Evolution Review Sheet [17.5 points]
Section 1 Charles Darwin and Other Scientists
1) Darwin’s ship is named _____________________.
2) Darwin stopped at __________________ on his trip around the world and made many of his observations.
3) Darwin noticed the finches from different islands had different shaped beaks because
4) After his trip, Darwin concluded ______________________________________________________.
5) ____________ and ____________ studied geology and determined the Earth was millions of years old.
6) ______________ believed organisms acquired traits through use or disuse and passed them to offspring.
7) Darwin’s book is called __________________________.
8) What is artificial selection?
9) How is artificial selection different than natural selection?
Section 2-3 Natural Selection, Evidence for Evolution
10) What does variation mean?
11) Name one variation between the two tigers.
12) What is another phrase for natural selection?
13) What is an adaptation?
14) Explain an adaptation that a bird might have to help it reach a food source.
15) Explain how camouflage can be an adaptation.
16) Where or how does an organism get an adaptation?
17) What does it mean for an animal to be “fit” or have a high fitness?
18) Before the industrial revolution, why were the grey peppered moths considered more “fit?”
19) What does evolution mean?
20) What is the name of the process or “mechanism” that carries out evolution?
21) Can an individual organism evolve in its own lifetime? Why?
22) Can a species evolve generation to generation? Why?
23) Explain Darwin’s idea of descent with modification.
24) Natural selection has 4 parts: explain all four!
25) Why is the fossil record considered evidence for evolution?
26) What is a homologous structure? Give an example.
27) What is a vestigial structure? Give an example.
28) How does embryology provide evidence for evolution?
29) What type of evidence did Darwin not have for evolution that we have today?
30) In the natural selection spoons game, what did the limited number of spoons each round represent?
31) In the spoons game, what represented genetic variation?
Section 4 Genes & Variation
32) What 2 major gaps existed in Darwin’s theory of evolution?
33) What scientist’s work was able to fill these gaps?
________________ is the differences among organisms in a population
________________ is the number of times and allele appears in a population
________________is all the different alleles that are in a population
________________ is a group of the same species that can breed and produce fertile offspring
38) In genetic terms, what is evolution?
39) What are two sources of variation?
_________________ ___________________
40) What is a mutation?
41) What causes mutations?
42) When does gene shuffling happen (2) times_____________________________________
43) Does natural selection work on the genotype or phenotype?
Section 5 Evolution as Genetic Change
44) Where is the area of high fitness in directional selection?
45) Where is the area of high fitness in stabilizing selection?
46) Where is the area of high fitness in disruptive selection?
47) An average weight baby is the most likely to survive. This is
48) Longer bird beaks gather food better. This is
___________________ selection.
___________________ selection.
49) Both small and large bird beaks are well adapted to survive. This is
50) What type of selection can result in 2 new subgroups?
51) What type of selection favors the average individual?
_________________ selection.
52) What type of selection favors one extreme trait over the middle and other end?
53) Label each graph disruptive, directional, or stabilizing selection. Then draw the curve for the new graph!
54) In what size of a population is genetic drift observed?
55) What is genetic drift?
56) What can cause genetic drift?
57) Explain an example of genetic drift.
_________________ is when a large part of a population is killed or cannot reproduce
59) Give an example of the bottleneck effect.
60) What is the founder effect?
61) What is genetic equilibrium?
62) What 5 things are required for genetic equilibrium to happen in a population?
Section 6 - Speciation
63) What is speciation?
64) What is reproductive isolation?
65) What happens in geographic isolation?
66) What types of things can cause geographic isolation?
67) What is behavioral isolation?
68) Give an example of behavioral isolation.
69) What is temporal isolation?
70) Give an example of temporal isolation.
Evolution Vocabulary Terms and Concepts
HMS Beagle
Galapagos Islands
Hutton and Lyell
Acquired traits
On the Origin of Species
9) Natural Selection
10) Survival of the fittest
11) Artificial Selection
12) Adaptation
13) Fitness
14) Struggle for existence
15) descent with modification
16) common descent
17) fossils
18) transitional forms
19) comparative anatomy
20) homologous structures
21) vestigial organs
22) embryo
23) analogous structures
24) biochemical evidence
25) Biological diversity
26) variation
27) camouflage
28) mimicry
29) gene shuffling
30) mutation
31) directional selection
32) stabilizing selection
33) disruptive selection
34) population
35) gene pool
36) species
37) genetic equilibrium
38) genetic drift
39) bottleneck effect
40) founder effect
41) relative frequency
42) reproductive isolation
43) geographic isolation
44) temporal isolation
45) behavioral isolation
Who is Darwin, what did he do, and why does it matter?
Darwin, HMS Beagle, Galapagos Islands, Natural Selection, Common Descent
What is selection (natural and artificial) and why is it important?
Natural Selection, Variation, Fitness, Adaptation, Descent with Modification, Environment, Artificial Selection
What are the different lines of evidence for evolution and what do they mean?
Evolution, Fossil Record, Comparative Anatomy [embryology, homologous, analogous, vestigial], Biochemical
Evidence, Radiometric Dating Evidence
Explain the four basic mechanisms of evolution and use an example of how they would affect a certain
Mutation, Migration, Genetic Drift, Natural Selection, Variation
How does genetics factor into evolution?
Evolution as a change in allele frequency. Genetics explains sources of variety such as camouflage or mimicry,
within species, coming from gene shuffling and mutations, and these beneficial genetic variations are passed
down through natural selection.
How does natural selection affect allele frequency?
Natural selection can either be directional (pushing one direction towards greater fitness), stabilizing,
(removing variety to increase populations fitness), or disruptive (separating towards two species with greater
fitness in their own niche). This can be graphed and measured with respect to allele frequency.
What is speciation?
Species are a population that can interbreed with one another. If this population experiences reproductive
isolation (geographical, behavioral, temporal) and the mechanisms for evolution are all present, then the
population can split into multiple different species.

Evolution Review Sheet [17.5 points]