu
rNtMgt vtKt dtw~ltt ytathKtltwk nwctnw vttjtlt fh;tt. vtrhKttbtu dtw~rNtMgtltt mtctk"ttulte rbtXtNt sGJttE hnu;te. rNtMgtu vttu;ttltt dtw~lte
yt|ttltwk vttjtlt fhJttbttk ftuE vtKt cttct;tlte Ntkft-fwNtkft lt n;te. mttkvt{;t
mtbtgtltwk rNtHtKt ytltt:te yuf’bt rJtvtrh;t SuJtt btGu Au. rNtHtftu vttu;ttltt
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ltu;tt (ytattgto)lte Jtt;tltwk/yt’uNtltwk ytathKt fh;tt lt:te. ;ttu vtAe rNtMgt
fgttk:te vttu;ttltt rNtHtftultt yt’uNtltwk ytathKt fhJttltt. ytbt, ytathKtlte
cttct;ttubttk vtKt dtw~fwG rNtHtKt vt{Kttjte ytslte rNtHtKt vt{Kttjte fh;ttk
atrzgtt;te mttrct;t :ttgt Au.
4.
Wvtmtknth &
bttxu Aujjtu Ctth;tlte mttkvt{;t rNtHtKt JgtJtm:ttltu mtw"tthJttlttu mtbtgt
ytJte dtgttu Au. DtKtt jttuftu fnu Au fu, %Ctth;tbttk fgtthugt fNtwk ct’jte
Ntftgt ;tubt lt:te.^ ;tultt fh;ttk vtKt yuf bttuxwk mt;gt Au Fthwk. ;tu mt;gt
%dte;tt^bttk:te ytvtKtltu vt{tv;t :ttgt Au fu, %ftuE vtKt Jtt;t ftgtbt ntu;te
lt:te.^ %dte;tt^ yu vtKt fnu Au fu, %Ègtthu vttvtlttu Dtztu Ajtftgt Au, ;gtthu
mtwJgtJtm:tt m:ttvtJtt fNtkwf ctltu Au.^ nJtu ytvtKtu S;tu lt²e fhJttltwk Au
fu, Ctth;tegt rNtHtKt JgtJtm:tt m:ttvtJte yltu vttGJte yulttu y:to Ntwk? yltu
yu ytvtKtu mtti mtt:tu btGeltu s lt²e ffhJttltwk Au fu yt vttPatt;gt rNtHtKt
vt{Kttjte mtk’Ctuo Ntuheytubttk Q;the ytJtJttlttu mtbtgt nJtu vttfe dtgttu
Au.
5.
mtk’Ctomtqrat &
1)
vtkzgtt, vte. (2010). %dtw~dte;tt^ gtwdt rltbttoKt gttusltt rJtm;tth
x[mx & dttgt*te ;tvttuCtqrbt, bt:twht.
2)
Ctdt;t, mte. (2013). %Jntux gtkdt Erlzggtt JttulxTmt^ (vt{:tbt
ytJt][email protected]) ltJtCtth;t mttrn;gt btkr’h & ybt’tJtt’.
3)
rCtkzu, yult. (2012). %mJttbte rJtJtuftltk’ BJtlt yltu mtk’uNt^
(cteB ytJt][email protected]) rJtJtuftltk’ fulY dtwsht;te vt{ftntlt rJtCttdt & ybt’tJtt’.
4)
Nttn, B. (2000). %mttJt"ttlt! yufJtemtbte mt’e ytJte hne Au^
(ytXbte ytJt][email protected]) yth. yth. NtuXlte fkvtlte & ybt’tJtt’.
5)
mJttbte, vte. (2011). %rJt$t:teoltu vt*t^ (vtk’hbte ytJt][email protected]) `e
htbtf]MKt yt`bt & htsftux.
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(vwiBirt) s>l³n (Sxk-p\(SxN ki[l[jni
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni m*Ãylx) vlNi[ni[
a¿yis
p\i. c[tnBie rm[SBie pT[l
~) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT b).a[D`. ki[l[j, pi>D[sri,s&rt.
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
siri>S
(SxN a[ smij p(rvt<n miT[n), minvni sS(ktkrNn) an[ Ryirbid smg\ r)t[
riOT^ (nmi<Nn) p\(k\yi C[. ai miT[ (SxN p\(k\yi siY[ s>kLiy[l biLk, pilk,
(Sxk an[ s>cilkn) B*(mki K*b j mhRvn) C[, an[ a[mi> pN (Sxkn) jigZ(t an[
jvibdir) (vS[P$p[ C[. ai (SxNn) p\(k\yimi> “vg<K>Dmi> Birtn&> Bi(v
GDnir” (Sxk j civ)$p B*(mkimi> C[. t[Y) j ti[ t[ni[ riOT^ni[ (nmi<ti khyi[ C[.
(SxkpN&> a[ jºmjit hi[y C[, pr>t& smyni vh[Nn) siY[ ai v]ci(rk bibtmi> pN
p(rvt<n krv&> pDy&> smijn) j$(ryit an&sir (Sxki[n[ t]yir krvin) p\Nil) S$ kr).
Bi(v (Sxki[mi> (vwiBirt) p\(rt (Sxk p\(SxN mi[D[l s>dB[< k[vi vlNi[ Friv[ C[
? t[Y) s>Si[Fk[ (Sxk-p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) smg\ p\(k\yi dr(myin p\(Sxk k[v) r)t[
smg\ p\(k\yin[ m*lv[ C[ ? p\vt<min (SxN ÄyvAYi s>dB[< p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni
Avin&Bv jiNvi, Birt)y (vcirFirini p\cir-p\sir s>dB[< p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni s*cni[
p\i¼t krvi s>dB[> s>Si[Fn kiy< jhiY Fy&<> ht&> j[ni tirNi[mi> Bi(v (Sxki[a[
(vwiBirt) (vcirp[\(rt (Sxk-p\(SxN mi[D[ln[ u_im gNiÄy&> ht&> an[ Birt)y
Jvnm*Ãyi[n[ v[g aipvi smg\ (SxN ÄyvAYin) p&n: gi[qvN) s*(ct kr) ht).
p\Ativni
(SxN a[ smij p(rvt<n miT[n), minvni sS(ktkrNn) an[ Ryirbid smg\ r)t[
riOT^ (nmi<Nn) p\(k\yi C[. ai (SxN p\(k\yin) askirkti t[ni miT[ krvimi> aiv[li
jig\t p\yisi[ pr avl>b[ C[. ai miT[ (SxN p\(k\yi siY[ s>kLiy[l biLk, pilk, (Sxk
an[ s>cilkn) B*(mki K*b j mhRvn) C[, an[ a[mi> pN (Sxkn) jigZ(t an[
jvibdir) (vS[P$p[ C[, kirN k[ biLk si]Y) vF& smy SiLimi> (Sxkni si(n¹ymi> j
rh[ C[. riOT^ni (nmi<N k[ nv(nmi<N miT[ (SxNn[ a[k ami[F siFn minvimi>
aiv[ C[. (SxN Yk) j riOT^n[ (vkisn) (dSimi> le je Skiy C[. ai (SxNn)
p\(k\yimi> “vg<K>Dmi> Birtn&> Bi(v GDnir” (Sxk j civ)$p B*(mkimi> C[.
t[Y) j ti[ t[ni[ riOT^ni[ (nmi<ti khyi[ C[. j[ t[ (Sxkn) k[Tl)k bibti[ j[ (SxNn[ s)F)
asr kr[ C[. aizid) bid j (AY(t miT[ (Sxkn) kxi j jvibdir C[. smijn&> Atr t[ni
(Sxkni Atr krti U>c&> n hi[y. d[Sn) p\g(tni[ aiFir (Sxk C[. riOT^n&> Sisn
u_im miNsi[ni hiYmi> n hi[y ti[ riOT^ni[ (vniS Yiy an[ ai u_im miNsi[ni
GDtrn) smg\ jvibdir) SiLin), SiLini (Sxki[n) C[.
(SxN a[ Fm< C[ a[ B*l)n[ aij[ si]a[ (SxNn[ F>Fi[ bniv) d)Fi[ C[. an[
t[mi> (Sxk pN ji[ BL[ ti[ riOT^n&> S&> Yiy ? t[Y) a[vi (Sxki[ni (nmi<Nn)
p\(k\yi hiY Friv) ji[ea[ k[ j[nimi> Birt)y s>AkZ(t miT[ gi]rv hi[y, t[nimi>
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d[Sdizn) Bivni hi[y. aivi[ m*Ãy(nOq (Sxk j biLki[ni GDtrn[ asrkirk bniv)
SkS[, biLki[ni[ svi<>g)N (vkis Sky bniv) SkS[.
(SxNn&> ¹y[y biLkni svi<>g) (vkisn&> C[. B(vOymi> t[ Jvnni ki[epN
x[#imi> sfL rh) Sk[ t[v) aivDt, Xin an[ ki]SÃyi[ S)Kvvin&> (SxNn&> ¹y[y
C[. (SxN S¾d s>Akir, sd`vt<n, sd`g&Ni[ an[ ci(r#y vg[r[ siY[ (nAbt Friv[
C[, fkt p&Atki[, (Sxki[ an[ vg<K>D siY[ nh)>. (j>dg)mi> dr[k p(rvt<n an[
s>GP< sim[ t[ AvAYtip*v<k pi[tin&> a(AtRv Tkiv) riK[ a[v&> sim¸y< an[
K&mir) aip) Sk[ t[ j sic&> (SxN C[. Jvnn) viAt(vkti smjvin) smj (vksiv[ t[ j
sic&> (SxN.
(SxNn&> a>(tm ¹y[y siri nig(rk (nmi<Nn&> C[, t[nimi> rh[l) p*N<ti
m[LÄyi bidn) a(BÄy(kt C[. Avim) (vv[kin>dJni S¾di[mi> kh)a[ ti[, “
(SxNn&> ¹y[y a[ minvmi> rh[l) p*N<tin) a(BÄy(kt C[.” t[ai[ kh[ C[ k[ dr[k
biLk s&P&¼t r)t[ p*N< Äy(kt C[ an[ (Sxkn) a[ frj bn[ C[ k[ t[n) ai ai>t(rk
p*N<tin[ p\gT krvimi> shiy kr[. (Sxk miT[ a[v&> kh[viy C[ k[ (SxkpN&> a[
jºmjit hi[y C[, pr>t& smyni vh[Nn) siY[ ai v]ci(rk bibtmi> pN p(rvt<n krv&>
pDy&> smijn) j$(ryit an&sir (Sxki[n[ t]yir krvin) p\Nil) S$ kr). vt<minmi>
aiv) as>²y p\(SxN s>AYiai[ (Sxki[ni GDtrn) p\(k\yi kr) rh) C[. ai
s>AYiai[mi> k[Tl)k s>AYiai[ Äyvsiylx) a(BgmY) kiy<rt C[, jyir[ k[Tl)k
s>AYiai[ m*Ãy (nOq (Sxki[ni (nmi<Nn) p\(k\yimi> s[virt C[. (vwiBirt)
(vcirp\[(rt s>AYiai[n) smijmi> aigv) Cip C[. t[n) (vS[Ptimi> t[ni[ p\yi[giRmk
a(Bgm ag\[sr C[. aivi (vciri[ p\(rt s>AYiai[ (Sxk-p\(SxNn) (dSimi> pN s[virt
C[. smg\ (vcirFiri p\miN[ GDtrn) p\(k\yimi> shBig) Bi(v (Sxki[mi> (vwiBirt)
p\(rt mi[D[l s>dB[< k[vi vlNi[ Friv[ C[ ? t[Y) s>Si[Fk[ (Sxk-p\(SxN
kiy<k\mn) smg\ p\(k\yi dr(myin p\(Sxk k[v) r)t[ smg\ p\(k\yin[ m*lv[ C[ ? t[
jiNvini h[t&sr s>Si[Fnkiy< krvini[ nm\ p\yis kyi[< C[. j[ni[ (vPy ai p\miN[
(nFi<(rt kyi[< hti[.
(vwiBirt) s>l³n (Sxk-p\(SxN ki[l[jni p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni m*Ãylx) vlNi[ni[
a¿yis
s>Si[Fnni> h[t&ai[
p\At&t s>Si[Fn n)c[ni h[t&ai[n[ ¹yinmi> riK) hiY Friy&> ht&>
1.
p\vt<min (SxN ÄyvAYi s>dB[< p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni Avin&Bv jiNvi.
2.
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni Birt)y (vcirFiri m&jb (k\yi(ºvt (Sxk-p\(SxN a>g[ni
(vciri[ jiNvi.
3.
Birt)y (vcirFirini p\cir-p\sir s>dB[< p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni s*cni[ p\i¼t krvi.
s>Si[Fnni p\Åni[
s>Si[Fn h[qL n)c[ni p\Åni[ni u_ir m[Lvvini[ p\yRn krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[.
1.
p\vt<min (SxN ÄyvAYi s>dB[< p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni[ Avin&Bv k[vi[ C[ ?
2.
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni Birt)y (vcirFiri m&jb (k\yi(ºvt (Sxk-p\(SxN a>g[ni
m>tÄyi[ k[vi C[ ?.
3.
Birt)y (vcirFirini p\cir-p\sir s>dB[< k[vi pgli le Skiy ?
s>Si[Fnn&> mhRv
1.
p\At&t s>Si[Fn oiri (Sxk-p\(SxN s>AYiai[mi> Yt) (Sxk GDtrn) p\(k\yi
jiN) SkiS[.
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2.
(Sxk-p\(SxN ki[l[j m*Ãy (vkisn) p\(k\yi miT[ ke Äy*hrcniai[ (vcir[ C[ t[
jiN) SkiS[.
3.
(Sxk-p\(SxNmi> p\(Sxk k[vi f[rfiri[ siY[ riOT^ GDtrn) p\(k\yimi>
shBig) YS[ t[n&> an&min bi>F) SkiS[.
4.
p\(Sxki[ni vt<n pr s>AYini minv)y Äyvhiri[ k[v) asr kr[ C[ t[ jiN) SkiS[.
5.
p\(SxNn) ke bibti[n[ vF& sBintip*v<k pir piDvin) C[ t[ni[ (dSi(nd[<S
YS[.
s>Si[Fnn&> s)mi>kn
1.
p\At&t s>Si[Fn (vwiBirt) s>l³n s&rt (AYt b).a[D`. ki[l[j p*rti[ myi<(dt
hti[.
2.
(vwiBirt) s>l³n #iN (Sxk p\(SxN s>AYiai[ p]k) mi#i s&rtn) s>AYimi>
p\(SxN le rh[li 50 p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ nm*ni tr)k[ ps>d kyi< hti.
3.
s>Si[Fn s>b>(Ft mi(ht) p\i(¼t aY[< s>Si[Fk r(ct upkrNni[ upyi[g
krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[.
Äyiy(vÅv an[ nm*ni[
s>Si[Fnni h[t&ai[n[ an[ p\Åni[n[ ¹yinmi> riK)n[ n)c[ m&jb Äyip(vÅv
an[ nm*nin) ps>dg) krvimi> aiv) ht).
Äyip(vÅv
(vwiBirt) s>l³n tmim (Sxk-p\(SxN ki[l[ji[ p\At&t s>Si[Fnn&> Äyip(vÅv
bn[ C[.
nm*ni[
Äyip(vÅvmi>Y) s>Si[Fnn[ an&$p mi(ht) p\i(¼t aY[< sh[t&k nm*ni
ps>dg)n) r)t[ k&l 50 p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ nm*ni tr)k[ ps>d kyi< hti. j[mi> dr[k
(vPy pÛ(tni p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ srK) s>²yimi> smivvini[ p\yis krvimi> aiÄyi[
hti[.
upkrN
p\At&t s>Si[Fnni h[t&ai[n[ ¹yinmi> riK) s>Si[Fk[ Avr(ct 'Avin&Bv
a(BÄy(kt p#ik"n) rcni kr) ht), j[mi> b[ (vBig h[qL p\Åni[/(vFini[ rj* krvimi>
aiÄyi hti. p\Ym (vBigmi> mi(ht) dSi<vvi miT[ p\Åni[n) n)c[ aipvimi> aiv[l
u_iri[n[ k\mS: k\m s*cvvini hti, jyir[ b)ji (vBigmi> s*cni[ p\i¼t krvi m&kt
jvib) p\Åni[ni u_ir aipvini> aiÄyi hti.
mi(ht) a[k#i)krNn) r)t
mi(ht) p\i(¼t miT[ upkrNn) rcni kyi< bid p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni vlNi[n)
jiNkir) m[Lvvi miT[ Avin&Bv p#ik rcvimi> aiÄy& ht&> j[mi> rj& kr[l bibti[
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni GDtrn) p\(k\yi s>dB[< aiki(rt Yy[li vlNi[n[ p\d(S<t kr[ t[
Av$p[ ht). ai miT[ p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ mi(ht) k[v) r)t[ dSi<vvin) C[ t[n) smj aip)
t[mni vt<nn[ dSi<vvi s*(ct kriy&> ht&>. smg\ (vgti[ (nFi<(rt p#ikmi> BriÄyi
bid p#ikn[ prt l[vimi> aiÄy&> ht&>.
mi(ht) (vÅl[PNn) r)t
p\At&t s>Si[Fn miT[ni s>Si[Fk r(ct upkrN oiri p\i¼t Yy[l mi(ht)ni
(vÅl[PN miT[ vN<niRmk ai>kDiSiA#ini[ upyi[g krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[. j[mi>
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p\(SxNiY)<ai[a[ s*cv[li k\mi[ p]k) a[kY) #iN k\mi[n[ aivZ(_ini aiFir[ ¹yinmi>
l)Fi hti. ai upri>t m&kt jvib) p\Åni[n) pN aivZ(_i p\i¼t kr) Si[Fvimi> aiv) ht).
s>Si[Fnni tirNi[
p\At&t s>Si[Fn miT[ p\i¼t Yy[l mi(ht)ni pZYÊrN kyi< bid n)c[ m&jbni tirNi[
p\i¼t Yyi hti.

(SxN jgtmi> Äyi¼t hkiriRmk bibti[mi> ,
1.
(SxN oiri (vwiY)<ai[ni[ svi<>g) (vkis
2.
pr>priai[ an[ p\Nil)ai[ni[ p\cir-p\sir
3.
(SxNn&> riOT^)ykrN
4.
riOT^n) aK>(Dtti jiLvvini p\yisi[n[ upri[kt k\mmi> ps>dg) kr) ht).

(SxN jgtmi> Äyi¼t nkiriRmk bibti[mi>,
1.
s[m[ATr pÛ(tn) (nOfLti
2.
srkir) s>AYiai[mi> nbL) kimg)r).
3.
g&Nv_iini[ a[kmi#i mipd>D pr)xi.
4.
s>cilki[n) nfivZ(_i.
5.
rijkirNni[ vF& pDti[ hAtx[p.
6.
(SxNn&> Äyipir)krN.
7.
p\vt<min p\Yin[ kirN[ g&$-(SOyni s>b>Fi[mi> aiv) rh[l AviY<vZ(_in[
upri[kt k\mmi> ps>d kr) dSi<v) ht).
j[ni aiFir[ kh) Skiy k[ smg\ (SxN jgtmi> p(rvt<n s>dB[< Yy[li p\yisi[ hJ pN
(nOfL n)vDyi C[. srkir) s>AYiai[a[ pi[tin) kimg)r) s&Firvi t[mj (vwiY)<ai[n)
g&Nv_iini a[kmi#i mipd>D tr)k[ l[viY) pr)xiai[mi> f[rfirn) j$r)yitni[ (nd[<S
kyi[ C[. ai upri>t rijkirNni[ vF& pDti[ hAtx[p, (SxNn&> Ye rh[l Äyipir)krN
an[ smg\ (SxN p\(k\yin[ kirN[ g&$-(SOyni s>b>Fi[mi> AviY<vZ(_i vF) rh)
C[.

s>AYi oiri apniv[l) p\Nil)mi> p\(SxNiY)<ai[a[,
1.
s>AYini minv)y s>b>Fi[
2.
kiy<k\mi[mi> aipvimi> aivt&> Birt)ytini tRvn[ mhRv.
3.
v>dnisBin[ ai k\mmi> vF& (nd[<S kyi[< hti[.
j[ni aiFir[ kh) Skiy k[ p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni minspT pr upri[kt bibti[a[ hkiriRmk
asr upjiv) ht).

s>AYi oiri apniv[l) (nÀn (nd(S<t n)(tai[,
1.
c&At smypiln
2.
(ny(mttini[ aig\h
3.
s>AYimi> Yt) aidS<vid) cci<ai[ (vS[ upri[kt k\mmi> t[mni (vciri[
p\At&t kyi< hti
j[ni aiFir[ kh) Skiy k[ p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ vF& pDt&> b>Fn miºy nY).

Birt)y S]l)Y) Yt) v>dnimi,>
1.
k\mmi> f[rfir
2.
smyni[ GTiDi[
3.
p\s>gi[pit Yti rj* Yti vktÄyi[.
4.
s>g)tni[ smºvyn[ ai p\miN[ k\mmi> s*(ct kyi< hti.
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j[ni (nOkP<$p[ kh) Skiy k[ p\(SxNiY)<ai[ min[ C[ k[ p\iY<ni (ny(mt p\miN[
niv)ºysBr r)t[ Yv) ji[ea[.

s>AYimi> kiy<rt p\Finiciy<-aiciyi[<mi>Y) S)K[l bibti[mi>,
1.
kiy<(nOqi
2.
(ny(mtti
3.
riOT^)yti
4.
shkir
5.
vt<n Äyvhirn) S]l) j[v) bibti[n[ k\mmi> rj* kr) ht).
j[ni f(ltiY<$p[ kh) Skiy k[ (Sxki[ni vt<ni[a[ t[mni vt<n pr p\Bivk asr jºmiv)
ht).

s>AYimi> a¿yis dr(myin GtiDi[ kr[l nkiriRmk bibti[mi>,
1.
ashkirvZ(_i
2.
AviY<vZ(_i
3.
eOyi<vZ(_i
4.
h(rfievZ(_ini ai p\miN[ (nd[<S kyi[ hti[.
j[ni p(rNim Av$p[ kh) Skiy k[ p\(SxN kiy<k\m oiri p\(SxNiY)<ai[ siri-nrsini[
B[d smJ Skyi hti.

S]x(Nk sAYiai[mi> (SxNp\d vitivrN rcvimi> B*(mki miT[,
1.
p\[rk vt<nS]l)
2.
s>AYin&> BivivrN.
3.
(vwiY)< smg\ p\(k\yimi> k[ºWAYin
4.
m]#i)pN< Äyvhir
5.
svi<>g) (vkisn) tmim ÄyvAYin[ upri[kt k\mmi> aiFir tr)k[ (nd[<S kyi[
hti[.
j[ni flAv$p[ kh) Skiy k[ S]x(Nk s>AYiai[mi> kiy<rt (Sxki[ p\(Sxki[ pr p\Bivk
asr jºmiv[ C[.

s>AYimi> ujviti (v(vF kiy<k\mi[ (vS[ni m>tÄyi[mi>,
1.
s>AkZ(t trf a(Bm&K krnir
2.
m*ÃysBr
3.
riOT^)ytiY) ai[tp\i[tn[ ai k\mmi> vF& ps>d kyi< hti.
j[ni aiFir[ kh) Skiy k[ p\(SxNiY)<ai[n[ si>AkZ(tk, m*Ãygt t[mj riOT^)y bibti[
gm[ C[.

s>AYini a¹yipki[ siY[ni vt<n s>dB[<,
1.
s>BiL riK[
2.
miri kimi[mi> mdd$p Yiy
3.
mn[ t]yir si(hRy p*r&> piD[ j[v) bibti[ k\mS: ps>d kr) ht).
p(rNim Av$p[ kh) Skiy k[ a¹yipki[ vF& ligN)S)l C[ an[ vF& mdd$p bn[
a[v&> eµC[ C[.

s>AYimi> Yt) p\vZ(_iai[n) (vS[Pti s>dB[<,
1.
Jvnm*Ãyi[ni[ p(rcy krivnir)
2.
aiRm(vÅvismi> vFiri[ krnir)
3.
xmtiai[ ai[LKvin) tk p*r) piDnir) C[ t[ r)tni[ (nd[<S kyi[< hti[.
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j[ s*cv[ C[ k[ p\(Sxki[n[ p\vZ(_iai[ krvin&> gÀy&> ht&>.

ai p\(SxN s>AYi pis[ ap[xiai[ s>dB[<,
1.
svi<>g)N (vkis siFvin) b&(nyid bn[
2.
Äyivsi(yk sjjti pimvi a(Fki(Fk an&Bvi[ aipvi
3.
Bi(v Äyvsiy miT[ tkn&> sj<n bibti[ dSi<v) ht).
j[ s*cv[ C[ k[ p\(SxN dr(myin upri[kt bibti[ hi[v) aivÆyk C[.

vt<min smymi> t[mn) Ø(OTa[ s>AYini BivivrN (vS[,
1.
Äy(ktgt (vkisn[ pi[Pk
2.
k>ek nv&> krvin[ p\[rk
3.
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni sim¸y<n[ an&$p j[v) bibti[ pr pi[tin) ps>dg) dSi<v)
ht).
j[ s*cv[ C[ k[ s>AYin&> BivivrN p\(Sxki[ni Gdtrmi> mhRvn) B*(mki Bjv[ C[.

a¹yipki[n) siY[ t[mni p\Åni[n) cci< miT[,
1.
(SxNp\d
2.
Äyivsi(yk
3.
simi(jk bibti[ pr pi[tini (vciri[ p\d(S<t kyi< hti.
j[ p\(Sxki[n) p\(SxN p\Ry[n) g>B)rti s*cv[ C[.

(Sxk-p\(SxN kiy<k\mn) Bi(v upyi[g)ti s>dB[<,
1.
simi(jk p\Åni[ni (nrikrNmi>
2.
aiJ(vkini siFn tr)k[
3.
riOT^ GDtrn) p\(k\yimi>
4.
(vd[S) s>AkZ(tni p\BivY) bcvi j[v) bibti[n[ vF& p\Bivk min[ C[.
j[ s*cv[ C[ k[ p\(SxNiY)<ai[ p\(SxNni mhRvn[ bribr smj[ C[.

Aipn) smAyiai[ni uk[l t[mj Jvnm*Ãyi[ni GDtr s>dB[< ai s>Ayini
yi[gdin miT[,
1.
a(t u_im
2.
u_im C[ a[vi[ (nd[<S kyi[< hti[.
j[ s*cv[ C[ k[ s>AYin) (vcirFiri an[ sAYin) kiy<p\Nil)a[ t[mn[ k>ek m[LÄyin)
an*B&(t kriv) C[.

s>AYimi> ujviti jºm(dn (vS[ni m>tÄyi[mi>,
1.
s>kÃpbÛ bniv[ C[
2.
yidgir bniv[ C[.
j[ s*cv[ C[ k[ ai p\Nil)Y) t[ai[ p\Bi(vt Yyi C[.

s>AYi oiri cilti p\(SxN kiy<k\m a>g[,
1.
g&Nv_iiy&kt
2.
svi<>g) (vkisn[ pi[Pk j[v) bibti[ni[ (nd[<S kyi[ hti[.
j[ni aiFir[ kh) Skiy k[ s>AYin) p\vZ(_iai[ ai p\miN[n) j hi[v) ji[ea[.

(vwiBirt) s>l³n s>AYi p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni Äy(ktRv (vkismi> upkirk
s>dB[<,
1.
80 
2.
60  ni[ (nd[<S kyi[ hti[.
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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j[ s*cv[ C[ k[ (vwiBirt) s>l³n s>AYiai[n) (vcirFiri t[mn[ gm) ht).

s>AYini a¹yipki[ siY[ t[mn[ k[Lvvi gmti s>b>Fi[mi>,
1.
mig<dS<k tr)k[ni
2.
(m#i tr)k[ni
3.
pi(rvir)k s¿yi[ j[vi s>b>Fi[ni[ (nd[<S kyi[< hti[.
j[ni aiFir[ kh) Skiy k[ a¹yipki[a[ ai r)t[ vt<n Äyvhirn) S]l) an&srv) ji[ea[.

(Sxk-p\(SxN dr(myin tm[ an&Bv[l) bibti[ j[ p(ám) nkiriRmk m*Ãyi[n)
asr sim[ Tkvi sxm bniv) SkS[, j[mi> s>GBivni, shkiry&kt Äyvhir, S)K[li
Jvnm*Ãyi[ an[ d[Sdizn) Bivni t[mj ai¹yi(Rmk bibti[ni[ (nd[<S kyi[< hti[.

(Sxk-p\(SxN kiy<k\mi[mi> Birt)y Jvnm*Ãyi[n[ v[g aipvi/Tkiu bnivvi
miT[n) p\vZ(_iai[mi> Birt)y s>AkZ(_i miT[ni jih[r kiy<k\mi[, si>AkZ(tk a]ky
(vksivniri kiy<k\mi[, Jvnm*Ãyi[ aiFi(rt smg\ (SxN ÄyvAYin) p&n: rcni
s>dB[< s*cni[ ai¼yi hti.
s>dB<s*(c
pT[l, a[n. D). an[ aºyi[{2010}. m*Ãy (SxN. b)l)mi[ri : ~) r>g (SxN
mhi(vwily.
pir[K, b). y&. an[ (#iv[d), a[m.D).{1994}. (SxNmi> ai>kDiSiA#i. amdivid :
y&(nv(s<T)
g\>Y(nmi<N bi[D<.
Sih, D).b). {2004}. S]x(Nk s>Si[Fn. amdivid : y&(nv(s<T) g\>Y (nmi<N
bi[D<, g&jrit rijy.
(s>h, y&. D).{2008}. s>Si[Fn ah[vil l[Kn mig<d(S<ki. br[l) : d)(pki
p\kiSn.
rij, j[. p).{2012}. p\(SxNni p>Y[. c)Kl) : v). k[. pT[l g\i(fks.
RESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY)
S]x(Nk GTki[ s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[n&> ptn
Fm)< b). pT[l
ai(sATºT p\i[f[sr,~) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT b).a[D`. ki[[l[j,
pi>D[sri, s&rt.
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
siri>S
p\At&t a¿yis a>tg<t (vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk
SiLi, (Sxk, (vwiY)<, a¿yisk\m an[ sha¿yis p\vZ(_iai[ s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[ni ptnni[ a¿yis krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[. a¿yisni upkrN tr)k[ pi>c
p\Åni[ Frivt) Avr(ct m&±t jvib) p\Ånivl), nm*ni tr)k[ ~) mhiv)r
(vwim>(dr T^AT b).a[D`. ki[[l[j, pi>D[sri, s&rtni k&l 25
p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni[ sh[t&k r)t[ smiv) sv[<xN oiri p\i¼t g&NiRmk mi(ht)
s>dB[< (vPyvAt&n&> pZZYÊrN krvimi> aiÄy&> ht&>. S]x(Nk GTk
SiLi s>dB[< srkir oiri eºTrn[Snl SiLiai[n[ apit) miºytiai[,
ai~mSiLiai[n&> aFptn, a>g\[J mi¹ymn) SiLiai[n&> vFt&> jt&> clN;
(Sxki[ s>dB[< s>bi[Fn,ph[rv[S, T[k`ni[li[Jni[ d&rupyi[g, Äyvsi(yk
Ø(OTki[N, (vwiY)< siY[ a>gt(m#i j[vi s>b>Fi[n[ kirN[ aidr t[mj minsºminmi> Yy[li[ GTiDi[; (vwiY)<ai[n[ biH aikP<Ni[, vD)li[ an[
g&r&jni[ni aidr-sRkir t[mj vt<n-Äyvhirmi> aiv[l p(rvt<n, Äy(±tgt
m*Ãyi[mi> aiv[li[ GTiDi[, (vd[Smi> jen[ (SxN m[Lvvin) lilc; a¿yisk\m
s>dB[< piqyk\mmi> Birt)ytini[ aBiv, s>AkZt an[ (hºd) v]k(Ãpk (vPyi[,
kZ(P(SxNni[ nimS[P, Birt)y aiy&v[<(dk (SxN a>g\[Jmi>, Jvn siY[ni[
aÃp an&b>F; sha¿yis p\vZ(_iai[ j[v) k[ p\iY<ni, si>AkZ(tk kiy<k\mi[
an[ rmtgmti[mi> (vd[S) s>AkZ(tni[ (vS[P p\Biv Ô[vi mL[ C[.
1.1 p\Ativni
(SxNn&> m&²y kiy< m*Ãyi[n) K)lvN) C[. (SxN oiri m*Ãyi[n&>
p\Ryx)krN Yiy t[ t[Tl&> j j$r) C[. m*Ãyi[n&> p\Ryx)krN a[Tl[ m*Ãyi[ni
(vkisni p(rNimi[n&> up(AYt Yv&>. (SxN oiri m*Ãyi[n&> p\Ryx)krN n
Yiy ti[ t[ k[LvN) (nOfL ge kh[viy.
aizid) p*v[< Birtmi> (vd[S)ai[ni[ pgp[siri[ an[ t[ni Yk) (vd[S)
s>AYi, s>AkZ(t an[ (SxNn[ smg\t f[livvimi> aiÄyi hti. (SxNn&>
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miLK&> Birtvis)ai[n[ pi>gLi bniv[ t[v&> ht&>. Birt d[Sn) (v(vF x[#ii[n)
s>AYiai[mi> (vd[S) m&²y kiy<kti< an[ Birt)y t[mni mig<dS<n h[qL
klik< t[mj kimdir mj*rn) B*(mki Bjv[ t[v&> PD`y>#i kiy<rt Yy&> ht&>.
aij (dn s&F) t[n) asri[ vti<y rh) C[.
1.2 smAyikYn
p\At&t a¿yisn&> S)P<k n)c[ dSi<v[l C[:
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTki[ s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[n&> ptn
1.3 a¿yisni h[t&ai[
p\At&t a¿yis n)c[ni h[t&ai[ siY[ hiY Frvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[:
1.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk SiLi s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[ni ptnni[ a¿yis krvi[.
2.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk (Sxk s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[ni ptnni[ a¿yis krvi[.
3.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk (vwiY)< s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[ni ptnni[ a¿yis krvi[.
4.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk a¿yisk\m s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[ni ptnni[ a¿yis krvi[.
5.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk sha¿yis p\vZ(_i
s>b>(Ft m*Ãyi[ni ptnni[ a¿yis krvi[.
1.4 a¿yisn&> mh_v
p\At&t a¿yis n)c[ p\miN[n&> mh_v Friv[ C[:
1.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTki[ j[vi> k[ SiLi,
(Sxk, (vwiY)<, a¿yisk\m an[ sha¿yis p\vZ(_iai[ s>b>(Ft m*Ãyi[ni ptn
(vS[ ÔNkir) mLvin) S±ytiai[ rh[l) C[.
2.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil) an[ Birt)y (SxN p\Nil)n) asrkirktin) aiDktr) r)t[
t&lni kr) SkiS[ a[v&> a¹y[ti smj[ C[.
3.
Birt)y (SxN p\Nil)n[ g&Nv_iiy&±t bnivvi miT[ pYdS<k bn) Sk[
C[.
4.
p\At&t a¿yis S]x(Nk, Äyvsi(yk t[mj mni[(vXinni x[#i[ mig<dS<n
a>g[ aiFir$p Ye Sk[ a[v&> C[.
1.5 a¿yisn&> s)mi>kn
p\At&t a¿yismi> S]x(Nk GTki[ tr)k[ SiLi, (Sxk, (vwiY)<,
a¿yisk\m an[ sha¿yis p\vZ(_iai[ni[ j smiv[S krvimi> aiÄyi[ hti[.
1.6 a¿yisn&> upkrN
a¿yisni upkrN tr)k[ pi>c p\Åni[ Frivt) Avr(ct m&±t jvib) p\Ånivl)
t]yir krvimi> aiv) ht).
1.7 a¿yisni[ nm*ni[
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a¿yisni nm*ni tr)k[ ~) mhiv)r (vwim>(dr T^AT b).a[D`. ki[[l[j,
pi>D[sri, s&rtni k&l 25 p\(SxNiY)<ai[ni[ sh[t&k r)t[ smiv[S krvimi>
aiÄyi[ hti[.
1.8 mi(ht) pZYÊrNn) r)t
p\At&t a¿yismi> sv[<xN oiri p\i¼t g&NiRmk mi(ht) s>dB[<
(vPyvAt&n&> pZZYÊrN krvimi> aiÄy&> ht&>.
1.6 a¿yisni tirNi[
1.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk SiLi s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[n&> ptn

SiLini nimi[mi> Birt)ytini[ aBiv

srkir oiri eºTrn[Snl SiLiai[n[ apit) miºytiai[

ai~mSiLiai[n&> aFptn

a>g\[J mi¹ymn) SiLiai[n&> vFt&> jt&> clN

p\id[(Sk BiPiai[ni mi¹ymi[n) SiLiai[n) avgNni

(rS[Pn) s>²yi an[ smygiLimi> Yy[li[ GTiDi[
2.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk (Sxk s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[n&> ptn

(Sxki[n[ g&r&J an[ g&r&mitini AYin[ sr, (mATr, m[Dm,
m[΄m an[ (msni nimY) Yt&> s>bi[Fn

(Sxki[ni[ ph[rv[S siD) Y) ¾l[zr s&F)ni[

(Sxki[ oiri Yti[ T[k`ni[li[Jni[ d&rupyi[g

(Sxkni[ 's[viBivni"ni AYin[ Äyvsiyni[ Ø(OTki[N

(vwiY)< siY[ a>gt(m#i j[vi s>b>Fi[n[ kirN[ aidr t[mj minsºminmi> Yy[li[ GTiDi[
3.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk (vwiY)<
s>b>(Ft m*Ãyi[n&> ptn

biH aikP<Ni[ j[vi> k[ f[Sn, mi[biel, Äysn, piT)<, Ày&z)kl
mi[(n<g, evn)>g, si[(Syl v[bsieTY) G[riy[li[

vD)li[ an[ g&r&jni[ni aidr-sRkir t[mj vt<n-Äyvhirmi> aiv[l
p(rvt<n

niNi>ni mh_vY) aÔN

Äy(±tgt m*Ãyi[ j[vi> k[ ~m, shnS(±t, ci(r#y, d[Sp\[m,
kt<ÄypriyNti, Av(SAtmi> aiv[li[ GTiDi[

biH Äy(±tRvmi> aiv[li[ (vd[S) r>g

Bi[jn an[ aÃpihirmi> aiv[l&> p(rvt<n

(vd[Smi> jen[ (SxN m[Lvvin) lilc
4 (vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk a¿yisk\m s>b>(Ft
m*Ãyi[n&> ptn
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 piqyk\mmi> Birt)ytini[ aBiv
 s>AkZt an[ (hºd) v]k(Ãpk (vPyi[
 kZ(P(SxNni[ nimS[P
 Birt)y Si[Fki[ni AYin[ (vd[S) Si[Fki[ni[ smiv[S
 udihrNi[mi> (vd[S)pN&>
 Ôt)y (SxNn) p\Nil)
 uµc(SxN a>g\[Jmi>
 Birt)y aiy&v[<(dk (SxN a>g\[Jmi>
 Xinn&> K>Dn
 Jvn siY[ni[ aÃp an&b>F
 ani]pci(rk (SxNmi> GTiDi[
5.
(vd[S) (SxN p\Nil)ni d&Op\BivY) S]x(Nk GTk
p\vZ(_i s>b>(Ft m*Ãyi[n&> ptn
sha¿yis p\vZ(_iai[ :
p\iY<ni
 SiLini smyp#ikmi> p\iY<nini smygiLimi> GTiDi[
 Åli[ki[mi> Yy[li[ GTiDi[
 úkirni[ nid n(hvt`
 sm*hp\iY<nin&> ptn
 b[qkÄyvAYimi> av]Xi(nkpN&>
sha¿yis
si>AkZ(tk kiy<k\mi[
 v[ATn< g)ti[ an[ nZRyi[n) bi[lbili
 g&jrit) g)ti[ni[ aBiv
 d[SB(±t g)ti[n) avh[lni
 p\id[(Sk s>AkZ(tn) kZ(tai[mi> GTiDi[
 ApFi<ni (vPyi[mi> aiv[l&> p(rvt<n
 k[Tvi[k ApFi<
 (v(vF D[ n) ujvN)
rmtgmt
 Birt)y rmti[n) nib*d)
 (vd[S) rmti[ni[ cski[
 m[din prn) rmti[ni AYin[ v)(Dyi[ an[ mi[biel g[em
 ksrtni tisn) bidbik)
 yi[g(SxN n(hvt`
Birt)y (SxN p\Nil)ni[ BÄy B*tkiL hi[vi Cti> (vd[S) (SxN
p\Nil)ni p\Bivn[ l)F[ vt<min (SxN p\Nil) pi[t)ki Av$pmi> akb>F rh) Sk)
nY). ai s>dB[< riOT^[ ÔgZtti k[Lvv) rh).
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s>dB<g\>Yi[
1.
pT[l, a[n.D).{2010}. m*Ãy (SxN. b)l)mi[ri : ~) r>g(SxN mhi(vwily.
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Sih, D).b). {2004}. S]x(Nk s>Si[Fn. amdivid : y&(nv(s<T)
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Website:
www.columbia.edu/itc/.../macaulay/txt_minute_education_1835.html
From Bureau of Education. Selections from Educational Records, Part I (17811839). Edited by H. Sharp. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing, 1920.
Reprint. Delhi: National Archives of India, 1965, 107-117.
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COUNTRIES MOST AT RISK FROM
OZONE DEPLETION
Dr. GIRISHKUMAR A. CHAUHAN
M.Sc.,B.Ed.,P.hd.
KEYWORDS: CONSEQUENCES, OZONE
SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY
ABSTRACT
It is thought that ozone depletion and the separate issue of global warming have both already
caused major changes all over the world.
But certain areas are more at risk from ozone depletion – and although people in Britain may feel
fairly safe, the fact is that changes elsewhere in the globe will eventually have worldwide
consequences.
WIDESPREAD CONSEQUENCES
These include Australia, New Zealand, Argentina and Chile and if, as many scientists believe, the
North Pole begins to see more frequent polar stratospheric clouds in the future then this would
cause severe ozone depletion over Alaska, Canada and parts of northern Europe.
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Data collected in New Zealand suggests that people there are subjected to a drop of up to 10% in
ozone levels after the annual break up of the polar vortex and its neighbour, Australia, has the
highest rate of skin cancer in the world.
WHY AUSTRALIA IS AT RISK
Australia receives a lot more UV radiation than the UK. It is closer to the sun than Europe during the
summer, increasing the intensity of UV exposure by around 7%. Coupled with its clearer atmospheric
conditions, this means that people living in Australia face up to 15% more solar radiation than we do.
Over the past few years, extensions of the Antarctica ozone hole have spread as far as parts of
Argentina, Chile and the British-owned Falkland Islands. In 2000, measurements showed that ozone
levels over a number of days were down by up to 70% - with levels dropping below 150 Dobson
Units in some places.
ACTION IN ARGENTINA
Following this, the Argentinian government announced that it was introducing a new scheme to
warn people when ozone levels had fallen significantly and in 2008, it launched a new programme to
monitor stratospheric ozone.
The project will provide vital information about the effect of the Antarctic ozone hole on parts of
South America and data is being passed on to the World Meteorological Organisation for use by
ozone researchers.
MORE UV-B RESEARCH IS NEEDED
In many other countries in the Southern Hemisphere, increased research is now taking place into the
effects of increased UV-B exposure. Although it has long been known that many types of skin cancer
and cataracts are linked to solar radiation, there is still a lack of information about its effects at
different levels and on different organisms.
Ironically perhaps, while global efforts continue in a bid to prevent further ozone depletion,
scientists have warned that the eventual closing of the ozone hole could dramatically alter the
climate of the Southern Hemisphere and accelerate global warming.
In Europe at the moment, experts are more concerned about the effects of global warming and the
health implications for us from “bad” ozone within the troposphere than the levels of stratospheric
ozone.Most scientists are agreed that without the earth’s ozone layer, we would all cease to exist.
That’s one of the main reasons that global ozone levels are now constantly monitored and
worldwide research is taking place into ozone depletion.
LAND AND WATER LIFE WOULD SUFFER
Without the ozone layer’s protection from the sun, people, animals and plant life would be
destroyed. Even underwater life would not be safe since UV rays can penetrate clear water to a
certain depth before being absorbed.
Of course, the actual effect on mankind of less ozone depends on the extent to which it is depleted.
Experts believe that for every 1% drop in ozone protection, there is an increase of around 2% in UV-B
rays which get through to the planet’s surface.
GOOD NEWS
However, research carried out for the United Nations Environmental Programme showed that ozone
levels had not fallen further between 2002 and 2005, thanks to initiatives such as the Montreal
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Protocol. One of the greatest problems with ozone is that we need the “right” amount to maintain
life as we know it today. Too little and life on earth could be wiped out – but too much and we won’t
receive the amount of sunlight that we need. (Some scientists are now concerned that global
warming will lead to much higher levels of ozone which could block out too much sun).
It is widely known that rates of skin cancer are linked to UV-B exposure – which is one of the reasons
that it’s so important to use suncream and to make sure that children are protected from the sun.
(Latest research suggests that you are more at risk from just two or three instances of extreme
sunburn than from prolonged but limited exposure such as sunbathing.)
INCREASE IN DISEASE
However, increased exposure to the sun’s radiation can also cause blindness and cataracts and,
alarmingly, some experts now believe that the amount of protection we receive from vaccinations
(for diseases such as measles) could be reduced in people exposed to higher levels of UV-B rays.
Depending on the level of exposure to the sun, effects can range from premature ageing to certain
kinds of skin cancer. Over the past decade there has been a large increase in the number of people
developing skin cancer but this could be attributed to the rise in the popularity of sunbathing over
the past quarter-of-a-century rather than simply to reduced ozone levels.
OUR FOOD CHAIN
Many biological systems are damaged by exposure to UV-B and research has shown that its effects
are proportional to the time and intensity of exposure and of course, small and delicate organisms
are much more vulnerable to damage than larger species, such as humans. Exposure to higher levels
of UV-B can stunt the growth and photosynthesis of a variety of crops such as maize, rye and
sunflowers and can also affect the reproductive capacity of aquatic life. Many are already under UVB stress, and if their exposure is further increased then we could see disruption of some food chains.
INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA
AND THE STUDY
Dr. PRAKASHCHANDRA K. AMIN
M.A.,M.Ed.,P.hd.
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
ABSTRACT
One of the most rapidly changing and exciting areas of education in the world today is the
development of computer-based teaching materials, especially interactive multimedia programs that
run on personal computers. These new technologies offer students and teachers access to materials
as never before. Through the condensed storage capabilities of computers, mutlimedia can deliver
large amounts of information in ways that make it manageable, approachable, and useful. And by
making it possible to access illustrations and photographs, sound and video, as well as large amounts
of text, interactive multimedia programs present learning information to teachers, students, and
scholars in newly engaging and meaningful ways. The integration of multimedia programs into
libraries and classrooms promises not only to change the kinds of information that is available for
learning, but the ways that learning takes place.
Yet, as exciting as these new electronic resources are, the prospect of obtaining and incorporating
some of them into classrooms, libraries, and resource centers can seem daunting at first. Having
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access to the necessary technology is one significant hurdle for using multimedia programs in
education. However, there are other reasons that educators are resistant to consider the adoption
of interactive multimedia in teaching, such as concerns that these new programs require a lot of
technical knowledge to operate, or that the incorporation of such programs into teaching requires
significant alteration in teaching style or revision of course curricula.
Interactive multimedia has been called a "hybrid technology." It combines the storage and retrieval
capabilities of computer database technology with advanced tools for viewing and manipulating
these materials. Mutlimedia has a lot of different connotations, and definitions vary depending on
the context. For the purposes of this Guide, in the context of upper secondary and postsecondary
education, interactive multimedia is defined by three criteria:

Interactive Multimedia is any package of materials that includes some combination of texts,
graphics, still images, animation, video, and audio;

These materials are packaged, integrated, and linked together in some way that offers users
the ability to browse, navigate and analyze these materials through various searching and indexing
features, as well as the capacity to annotate or personalize these materials;

Interactive multimedia is always "reader-centered." In interactive multimedia, the reader
contols the experience of reading the material by being able to select among multiple choices,
choosing unique paths and sequences through the materials. One of the key features of interactive
multimedia is the ability to navigate through material in whatever ways are most meaningful for
individual users.
Interactive multimedia is synonymous with another frequently used term: hypermedia. Hypermedia
is the multimedia version of the term hypertext. A hypertext is defined as any non-sequential,
electronic text, assembled not as a seamless sequence of material with a beginning, middle and end,
but as a web of interrelated chunks" of text. In a hypertext, the reader controls the sequence of
reading by choosing how to navigate among these chunks of text by various electronic links.
The term hypermedia" was coined to mean a hypertext that uses mutliple media. In other words,
hypermedia is a collection of multimedia materials with multiple possible arrangements and
sequences. Hypertext and hypermedia are "electronic" concepts that can only exist in a computerbased environment. Only in a computer-based environment can materials can be linked and
organized in multiple ways simultaneously, and searched, sorted and navigated in hundreds of
possible combinations by different users.
Imagine, for example, a large comprehensive textbook on the history of the United States. In a
sense, a print version of that textbook is already "multimedia": that is, in addition to text, it might
have pictures, maps, graphs, charts, timelines; furthermore, the text is made up of many different
texts, being a combination of words written by the author, quotations from historical figures,
perhaps commentary by other historians, and so on. But while the textbook could be thought of as a
text using multiple media and materials, it is not a multimedia hypertext (or hypermedia) because,
as a printed book, it can only be arranged in one order; its materials can only be accessed in the one
way that the author and the publisher arranged them. True, a reader can access the print text in
non-linear ways by using the index at the back of the book, or by jumping around. Still, the text itself
has only one arrangement and one hierarchy of topics; and the reader's ability to navigate the
materials is limited by the table of contents and the index.
Furthermore, a printed history textbook is limited by the constraints of size and practicality. Only so
much information can comfortably fit between two covers of a printed book. Such practical issues
have important consequences for the kinds of materials that go into the hands of readers. Limitation
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of size means that it is more practical to write history books that synthesize and make reference to
large bodies of historical documents without being able to include very much or any of the
documents, themselves--even though, for the historian, such documents are part of the vital
material of history.
Now imagine a history textbook in electronic form, constructed as a work of hypermedia: how would
that work be different from a printed text? First, you could fill that "book" with a far greater number
of materials than you could fit between two covers of a printed book (a CD-ROM compact disk, for
example, can hold the equivalent of 300,000 pages of printed material). Second, you could have a
book that was truly "multimedia" in that, in addition to text, photographs, charts, and timelines, you
could have audio (such as folksong recordings, famous speeches), and video (such as newsreels, film
clips). Third, an electronic textbook could be constructed in an entirely different way from a printed
textbook: it could have dozens of potential organizations, and thousands of internal linkages that
could take the reader from one related idea to the next, in ways that would infinitely vary depending
on the context of the reading experience and the interests of the reader.
Consequently, the structure of such a "text" would not be limited to the single storyline or synthesis
offered by the author, but would become an intricate web of interrelationships, something
approaching the complexity of history. In discussing the transformations that ensued in turning the
print version of the history book Who Built America? into a multimedia CD-ROM, editors Roy
Rosenzweig and Steve Brier noted that the very nature of the "book" changed:
The 'spine of this computer book is a basic survey of American history from 1876-1914. . . . Added to-and in the process transforming--this textual survey are nearly two hundred 'excursions,' which
branch off from the main body of the text. Those excursions contain about seven hundred source
documents in various media that allow students as well as interested general readers to go beyond
(and behind) the printed page and to immerse themselves in the primary and secondary sources that
professional historians use to make sense of the past.
In the process of making the CD-ROM Who Built America?, by newly linking large amounts of
interrelated materials, a print textbook became an engaging and versatile, multimedia archive of
information. These new kinds of multimedia resources consequently can serve multiple purposes for
many different users. Teachers could use such a text as a resource tool, gathering background
information for class lectures and discovering primary documents to enrich assignments; simliarly,
students, at all levels of capability, could use such a resource to begin the discovery process about
historical meaning and materials.
WHY USE INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA?
We've seen that interactive multimedia, by definition, has the capacity to deliver large amounts of
materials in multiple forms, and to deliver them in an integrated evironment that allows users to
control the reading and viewing experience. How then do these defining characteristics and virtues
translate into benefits in an educational environment?
First of all, multimedia programs bring to education the extraordinary storage and delivery
capabilities of computerized material. This is especially important for schools, libraries, and learning
institutions where books are difficult to obtain and update. Multimedia is a powerful and efficient
source for acquiring learning resources. Multimedia can also provide educational institutions access
to other kinds of inaccessible materials, such as hard to find historical films, rare sound recordings of
famous speeches, illustrations from difficult to obtain periodicals, and so on. Multimedia can put
primary and secondary source materials at the fingertips of users in even the remotest locations
from major research facilities.
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Secondly, it is not just sheer access to these materials that makes multimedia a powerful tool, but
the control over those materials that it gives to its users. Interactive multimedia programs enable
the user to manipulate these materials through a wide variety of powerful linking, sorting, searching
and annotating activities. Each of these activities can be made to reinforce and inculcate various
intellectual skills, in addition to satisfying certain cognitive needs for quality learning, such as the
ability to follow through links at the immediate moment when curiosity is aroused, and the ability to
view different forms of the same information side-by-side.
Furthermore, interactive multimedia programs ususally integrate some combination of orientation
tools, such as timelines, graphs, glossaries, and other pedagogical guides. These kinds of tools
further point to the third major benefit of multimedia: the personalization or individualization of the
learning experience.
By allowing users to control the sequence and the pacing of the materials, multimedia packages
facilitate greater individualization in learning, allowing students to proceed at their own pace in a
tailored learning environment. Furthermore, interactive multimedia can be a powerful learning and
teaching tool because it engages multiple senses. Students using multimedia are reading, seeing,
hearing, and actively manipulating materials. As one educator enthusiastically put it,
As humans, we seem hard-wired for multiple input. Consider that we remember only about 10% of
what we read; 20%, if we hear it; %30, if we can see visuals related to what we're hearing; %50, if we
watch someone do something while explaining it; but almost 90%, if we do the job ourselves-- if only
as a simulation. In other words, interactive multimedia--properly developed and properly
implemented-- could revolutionize education. (Menn, 1993)
Although "revolutionize" may be a bit optimistic, interactive multimedia is a promising medium for
reinforcing, extending, and "supplementing" what goes on in the classroom with print materials,
lectures and classroom discussions.
I use the term "supplementing" quite intentionally, however, as the supplementary dimension of
multimedia materials is important to keep in mind. Incorporating multimedia into the curriculum
does not mean "throwing out the printed books." Most teachers who incorporate some kind of
interactive multimedia into their teaching do so to enhance printed materials and the core course
content. Multimedia materials help students and teachers by way of reinforcement and extension,
not substitition. What hypermedia provides is access to materials and unique personalized control
over them. In other words, interactive multimedia isn't about replacing books, but about replacing
the absence of books; hypermedia doesn t do what books do, but what books can t do.
REFERENCES
Ambron, S. and K. Hooper, eds. Interactive Multimedia: Visions of Multimedia for Developers,
Educators and Information Providers Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1988.
Barrett, Edward, ed. The Society of Text: Hypertext, Hypermedia, and the Social Construction of
Information. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989.
Bevilacqua, Ann F. "Hypertext: Behind the Hype." American Libraries 20 (2), (February, 1989): 158162 Delaney, Paul and George Landow. eds. Hypermedia and Literary Studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 1991.
Galbreath, Jeremy. "The Educational Buzzword of the 1990's: Multimedia, or Is It Hypermedia, or
Interactive Multimedia or...?" Educational Technology 32 (April, 1992): 15-19.
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Hirschbul, John J. "Multimedia: Why Invest?" Interactive Learning International 8 (OctoberDecember, 1992): 321-33.
Megarry, Jacquetta. "Hypertext and Compact Discs: The Challenge of Multi-Media Learning." British
Journal of Educational Technology 19 (October, 1988): 172-83.
Picciano, Anthony G. "The Five Points: The Design of a Multimedia Program on Social History."
Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 2 (1993):129-47.
ENVIRONMENTAL
ACCOUNTING
Dr. AMUL K. KOTADIA
Shri Patel Kelavani Mandal College of Technology & B.Ed.- JUNAGADH
KEYWORDS: ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING, ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY.
SUBJECT: COMMERCE
ABSTRACT
Environmental accounting is developing concept of branches of accounting. More emphasis
is given on environment accounting and awareness for that as it’s a need of today world. Infect the
industries and business organizations are directly or indirectly responsible for various environmental
problems such as global warming, soil erosion, glacier meltdown, air pollution, water pollution etc.
The issue of environmental responsibility and the sustainable industrial development has given to
the birth of environmental accounting. It is the process of identification measurement and
commutation of information in the environmental responsibility of the performance of an entity.
Special emphasis should be given on generation of environment reports and their standards and
policies, for the range of business and regulatory purposes. Need arise to reach common format for
recognized environment related data and its disclosure in the financial statement. For its proper
implementation accounting standard and regulatory frameworks is necessary. The role of corporate
entities in respect of environment recognizes.
INTRODUCTION
Today world, each country trying to develop their economy mainly through industries and business
activities. All these activities directly or indirectly utilized natural resources. As we know that there
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are limited natural resources available for the use of it. All these activities are result in increase in
pollution. It’s not a problem of single country but it’s a problem of the world for survival of human
being.
There are number of tragedies we are facing like TSUNAMI, Bhopal Gas etc. So the need is arise to
protect our environment, aware about environment related problems and to control over them. In
other words, environmental accounting is an important instrument for understanding the role
played by the natural environment in the economy. Its provide data relating to the contribution of
natural resources to economic and the costs imposed by pollution or resource degradation.
“Environmental Accounting is Process of identification measurement and communication of
information on the environmentally responsible performance of a business entity to permit
economic decisions.” It is essential for an organization to implement the concept of sustainable
development as it facilitates to take into account ecological activities of an organization in economic
measurement. Environmental accounting first adopted by Norway in the 1970s and in India it is
applied only the cements, oil and petroleum, power and electronics, steel, engineering and textile
industries.
“Environmental Reporting” is the term now commonly used for environmentally related data,
verified or not, regarding environmental risks, environmental impacts and policies. Corporate
environmental protection should include environmental reporting initiatives taken by the enterprise,
the adverse impact of its production process and products on the environment both in quantitative
and qualitative terms and its initiatives in process and product innovations in order to achieve
sustainable growth.
Generally following information are disclosed by the companies in its annual report about
Environmental accounting and reporting

Cost of capital expenditure for pollution control, products and redesign.

Actual data related to the reduction of pollution.

Estimates of future and benefits relating to environment.
OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING
The following are the objectives of environmental accounting and Reporting:

To know total expenditure on protection and enhancement of environment.

To distinguished environment related flows and resources.

To know the reserve related to environmental issues.

To minimize environmental impact by improved design and product process.

To reduced the cost through cooperation and management resources.

To increase transparency relating to environment.

To ensure effective and efficient management of natural resources.

To aid in strategic decision process regarding continuing or abandoning relating to particular
policies.
PROBLEMS REGARDING ENVIRONMENT ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING






Capitalization of cost.
Identification of environmental liabilities.
Measurement of liabilities.
Identification of environmental cost.
Inapplicable assumption.
Lack of reliable industry data.
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
Lack of accounting standards for environmental accounting

Environmental accountings have no economic value.

Environmental accounting is not a legal obligation in most of the cases in India.

The method of estimating the social value of environmental goods and services are
imperfect, as a result it misleading.

Estimated value have no fixed conversion into money.

Unrecorded environmental costs and difficulty in extracting and separating environmental
cost the industry data is virally unreliable.

Rapid change in social value on environmental goods and services that the estimates are
likely to be obsolete before its use.
ADVANTAGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING:
The organization is required to disclose environment issue in their statement, which provides
following benefits:

It improves the credit of entity which ultimately leads to improvement in sales and
profitability.

Awareness of customers may result to prefer environmentally friendly products and
services.

Encourage the customers to purchase environment friendly product.

Increase the reputation from bankers/investors/creditors etc.

Provide safety to employees in respect health.

Increase image of the organization.

It aid to provide results in more accurate pricing of products and more eco-friendly
processes.

Improved environmental performance which may have a positive impact on human health
and business success.

Build up trust and confidence within the community.
CONCLUSION
The most critical challenges facing in 21st century such as all kinds of pollution like water, air,
marine, noise, light etc. The industrialized nations must become more aware to protection of natural
environment. The industries should focus and set aside a part of their funds for Environmental
protection. There are several challenges of environmental accounting and reporting such as
environmental accounting method, social values in applicable assumptions, economic value and lack
of reliable industrial data.
The above limitation and obstacles can be minimizing by taking following steps:

Reorganization of environment cost and measurement should be made on the basis of
materiality, measurability and certainty.

The environment cost can be charges to revenue if the expenditure do not lead to future
benefit and capitalized if it intends to prevent or reduced future environment damage or to conserve
resources.

If entity has legal obligation to incur the future cost, the cost involve to present environment
liabilities.

All significant accounting policies must be disclose in financial statement.
To solve challenges a large number of research accounting standard, various measures,
rules, restriction and proper procedures for Environmental accounting and effectively
implementation in corporate scenario is necessary.
REFERENCES
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1. Avik Ranjan Roy “Environmental Accounting & Environment Management Accounting”. In the management accountant
June, 2008.
2. Boyd, James. 1998. Searching for the Profit in Pollution Prevention: Case Studies in the Corporate Evaluation of
Environmental Opportunities, Resources for the Future,Washington D.C., Discussion Paper 98-30, May.
3. Banerjee, B. Accounting for corporate Environmental management in India, the management accountant December,
2002.
4. Chadick, B. Rouse, R. W. and Surma, J (1993). Perspective on Environmental Accounting.: The CPA journal January, pp.
18-24.
5. Eresi, K., “Information disclosure in Annual Report the chartered accountant January, 1996.
6. Gallhofer S, Haslam J. 1997. The direction of green accounting policy: critical reflections of Auditing, and Accountability
Journal 10(2): 148–174
7. Gibson K. 1997. Courses on environmental accounting. Accounting, and Accountability Journel 10 (4): 584–593.
8. Grinnell DJ, Hunt HG. 2000. Development of an integrated course in accounting: focus on environmental issues. Issues in
Accounting Education 15(1): 19–42.
9. Gulch P. 2000. Costs of environmental errors. Greener Management International Autumn 31: 23–3
10. K.R. Sharma, op. cit. p.61.
11. K.G. Dutta Environmental Accounting the management accountant ICWAI, October 1993, vol No. 10. p. 772.
12. Mishra, K.K. “Environmental Reporting in Business the management accountant June. 1999
13. Mobus, J. (2005) Mandatory environmental disclosure in a legitimacy theory context.Accounting, Auditing &
Accountability Journal.
14. Mishra, B.K., Nweman, D.P., & Stinson, C.H. (1997). Environmental regulation and incentives for compliance audits,
Journal of Accounting and Public Policy.
15. Neetu Prakash, “Environmental Accounting in India A survey of Indian companies the management accountant August,
2006.
16. Quirke, B. J. (1991) “Accounting for the Environment. Current Issues. “European Environment. Vol 1 part 5 October,
1992. pp. 19-22.
17. Rao, P. Mohana,: Environmental Accounting and Auditing a general view.: the management accounting June, 2000.
USING MULTIMEDIA APPROACH IN
EDUCATION
Dr. PRAKASHCHANDRA K. AMIN
M.A.,M.Ed.,P.hd.
KEYWORDS:
SUBJECT: EDUCATION
This paper comments that the growth of information and communication technology (ICT) in society
is reflected in policies to encourage the use of ICT in education and the development of educational
multimedia. As the role of educational multimedia increases, it is increasingly important to have an
idea of the potential it affords for teaching and learning.
Multimedia, as per Pearson’s website, can be defined generically as any combination of two or more
media such as sound, images, text, animation, and video. For educational technology purposes,
multimedia refers to computer-based systems that use associative linkages to allow users to
navigate and retrieve information stored in a combination of text, sounds, graphics, video, and other
media.
According to Muhammad Asif in his paper titled ‘Multimedia in Education’, multimedia combines
five basic types of media into learning environment: text, video, sound, graphics and animation, thus
providing a powerful new tool for education.
Asif further argues that the world is changing rapidly and the field of education is experiencing these
changes in particular as it applies to Media Services. The old days of an educational institution
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having an isolated audio-visual department are long gone! The growth in use of multimedia within
the education sector has accelerated in recent years, and looks set for continued expansion in the
future.
This article reviews the development and use of multimedia technologies in education. Particular
emphasis is put on the instructional uses of multimedia. Interest and investment in this technology
are increasing, and indications are that it has appeal to both teachers and students.
It has been argued by many scholars that Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
establishes a theoretical framework for using multimedia in instruction. His theory relates to other
widely recognized theories on learning styles and modalities of learning.
Multimedia literacy is a growing concern among educators as societies worldwide continues to
depend on image technologies such as television, video, and film. Educators need to prepare
children to live and function in a society that relies on multimedia for information storage and
dissemination. Multimedia can be used in instruction in a variety of creative and stimulating ways.
Applications include teacher presentations, student projects, and discovery learning. Although
teachers are encouraged to develop their own materials, many excellent educational multimedia
products are also available.
There are a number of reasons for arguments which supports incorporation of multimedia in
classrooms. A paper titled ‘10 Reasons to Use Multimedia in the Classroom’ authored by Barbara
Schroeder on August 4, 2010, provides a number of arguments towards use of multimedia in
classroom.
By incorporating multimedia in their instruction, teachers can capture attention, engage learners,
explain difficult concepts, inspire creativity, and have fun. However, there are many tools available
and many ways to use those tools. PBS Teachers website comments that utilization of multimedia
resources
is
very
essential
because
they
offer
the
following
advantages:
(a) Portability: with multimedia, learning can happen anytime, anywhere. Students can listen to a
podcast or view a vodcast at home, in the car or on a field trip. These tools are great ways to
reinforce concepts and enable students to learn in context;(b) Flexibility: today’s resources let you
demonstrate concepts and lessons in ways that textbooks and classroom lectures alone can’t.
Teaching about DNA? With multimedia, you can have students research DNA online, bring worldrenowned scientists into your classroom with podcast lectures, show a 3D computer model of a DNA
strand and then have students design their own strand.(c) Individualized Learning: multimedia
resources can help you meet the needs of many different types of learners Visual learners can watch
an online video, while auditory learners listen to streaming audio and hands-on learners play an
interactive game. Students who need extra practice can use these tools again and again.(d)
Collaboration and Community Building: blogs, social networking sites and wikis allow students to
interact with and teach each other, not only within their own school, but with learners across the
country and the world as well.(e) A Broader View of the World: multimedia resources can help your
students experience today’s global community. With multimedia, students can learn about new
cultures and countries in immediate and authentic ways – and prepare to interact with that broader
community in an increasingly collaborative global job market.In addition, multimedia activities
encourage students to work in groups, express their knowledge in multiple ways, solve problems,
revise their own work, and construct knowledge. The advantages of integrating multimedia in the
classroom are many. Through participation in multimedia activities, briefly, students can learn:
(a) Real-world skills related to technology;
(b) The value of teamwork;
(c) Effective collaboration techniques;
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(d) The impact and importance of different media;
(e) The challenges of communicating to different audiences;
(f) How to present information in compelling ways;
(g) Techniques for synthesizing and analyzing complex content;
(h) The importance of research, planning, and organization skills;
(i) The significance of presentation and speaking skills;
(j) How to accept and provide constructive feedback;
(k) How to express their ideas creatively;
As you can see from these ideas, you can easily align instructional goals and empower instruction
through using appropriate multimedia tools. It takes some planning, time, and expenditures (video
cameras, software), but in the long run, your students will reap many benefits, such as taking more
responsibility for their learning, becoming aware of their learning and how to document it, and
realizing their own creative potential.It should be noted that there are some constraints to using
multimedia in the classroom, which any teacher should take into account during decision making on
using multimedia in you classroom, including:
(a)
Technological
resources,
both
hardware
and
software;
(b)
Technological
skills,
for
both
the
students
and
teacher;
(c) Time required planning, designing, developing, and evaluating multimedia activities.
As the role of multimedia increases and policy drives ICT use to the heart of education, it is
increasingly important to have an idea of the potentialities afforded by multimedia for teaching and
learning.
It is very crucial to builds on teacher competence and experience to consider the implications of
multimedia in education, at policy, resource, system development and use levels.
With increased ICT and multimedia literacy among students it is important that teachers gain an
understanding of what multimedia can do in the classroom context.
Educational Benefits of Multimedia tools (from the Student's Perspective) :
Giving students an opportunity to produce documents of their own provides several educational
advantages.

Students that experience the technical steps needed to produce effective multimedia
documents become better consumers of multimedia documents produced by others.

Students indicate they learn the material included in their presentation at a much greater
depth than in traditional writing projects.

Students work with the same information from four perspectives: 1) as researcher, they
must locate and select the information needed to understand the chosen topic; 2) as authors, they
must consider their intended audience and decide what amount of information is needed to give
their readers an understanding of the topic; 3) as designers, they must select the appropriate media
to share the concepts selected; and 4) as writers, they must find a way to fit the information to the
container including the manner of linking the information for others to retrieve (Smith, 1993). All of
these contribute to student learning and help to explain the improved student learning that is often
associated with IT-assisted PBL.
There is another aspect to developing multimedia documents that empowers students. Students
quickly recognize that their electronic documents can be easily shared. Because of this, students
place a greater value on producing a product that is of high standard. An audience of one–the
teacher–is less demanding than an audience of many–particularly one’s peers. Students quickly
recognize that publishing a multimedia document that communicates effectively requires attention
to both the content and the design of the document.
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ENGLISH AS A NATIONAL FOREIGN
LANGUAGE IN INDIA
Dr. GOPALKRISHNA R. SOLANKI
The DPCBL Arts & Commerce College – Dhansura
KEYWORDS: ENGLISH LANGUAGE, TEACHING,INDIA
SUBJECT: LANGUAGE
ABSTRACT:
The Indian Constitution provides for mother-tongue education at the primary stage. This provision is
honoured more in the breach than in observance. The Constitution is not a neutral document; it has
a social purpose, one that is neglected in regard to mother-tongue primary education, illiteracy,
ignorance, poverty, dropout and stagnation in education.
The three-language formula at the secondary- stage has emerged as the national consensus. But this
formula is not being seriously implemented in the Hindi and Tamil regions. The Central Schools and
the Navodaya Vidyalayas offer both Hindi and English as media of in- struction, but there are no
plans to follow this up at college level with provision for bilingual media which could ensure the
emergence cadre of educated persons proficient both in Hindi and English.
Language teaching standards are divergent in different regions of the country. One thing common to
all is the consistently low standard of achievement in languages as well as subjects. Instead of
learning subjects through languages, subjects are used to learn languages. Therefore, students are
poor both in subjects as well as language. Minimum competence in languages must be a
precondition to the study of subjects which in turn enlarge the scale of language learning.
Many commissions have examined language in education; none has included a linguist in its panels.
Thus language has never received the treatment it deserves. Indian languages generally have neither
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been discussed in the Constituent Assembly nor in the Indian Parliament. What was 'discussed is
whether English or Hindi should be the national official language.
India is a country of minorities, Hindi being only the first among the minority languages. All states
and union territories are within themselves as diverse as the union. A policy towards minorities is
therefore a necessary condition of planning for language use. It is not the recognition of Many
languages that leads to fissiparous tendencies, but the non-recognition of languages rather which
stirs identity assertion and leads to national disintegration.
India has two national languages for central administrative purposes: Hindi and English. Hindi is the
national, official, and main link language of India. English is an associate official language. The Indian
Constitution also officially approves twenty-two regional languages for official purposes.
Dozens of distinctly different regional languages are spoken in India, which share many
characteristics such as grammatical structure and vocabulary. Apart from these languages, Hindi is
used for communication in India. The homeland of Hindi is mainly in the north of India, but it is
spoken and widely understood in all urban centers of India. In the southern states of India, where
people speak many different languages that are not much related to Hindi, there is more resistance
to Hindi, which has allowed English to remain a lingua franca to a greater degree.
Since the early 1600s, the English language has had a toehold on the Indian subcontinent, when the
East India Company established settlements in Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai, formerly Madras,
Calcutta, and Bombay respectively. The historical background of India is never far away from
everyday usage of English. India has had a longer exposure to English than any other country which
uses it as a second language, its distinctive words, idioms, grammar and rhetoric spreading gradually
to affect all places, habits and culture.
In India, English serves two purposes. First, it provides a linguistic tool for the administrative
cohesiveness of the country, causing people who speak different languages to become united.
Secondly, it serves as a language of wider communication, including a large variety of different
people covering a vast area. It overlaps with local languages in certain spheres of influence and in
public domains.
Generally, English is used among Indians as a ‘link’ language and it is the first language for many
well-educated Indians. It is also the second language for many who speak more than one language in
India. The English language is a tie that helps bind the many segments of our society together. Also,
it is a linguistic bridge between the major countries of the world and India.
English has special national status in India. It has a special place in the parliament, judiciary,
broadcasting, journalism, and in the education system. One can see a Hindi-speaking teacher giving
their students instructions during an educational tour about where to meet and when their bus
would leave, but all in English. It means that the language permeates daily life. It is unavoidable and
is always expected, especially in the cities.
The importance of the ability to speak or write English has recently increased significantly because
English has become the de facto standard. Learning English language has become popular for
business, commerce and cultural reasons and especially for internet communications throughout the
world. English is a language that has become a standard not because it has been approved by any
‘standards’ organization but because it is widely used by many information and technology
industries and recognized as being standard. The call centre phenomenon has stimulated a huge
expansion of internet-related activity, establishing the future of India as a cyber-technological superRESEARCH MATRIX: INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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power. Modern communications, videos, journals and newspapers on the internet use English and
have made ‘knowing English’ indispensable.
The prevailing view seems to be that unless students learn English, they can only work in limited
jobs. Those who do not have basic knowledge of English cannot obtain good quality jobs. They
cannot communicate efficiently with others, and cannot have the benefit of India’s rich social and
cultural life. Men and women who cannot comprehend and interpret instructions in English, even if
educated, are unemployable. They cannot help with their children’s school homework everyday or
decide their revenue options of the future.
A positive attitude to English as a national language is essential to the integration of people into
Indian society. There would appear to be virtually no disagreement in the community about the
importance of English language skills. Using English you will become a citizen of the world almost
naturally. English plays a dominant role in the media. It has been used as a medium for inter-state
communication and broadcasting both before and since India’s independence. India is, without a
doubt, committed to English as a national language. The impact of English is not only continuing but
increasing.
REFERENCES
CHOUDHARI, K., A Factorial Study of the Teaching Competencies of Teachers Teaching English at the
Secondary School Level, Ph.D. Edu., SNDTU., 1985
DILEEP KUMAR, Caste and Class as Variables Affecting Spoken Language in Primary Class Children,
Ph.D. Edu., BHU, 1983
EKBOTE, N.T., Linguistic Analysis of the Textbooks of Marathi Mother Tongue Prescribed for
Standards I to X by the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary Education, Ph.D. Edu., Nag. U., 1985
KESKAR, S.U., A Survey of the Implications of the Three Language Formula Enunciated by the
Government of India with special reference to its Impact on Maharashtra State, Ph.D. Edu., Born. U.,
1984
KHANAPURKAR, U.H., Construction and Standardization of Silent Reading Comprehension Test in
Marathi for Pupils Studying in Standard VII, in the Schools of Osmanabad District of Maharashtra
State, Ph.D. Edu., SNDTU, 1984
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