Ch. 15 Guided Notes: Air Pollution and Stratospheric Ozone

Ch. 15 Guided Notes: Air Pollution and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
______________________: the introduction of ______________________________into the atmosphere at
concentrations high enough to harm plants, animals, and materials such as buildings, or to alter ecosystems.
__________________ pollution is also called ___________________________pollution.
Major Air Pollutants include: 1. Lead 2. Mercury
3. Sulfur Dioxide (_________) : A corrosive gas that comes primarily from _____________________________________,
it is a _____________________________irritant and also released during
_______________________________________ S + O  SO2
4. Nitrogen Oxide (_________) : Can be either _________________________a colorless odorless gas or ________
___________________________, a pungent, reddish-brown gas
Primary anthropogenic sources- ________________________________________Natural sources: _________________
5. Carbon Oxides : Carbon monoxide (CO): colorless, odorless gas formed in the
Ex. Vehicle exhaust, natural gas heaters, cooking with charcoal or kerosene. Carbon dioxide (CO2): _________________
__________that forms during the complete ________________ of most matter, including ________________________.
6. Particulate Matter (PM): solid or liquid particles suspended in air. Also called particulates or particles.
Produced from the _____________________________________________________________________________Diesel
vehicles give off more black smoke than do gasoline vehicles. Very small particulate matter is _____________________.
___________________:reduced____________caused primarily when PM from air pollution scatters _______________.
7. Photochemical oxidants are a class of air pollutants formed as a result __________________________________
____________________________________________________ Oxides remove ______________from other substances.
They are harmful to_________________________& ___________________________
Smog: _________________________________________________________________ Photochemical smog: dominated
by ________________________________ Occurs when sunlight ___________________________________________.
Sulfurous smog dominated by ____________________________Occurs when _______ is burned & atmosphere is humid
8. Volatile Organic Compounds : organic compounds that become____________________________________________
Primary Pollutants vs Secondary Pollutants:
Natural Sources of Pollution include:
Anthropogenic Sources of Air Pollution include:
Thermal Inversion- when a relatively warm layer of air at mid-altitude _______________________________The warm
inversion layer ___________________________________________________________
Acid deposition- occurs when ___________________________and ___________________combine with atmospheric
________________&______________. These form the secondary pollutants ___________________&_______________
These secondary pollutants further break down into _______________& sulfate which cause the acid in acid deposition.
Chemical Formula:
Effects of Acid Deposition :
Ways to Prevent Air Pollution:
Fluidized bed combustion: Removes _______________________from coal exhaust during ____________________.
Coal is burned in close proximity to ____________________________(CaCO3)  CaCO3 absorbs __________producing
calcium sulfate (CaSO4)  ____________________is used to make gypsum wallboard ______________________.
Control of NOx emissions: To reduce emmisions, we must reduce ____________________________and control amount
of ________________… can result in less complete combustion,_________________________________________.
 Catalytic converters on cars reduce NO and CO, as well as unleaded gas.
To remove particulate matter (PM) ____________________, ____________________, _______________________ are
used but each use __________________ and create additional ______________________________.
Baghouse filter:
Electrostatic Precipitator:
The stratospheric ozone layer exists roughly _______________________above the Earth____________ has the ability
to _________________________________________________.
Formation and Breakdown of Ozone: First, UV-C radiation _________________________holding together the oxygen
molecule, leaving ____________________oxygen atoms:
Sometimes the free oxygen atoms result in ___________________:
Ozone is broken down __________________________________when it absorbs both UV-C and UV-B ultraviolet light
Depletion of the Ozone Layer:
Indoor Air Pollutants: ___________________________________used for cooking and heating in developing countries.