ESF project 4895: Meer werk maken van innovatie voor

ESF project 4895: Meer werk maken van innovatie voor werkgelegenheid en arbeidsmarkt
Ref. 2C
TITLE OF LITERATURE: Design as an enabler of social innovation
AUTHOR : S. Hjelm et al
TYPE OF AUTHOR (academic, consultants, practitioners, other): academic
innovation in general:
innovation by / within the public sector:
innovation oriented towards citizens: X
innovation oriented towards social and employment issues typically dealt with by ESF: X
A. How to define innovation e.g. in types
Social innovation focuses on well-being, inclusiveness and integration
Anything new that works to meet a social goal
Social both in end and in means.
Borne by citizens, based on citizen participation.
B. How to formulate an innovation strategy (in terms of scope, types of innovation,
People centered focus is what makes innovation sustainable in the longer term.
Social innovation works in two ways:
1) Innovation IN the public sector, the third sector or business related to the public sector.
2) Innovation for social goals or the goal to affect people’s behaviours and habits.
Pull, bottom up, people centered model instead of push model, where research gives rise to
Reports New Public Management with its narrow goals and constant reporting and auditing as well
as its ignorance of the existence of networks of engaged citizens, to be an obstacle to creativity.
States design as a method of creating something people want to use as being able to tackle wicked
problems (infinite amount of parameters and possible solutions). Engineers are better at solving
restricted problems. Designers are therefore most useful at the start, whereas engineers can take
later on the concepts given by designers and solve them as “problems”. Design is user centred
+contextual + uses prototypes for feed-back and iteration. It is innovation made social as it is rooted
in analysis of the social situatedness of people’s needs, behaviours and resources.
Recommends a) Social design studios / incubators where individuals, NGOs, citizen networks,
companies, public sector can experiment together b) mutual competence development where
researchers and public servants learn about design and designers learn about societal issues (via
education, internships) c) databases of design practices d) networks for social innovation…
C. How to organize innovation as a process in different stages?
Inspiration, ideation, implementation.
Prototyping is essential: it focuses on experiencing by users. Experience is not the same as looking at
Implementation should always be part of the brief. Designers should not just come up with ideas
and leave execution to others.
D. How to define outputs of innovation e.g. in terms of idea, concept, prototype…?
E. How to make decisions regarding progress of an innovation?
F. What roles exist for different actors in the innovation process? What competences are
required for these roles?
Funders could be public sector, voluntary sector, CSR funds from business, philanthropy, social
G. How to organize interaction with external stakeholders (open innovation)?
H. Specific tools that are explained (list briefly for each tool in what stage, by which role, why,
how it is to be used).
a) Tool 1: 27th Region France, Mindlab UK