Steve DeBruin, DVM Feeder Creek Veterinary Services Millersport, OH Summary of Main Points A.) Antibiotic Resistance in Animals and Humans i. One Health Conference hosted by The Ohio State University At the time of the conference, most of the research showed no connection between antibiotic use in animals and resistance patterns within the human population. If anything, human use of antibiotics was causing problems in animals. Humans had about double the resistance patterns of animals. As far as environmental concerns, almost all contamination is from human waste systems. B.) Feed-Grade Antibiotics i. Livestock producers are required to have a veterinarian prescribe feed-grade antibiotics. Effects: This law does not hurt larger producers, as their farms are visited by veterinarians weekly or monthly. However, there are negative implications for smaller producers. They incur higher costs because a.) The veterinarian is required to make a special trip and b.) The expense is spread over a smaller number of animals, e.g. a herd of 12 cattle rather than a herd of 100. Increased regulations drive small producers out of business. The costs of meeting standards are too great for many smaller farms, e.g. spreading fertilizer and manure under the new “approved plans”. Marginal costs for large farms are much lower as equipment costs are divided over many acres or many animals. Bottom line: Large farms have the comparative advantage and can afford to stay in business while smaller operations are forced out of the market. C.) Buckeye Lake for Tomorrow i. Urgency for solutions is leading to unsound practices. Indeed, there are small amounts of data that seem to rebuke some of the “Old Rules of Soils and Fertility”. Farming systems have changed greatly over the past 30 years. Tiling of fields and no-tillage systems seem to have expedited the transfer of phosphorous into our lakes, streams, and waterways. These are both considered to be management practices as they increase yields and decrease soil erosion. We need more research trials. Farmers are more than willing to help, they simply want assurance that their time, money, and resources are being used effectively.