advertisement

K.OA.A.1 Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. 1. Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. (Drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem. This applies wherever drawings are mentioned in the Standards.) Unpacked Students demonstrate the understanding of how objects can be joined (addition) and separated (subtraction) by representing addition and subtraction situations in various ways. This objective is focused on understanding the concept of addition and subtraction, rather than reading and solving addition and subtraction number sentences (equations). Common Core State Standards for Mathematics states, “Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.” Please note that it is not until First Grade when “Understand the meaning of the equal sign” is an expectation (1.OA.7). Therefore, before introducing symbols (+, -, =) and equations, kindergarteners require numerous experiences using joining (addition) and separating (subtraction) vocabulary in order to attach meaning to the various symbols. For example, when explaining a solution, kindergartens may state, “Three and two is the same amount as 5.” This concept is the beginning of anchoring numbers to five and ten. The five frame is an effective tool to help students see numbers to five. Using a five frame, explain that one counter is put in each square. Ask the students to place three counters on the five frame. Ask them what they notice about three - it is two away from five. Once the five frame is understood, introduce the ten frame. The standard way to show numbers on a ten frame is to fill up the top row, starting on the left, the same way you read. When the top row is full, counters can be placed in the bottom row, starting at the left. Ask students about the relationships of the number shown to five and ten. "Show me 7 on the ten frame. How many more to make ten? How many more than five?" Move to representing the relationships with drawings to recording them through expressions. Begin to talk about what happens if I take 2 away? How many do I have now? The use of manipulatives to explore this idea is critical before any symbols are introduced. Early learners need a wide assortment of visual cues to help them make the connection between the abstract concept of addition and the concrete result. This can be accomplished by providing them with situations where objects are added to an existing set or two separate sets are combined. Further, students need hands-on practice and visual cues for subtraction by taking from a set or taking a set apart. Establishing the meanings of the vocabulary words “addition” and “subtraction” is critical. The use of manipulatives and technologies is very useful at this age: hands-on activities make such an abstract concept more concrete in nature. For this standard, students will benefit from the opportunity to put manipulatives together or take sets of manipulatives apart. Situations that involve real-life encounters or everyday objects will help students to engage in the learning process. Teachers need to provide opportunities for students to model with verbal and visual cues, such as drawings and the acting out of these situations. Teachers should represent a situation with an expression or equation after it has been modeled with manipulatives, a drawing, or a situation. This will help students make the connection between real-world objects and the more abstract symbolic representation. The chart below shows a representation of unknown quantity: Speaking Level 2 Emg Demonstrate an understanding of addition as putting together and adding to and subtraction as taking apart and taking from Level 3 Developing Demonstrate an understanding of addition as putting together and adding to and subtraction as taking apart and taking from Level 4 Expanding Demonstrate an understanding of addition as putting together and adding to and subtraction as taking apart and taking from Level 5 Bridging Demonstrate an understanding of addition as putting together and adding to and subtraction as taking apart and taking from using objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations or expressions with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations or expressions with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations or expressions. with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations or expressions. with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations or expressions. orally in a small group with minimal teacher support. orally explaining to a partner. orally in a cooperative group. orally with the teacher. orally with a partner. ELD Standard #3: English Language Learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. Level 6 Reaching Level 1 Entering Demonstrate an understanding of addition as putting together and adding to and subtraction as taking apart and taking from