Name: Per. Evolution Review Sheet [17.5 points] Section 1 Charles Darwin and Other Scientists 1) Darwin’s ship is named _____________________. 2) Darwin stopped at __________________ on his trip around the world and made many of his observations. 3) Darwin noticed the finches from different islands had different shaped beaks because ______________________________________________________________________________. 4) After his trip, Darwin concluded ______________________________________________________. 5) ____________ and ____________ studied geology and determined the Earth was millions of years old. 6) ______________ believed organisms acquired traits through use or disuse and passed them to offspring. 7) Darwin’s book is called __________________________. 8) What is artificial selection? 9) How is artificial selection different than natural selection? Section 2-3 Natural Selection, Evidence for Evolution 10) What does variation mean? 11) Name one variation between the two tigers. 12) What is another phrase for natural selection? 13) What is an adaptation? 14) Explain an adaptation that a bird might have to help it reach a food source. 15) Explain how camouflage can be an adaptation. 16) Where or how does an organism get an adaptation? 17) What does it mean for an animal to be “fit” or have a high fitness? 18) Before the industrial revolution, why were the grey peppered moths considered more “fit?” 19) What does evolution mean? 20) What is the name of the process or “mechanism” that carries out evolution? Name: Per. 21) Can an individual organism evolve in its own lifetime? Why? 22) Can a species evolve generation to generation? Why? 23) Explain Darwin’s idea of descent with modification. 24) Natural selection has 4 parts: explain all four! 25) Why is the fossil record considered evidence for evolution? 26) What is a homologous structure? Give an example. 27) What is a vestigial structure? Give an example. 28) How does embryology provide evidence for evolution? 29) What type of evidence did Darwin not have for evolution that we have today? 30) In the natural selection spoons game, what did the limited number of spoons each round represent? 31) In the spoons game, what represented genetic variation? Section 4 Genes & Variation 32) What 2 major gaps existed in Darwin’s theory of evolution? _________________________________________________________________ 33) What scientist’s work was able to fill these gaps? ______________________ 34) ________________ is the differences among organisms in a population 35) ________________ is the number of times and allele appears in a population 36) ________________is all the different alleles that are in a population 37) ________________ is a group of the same species that can breed and produce fertile offspring 38) In genetic terms, what is evolution? ___________________________________________ 39) What are two sources of variation? _________________ ___________________ 40) What is a mutation? ____________________________________________________ 41) What causes mutations? __________________________________________________ 42) When does gene shuffling happen (2) times_____________________________________ 43) Does natural selection work on the genotype or phenotype? _______________ Name: Per. Section 5 Evolution as Genetic Change 44) Where is the area of high fitness in directional selection? _____________________________ 45) Where is the area of high fitness in stabilizing selection? _____________________________ 46) Where is the area of high fitness in disruptive selection? _____________________________ 47) An average weight baby is the most likely to survive. This is 48) Longer bird beaks gather food better. This is ___________________ selection. ___________________ selection. 49) Both small and large bird beaks are well adapted to survive. This is _________________________ 50) What type of selection can result in 2 new subgroups? 51) What type of selection favors the average individual? _________________ selection. _________________________ 52) What type of selection favors one extreme trait over the middle and other end? _______________ 53) Label each graph disruptive, directional, or stabilizing selection. Then draw the curve for the new graph! 54) In what size of a population is genetic drift observed? 55) What is genetic drift? __________________________________________________ 56) What can cause genetic drift? ______________________________________________ 57) Explain an example of genetic drift. 58) _________________________ __________________________________________ _________________ is when a large part of a population is killed or cannot reproduce 59) Give an example of the bottleneck effect. _______________________________________ 60) What is the founder effect? _______________________________________________ 61) What is genetic equilibrium? _______________________________________________ 62) What 5 things are required for genetic equilibrium to happen in a population? Section 6 - Speciation 63) What is speciation? ____________________________________________________ 64) What is reproductive isolation? _____________________________________________ _________________________________________ 65) What happens in geographic isolation? 66) What types of things can cause geographic isolation? 67) What is behavioral isolation? _______________________________________________ 68) Give an example of behavioral isolation. 69) What is temporal isolation? ________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 70) Give an example of temporal isolation. _________________________________________ Name: Per. Evolution Vocabulary Terms and Concepts 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) HMS Beagle Galapagos Islands Darwin Evolution Hutton and Lyell Lamarck Acquired traits On the Origin of Species 9) Natural Selection 10) Survival of the fittest 11) Artificial Selection 12) Adaptation 13) Fitness 14) Struggle for existence 15) descent with modification 16) common descent 17) fossils 18) transitional forms 19) comparative anatomy 20) homologous structures 21) vestigial organs 22) embryo 23) analogous structures 24) biochemical evidence 25) Biological diversity 26) variation 27) camouflage 28) mimicry 29) gene shuffling 30) mutation 31) directional selection 32) stabilizing selection 33) disruptive selection 34) population 35) gene pool 36) species 37) genetic equilibrium 38) genetic drift 39) bottleneck effect 40) founder effect 41) relative frequency 42) reproductive isolation 43) geographic isolation 44) temporal isolation 45) behavioral isolation Who is Darwin, what did he do, and why does it matter? Darwin, HMS Beagle, Galapagos Islands, Natural Selection, Common Descent What is selection (natural and artificial) and why is it important? Natural Selection, Variation, Fitness, Adaptation, Descent with Modification, Environment, Artificial Selection What are the different lines of evidence for evolution and what do they mean? Evolution, Fossil Record, Comparative Anatomy [embryology, homologous, analogous, vestigial], Biochemical Evidence, Radiometric Dating Evidence Explain the four basic mechanisms of evolution and use an example of how they would affect a certain population. Mutation, Migration, Genetic Drift, Natural Selection, Variation How does genetics factor into evolution? Evolution as a change in allele frequency. Genetics explains sources of variety such as camouflage or mimicry, within species, coming from gene shuffling and mutations, and these beneficial genetic variations are passed down through natural selection. How does natural selection affect allele frequency? Natural selection can either be directional (pushing one direction towards greater fitness), stabilizing, (removing variety to increase populations fitness), or disruptive (separating towards two species with greater fitness in their own niche). This can be graphed and measured with respect to allele frequency. What is speciation? Species are a population that can interbreed with one another. If this population experiences reproductive isolation (geographical, behavioral, temporal) and the mechanisms for evolution are all present, then the population can split into multiple different species.