Geography 1700 – Natural Hazards AJ Allred, Fall 2015 Student Name

Geography 1700 – Natural Hazards
AJ Allred, Fall 2015
Student Name _____________________
This element is a more accessible alternative to drag & drop reordering.
Quiz 12 - Explanations
This element is a more accessible alternative to drag & drop reordering.
Question 1
In the western hemisphere, hurricanes tend to migrate westerly, or from west to east.
Hurricanes originate with tropical warmth and humidity that moves to higher latitude where Coriolis force
and cooler air become factors in storm development. In the sub-tropics (located just north and south of
the tropics), easterly trade winds prevail, pushing water, air and storms to the west.
Question 2
Hurricanes and tornadoes occur often at the Equator because ________________.
Sunshine is abundant
water is abundant
Coriolis force is strong
All of the above explain why powerful tornadic (cyclonic) storms occur frequently at the
None of the above. There are NO tornadoes or hurricanes at the Equator.
Lack of Coriolis force and lack of contrasting air masses tend to prevent formation of tornadic and/or
cyclonic storms anywhere near the Equator.
Question 3
High-pressure gyres at about 30 degrees north latitude ________________.
produce stormy weather, with dangerously high winds and heavy rain
are sometimes called hurricanes, cyclones or typhoons
are known for storm surge and very humid conditions
promote sinking, clockwise air that becomes drier and warmer as it compresses
All of the above
Hadley cells deposit drying, warming air at about 30 degrees north and south of the Equator. These
sinking air masses lost most of their moisture near the ITCZ and become colder at high altitude as they
moved away from the tropics. As they sink toward the surface, descending air is deflected to the right by
Coriolis force, resulting in clockwise air that warms by compression as it moves toward the surface.
Question 4
Inversion weather occurs in Salt Lake valley when _________________.
hot summer days create ozone pollution that is hazardous to our health
hot weather causes ultraviolet solar energy to interact with oxygen molecules in Earth's
warm air at the valley floor is trapped beneath cold air near mountain tops
cold air near the valley floor does not rise or circulate very much
All of the above help explain inversion weather.
Inversions occur when normal daily surface heating is not sufficient to cause lifting. Instead, surface
conditions are cooler than air aloft, and layering or stratification occurs: warm air won’t sink and cool
surface air won’t rise. So, with a dose of cooler air descending into the area at night, and no daily
warming, the inversion strengthens.
Question 5
Storm surge exhibits all of the above except ________________.
high wind
high waves
heavy rain fall
high ocean level
high air pressure
High air pressure is associated with sinking or descending air that presses down more heavily on the
surface than does rising air (lower pressure). Relatively high air pressure is associated with fair skies and
calm conditions, although severe downdrafts and chinook winds can be gusty.
Stormy weather that includes wind and precipitation is almost always associated with rising air and low
atmospheric pressure. In fact, higher-than-normal sea level is a component of storm surge during
hurricanes, contributing to flooding near shorelines.
Question 6
Energy that is taken up during evaporation of water can be called _____________.
latent heat
incoming solar short-wave radiation
long-wave radiation, also called reflection
sensible heat that we can feel
All of the above describe evaporation
Evaporation of water requires energy. Absorbed energy converts liquid to vapor, which makes water
invisible and heat become latent, or hidden.
Question 7
Stormy weather (rain, wind, clouds) is associated with ______________.
high atmospheric pressure
air that warms and compresses as it sinks
clockwise rotation of air in the northern hemisphere
rising air
All of the above
Storms that include precipitation, wind and clouds are associated with low pressure air that is rising,
leading to cooling by decompression, release of latent heat and vapor condensing back to liquid. In the
northern hemisphere, stormy, low-pressure conditions tend to produce counter-clockwise rising air.
Question 8
The ITCZ tends to produce ________________________.
severe storms with tornadic (cyclonic) winds
rainy conditions, with tornadoes and hurricanes
rainy weather
clouds, rain and cyclonic winds
All of the above
The ITCZ is indeed frequently rainy, but does not include cyclonic or tornadic storms with rotating air.
Question 9
Cloud formation and condensation tend to occur within high pressure cells or air masses. In the northern
hemisphere, high-pressure air tends to turn counter-clockwise as it rises, resulting in cyclones and
High air pressure is associated with stable and/or sinking air that warms by compression as it sinks.
Warming air is unlikely to release latent heat by condensation, so clouds will not form and precipitation
will not occur. High pressure air tends to sink and turn clockwise in the northern hemisphere. Clockwise
sinking air is known as “anti-cyclonic”.
Question 10
Westerly winds (from the west) contribute to mid-latitude cyclones by bringing warm, wet air to central and
southern U.S. states.
Winds from the west bring moisture and relatively mild conditions to the west coasts of midlatitude land masses in the northern hemisphere. Prevailing westerly winds tend to dry out after
crossing mountain ranges. In the United States, westerly winds tend to bring relatively cooler,
drier air to central and southern states, because moisture from the Pacific Ocean was lost far back
in the western states.