Final exam review packet L-1

Final Exam Review
The following questions deal with the general concepts of each unit. You should be able
to answer each of these questions. In addition to this, I recommend that you create a
vocabulary list for each unit using your notebook and text. From these terms create a
concept map for each unit by linking and defining them.
Unit 1 Introduction and general chemistry (Chapters 1, 2.1, 2.2, and 8 in Earth Science
- List the three phases of matter.
- Draw and label the parts of an atom.
- Explain the two main types of chemical bonds. Explain the numerical concept of
electron energy levels.
- Explain all the steps of the scientific method.
- Explain the significance of the big bang, and meteorite impact theories.
- Explain the relationship between the Doppler effect and red shift.
- State what Eratosthenes discovered and how.
- Describe how the earth moves and is positioned as a planet.
- List appropriate units for types of measurements such as mass, distance, volume, and
temperature. Be able to convert units within the metric system.
Unit 2 Ecology ( Unit 1 in Environmental Science text, handouts and laboratory manuals)
- Explain the concept of ecology using the terms environment and ecosystem.
- Explain what abiotic and biotic factors are, and list five examples of each.
- Explain the difference between habitat and niche.
- Explain how abiotic factors affect organisms in a forest, grassland, and stream.
- Explain the concept of biodiversity, and its relationship to tropical rain-forests.
- Explain population dynamics by using the terms population, population density, census,
limiting factor and carrying capacity.
- Order the four layers of a forest by giving two characteristics for each layer.
- List 4 dominant tree, shrub, and animal species in our area.
- List all the parts of a food web.
- Explain the energy pyramid and how energy moves through an ecosystem.
- Give several examples of limiting factors
- List several introduced species and explain why they are a problem.
- List several reasons why species have become endangered.
- List pros and cons to timber harvesting.
- Explain two types of timber harvesting techniques.
- Be able to diagram the nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen cycles.
Unit 3 Soils and weathering (Unit 3 in Environmental text and laboratory manual.
- Explain how soil is formed by listing what it is comprised of.
- List and describe the four soil horizons.
- Describe soil texture using terms such as sand, silt, clay, and loam. Explain what makes
each of these particles different form each other.
- Describe four farming methods that control soil erosion.
- Explain what a macronutrient is and name the three most important ones for plants.
- Explain the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering by giving
examples of each type.
- Explain four things that affect the rate of weathering.
- Explain how and why erosion is affecting our agriculture
- Explain the historical significance of pesticides.
- Explain the side effects of DDT and the concept of bioaccumulation.
- Explain the methods of integrated pest management.
Unit 4 Water (Unit 4 in Environmental Science Text)
- Describe five water chemical parameters, and what different values for each indicate.
- Explain what a watershed is as well as the difference between cold and warm water
- Create a diagram of the water cycle defining each process.
- List the three characteristics of wetlands.
- List at least five values of wetlands.
- List the various forms of oater pollution and classify them as either point non-point.
Unit 5 Geology - rocks and mineral (Chapters 9 and 10)
- Explain the four basic chemical structures of minerals, and name the two main types of
- Name four characteristics of minerals and explain five mineral properties.
- Diagram the rock cycle by linking each stage by its appropriate process.
- Describe the two ways igneous rocks form, and name five common igneous rocks.
- Name the three groups of igneous rock, and describe how they are grouped.
- List six different igneous rock structures as intrusive or extrusive.
- Explain the three different types of sedimentary rock groups, and give an example of
- Describe six sedimentary features by how they form.
- Describe the two ways metamorphic rocks form.
- Explain how the two groups of metamorphic rocks differ, and name two examples of
each group.
Unit 6 Energy and natural resources (Unit 5 in Environmental text, laboratory manual and
chapter 11 in earth Science text)
- State the two laws of energy.
- Give an example of potential and kinetic energy, and relate the definition of energy to
work and force.
- List three examples of renewable and non-renewable resources.
- Define the process of how fossil fuels formed. Describe the four stages of coal
- Describe three ways oil, natural gas, and coal are both similar and different as energy
- List and briefly describe all the alternative energies used in this country by naming a pro
and con for each one.
- Explain the two different forms of solar heating as well as various other solar energy
Unit 7 Meteorology (Chapters 23,24, 25,and 26)
- Explain how the terms dew point, relative humidity, specific humidify, and frost are
related to each other.
- Name the measuring device and units for temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind
- Name all the global winds, and relate them to high and low pressure.
- Describe the Coriolis effect on global winds and high and low pressure systems.
- Explain how convection and conduction differ, and how convection is responsible for
both local and global winds.
- Name the four layers of the atmosphere and give a characteristic of each.
- List the gases of the atmosphere in their order of abundance.
- Name and describe three factors that affect heat absorption and release.
- Compare scattering, reflection, and the absorption of energy. Relate them to the
greenhouse effect.
- Explain how the electromagnetic spectrum changes from one end to the other. Rank the
different forms of energy due to their wavelength.
- In order of altitude, name seven cloud types and what they indicate.
- Explain the greenhouse effect and how it may contribute to global climate change. Explain the problem with the ozone layer and what effects of this problem..
- Name five different forms of precipitation and explain how they differ.
- State the equation for air pressure.
- Compare the four types of fronts to each other and explain what each one indicates.
- Name and describe the four main types of air masses. List the seven air masses in
North America.
- Transform weather data into map symbols, and explain the concept of isobars.
- Describe three ways high and low pressure systems differ.
- Explain how lightning occurs, using four steps.
- Compare characteristics of thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes.
Unit 8 Geological history (Chapters 4.1, 4.2, 17, 18, and 19)
- Explain the differences between relative and absolute dating.
- Name the three early theories of crustal movement, and how they formulated the plate
tectonic theory.
- List three important steps from Pangaea to the present.
- Name the three types of plate movements, and give an example of what they form.
- List the four eras of geological time and know the general order of major occurrences
throughout the earth’s history.