Geography 1700 – Natural Hazards AJ Allred, Fall 2015 Student Name _____________________ This element is a more accessible alternative to drag & drop reordering. Quiz 12 - Explanations This element is a more accessible alternative to drag & drop reordering. Question 1 In the western hemisphere, hurricanes tend to migrate westerly, or from west to east. True False Hurricanes originate with tropical warmth and humidity that moves to higher latitude where Coriolis force and cooler air become factors in storm development. In the sub-tropics (located just north and south of the tropics), easterly trade winds prevail, pushing water, air and storms to the west. Question 2 Hurricanes and tornadoes occur often at the Equator because ________________. Sunshine is abundant water is abundant Coriolis force is strong All of the above explain why powerful tornadic (cyclonic) storms occur frequently at the Equator. None of the above. There are NO tornadoes or hurricanes at the Equator. Lack of Coriolis force and lack of contrasting air masses tend to prevent formation of tornadic and/or cyclonic storms anywhere near the Equator. Question 3 High-pressure gyres at about 30 degrees north latitude ________________. produce stormy weather, with dangerously high winds and heavy rain are sometimes called hurricanes, cyclones or typhoons are known for storm surge and very humid conditions promote sinking, clockwise air that becomes drier and warmer as it compresses All of the above Hadley cells deposit drying, warming air at about 30 degrees north and south of the Equator. These sinking air masses lost most of their moisture near the ITCZ and become colder at high altitude as they moved away from the tropics. As they sink toward the surface, descending air is deflected to the right by Coriolis force, resulting in clockwise air that warms by compression as it moves toward the surface. Question 4 Inversion weather occurs in Salt Lake valley when _________________. hot summer days create ozone pollution that is hazardous to our health hot weather causes ultraviolet solar energy to interact with oxygen molecules in Earth's atmosphere warm air at the valley floor is trapped beneath cold air near mountain tops cold air near the valley floor does not rise or circulate very much All of the above help explain inversion weather. Inversions occur when normal daily surface heating is not sufficient to cause lifting. Instead, surface conditions are cooler than air aloft, and layering or stratification occurs: warm air won’t sink and cool surface air won’t rise. So, with a dose of cooler air descending into the area at night, and no daily warming, the inversion strengthens. Question 5 Storm surge exhibits all of the above except ________________. high wind high waves heavy rain fall high ocean level high air pressure High air pressure is associated with sinking or descending air that presses down more heavily on the surface than does rising air (lower pressure). Relatively high air pressure is associated with fair skies and calm conditions, although severe downdrafts and chinook winds can be gusty. Stormy weather that includes wind and precipitation is almost always associated with rising air and low atmospheric pressure. In fact, higher-than-normal sea level is a component of storm surge during hurricanes, contributing to flooding near shorelines. Question 6 Energy that is taken up during evaporation of water can be called _____________. latent heat incoming solar short-wave radiation long-wave radiation, also called reflection sensible heat that we can feel All of the above describe evaporation Evaporation of water requires energy. Absorbed energy converts liquid to vapor, which makes water invisible and heat become latent, or hidden. Question 7 Stormy weather (rain, wind, clouds) is associated with ______________. high atmospheric pressure air that warms and compresses as it sinks clockwise rotation of air in the northern hemisphere rising air All of the above Storms that include precipitation, wind and clouds are associated with low pressure air that is rising, leading to cooling by decompression, release of latent heat and vapor condensing back to liquid. In the northern hemisphere, stormy, low-pressure conditions tend to produce counter-clockwise rising air. Question 8 The ITCZ tends to produce ________________________. severe storms with tornadic (cyclonic) winds rainy conditions, with tornadoes and hurricanes rainy weather clouds, rain and cyclonic winds All of the above The ITCZ is indeed frequently rainy, but does not include cyclonic or tornadic storms with rotating air. Question 9 Cloud formation and condensation tend to occur within high pressure cells or air masses. In the northern hemisphere, high-pressure air tends to turn counter-clockwise as it rises, resulting in cyclones and tornadoes. True False High air pressure is associated with stable and/or sinking air that warms by compression as it sinks. Warming air is unlikely to release latent heat by condensation, so clouds will not form and precipitation will not occur. High pressure air tends to sink and turn clockwise in the northern hemisphere. Clockwise sinking air is known as “anti-cyclonic”. Question 10 Westerly winds (from the west) contribute to mid-latitude cyclones by bringing warm, wet air to central and southern U.S. states. True False Winds from the west bring moisture and relatively mild conditions to the west coasts of midlatitude land masses in the northern hemisphere. Prevailing westerly winds tend to dry out after crossing mountain ranges. In the United States, westerly winds tend to bring relatively cooler, drier air to central and southern states, because moisture from the Pacific Ocean was lost far back in the western states.