Ch.19 Introduction to the Kingdom of Life Study Guide Vocabulary Words Peptidoglycan: web-like complex of carbohydrate strands cross-linked by peptide bridges Eukarya: domain consisting of four kingdoms of eukaryotes Basidiomycete: fungus that makes mushrooms Thermophile: archaebacteria that lives in a very hot place Nonvascular plant: multicellular autotroph that lacks roots, stems, and leaves Echinoderm: invertebrate such as a sea star, sea urchin, and sand dollar Short Answer What four characteristics do biologists use to distinguish between the six kingdoms? Cell type, cell structure, body type, and method of obtaining nutrition Contrast the reproductive structures produced by ferns and roses. Ferns produce spores that are resistant to drying. Roses produce flowers and seeds in the fruits. What characteristics are common to all vertebrates? All vertebrates have an internal skeleton made of bone, a vertebral column that surrounds and protects the spinal cord, and a head containing the skull and brain. Explain why colonial organisms and aggregations are not considered multicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms are composed of many cells that are permanently associated with one another and that coordinate their activities. In a colonial organism, few cell activities are coordinated. In an aggregation, cells come together temporarily and then separate. Compare the different roles played by plants and animals in most terrestrial food webs. As autotrophs, plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial food webs. As heterotrophs, animals act as detritivores, primary consumers, secondary consumers, or parasites. Concepts to Know Amoebas move using extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopodia. When cells become specialized in form and function, they undergo a process called differentiation. In animals, gametes do not divide by mitosis first, as they do in plants, but rather fuse directly with one another to form the zygote. Cells that are permanently associated but that do not communicate with one another form a(n) colonial organism. Prokaryotes that inhabit very salty lakes are called halophiles and belong to the kingdom Archaebacteria. Zygomycetes form structures for sexual reproduction called zygosporangia. A tissue is a district group of cells with similar structure and function. The only kingdom that consists of organisms without cell walls is animalia. The giant kelp is an example of a multicellular, photosynthetic protest. Fungi obtain their nutrition by secreting digestive enzymes onto whatever they grow on. Unlike plants, most animals can move about readily because they have muscle tissue. One difference between ferns and mosses is that ferns are vascular and mosses are nonvascular. Protists that extend long, thin projections of cytoplasm through porous shells are called forams. A eukaryote is an organisms is most closely related to an archaebacteria.