Multicultural Philosophy: An Annotated List of Diverse Resources to use in HZT4U and HZB3M Rationale: In the Preface to the 2013 Curriculum, major ideas underlying the Social Sciences and Humanities courses are identified. These include student development and understanding of self and others, and local and global mindedness. Students must be exposed to a wide variety of texts, beliefs, and role models from diverse backgrounds in order to understand global and local communities, others, and themselves. The Ministry of Education’s “Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy” (2009) states that in order to achieve “the promise of diversity, we must ensure that we respect and value the full range of our differences… In an increasingly diverse Ontario, that means ensuring that all of our students are engaged, included, and respected, and that they see themselves reflected in their learning environment.” The section on Equity and Inclusive Education in the Prefacespecifies how the Ministry’s goal can be met through the new Social Sciences and Humanities curriculum. An equitable classroom in which students see themselves reflected in the curriculum can be achieved by explicitly teaching respect for diversity, and by drawing attention to the philosophical contributions of women and various ethnocultural and racial communities.The following resources aim to equip teachers with the tools to accomplish the latter, and to draw connections between these diverse resources and the Key Questions/Teacher Prompts in the new Philosophy curriculum. Branch Metaphysics Group Represented Resource(s) West African Philosophy Wiredu, Kwasi. Cultural Universals and Particulars: An African Perspective. Indiana University Press, p. 129-135, 1996. Aboriginal Philosophy Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Akan Philosophy of the Person.” 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/akan-person/ Rice, Brian. “Aboriginal Consciousness,” Seeing the World with Aboriginal Eyes: A Four Directional Perspective on Human and non-Human Values, Cultures and Relationships on Turtle Island. Mohawk and Finnish Scholar, p. 61-66, 2005. Chinese Philosophy Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Cheng Yi.” 2009. http://www.iep.utm.edu/chengyi/ Description / Philosopher(s) / Key Question(s) Philosopher: KwasiWiredu (contemporary Ghanaian philosopher) Key Questions: What is the self? What is understood by the concept of “being”? What is personal identity? Aboriginal perspectives on human values, cultures and relationships Key Questions: What is the relationship of mind to matter? What is understood by the concept of “being”? What is the self? Philosopher: Cheng Yi (leading Neo-Confucian philosopher) Key Questions: What are the ultimate constituents from reality? Does a supreme being exist, and, if so, what role does it have in human life? What is the relationship of mind to matter? Indian Buddhist Philosophy Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Dharmakīrti.” 2011. http://220.127.116.11/entries/dharmakiirti/ Oruka, Henry Odera, Sage Philosophy: Indigenous Thinkers and Modern Debate on African Philosophy. Nairobi, African Center for Technological Studies (ACTS), 1991. East African Philosophy South American Philosophy Epistemology Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Latin American Philosophy: Metaphilosophical Foundations,” 2009. http://18.104.22.168/entries/logic-paraconsistent/ Nuccetelli, Susana, et. al. eds. “Peru,” A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Battiste, Marie and Jean Barman, Ed. “Aboriginal Epistemology,” First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. UBC Press, Vancouver, 1995. Aboriginal Philosophy Ahmed, Zaid. “The Epistemology of IbnKhaldun, ”in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi. Encyclopedia of the History of Arab Science 3, Routledge, 2003. http://www.questia.com/library/108001957/the-epistemology-ofibn-khaldun McGinn, Marie. Sense and Certainty: A Dissolution of Scepticism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989. North African Muslim Philosophy Female Philosopher Korean Philosophy Dreyfus, George B. J. Recognizing Reality: Dharmakīrti’s Philosophy and its Tibetan Interpretations. Albany State University of New York Press. 1997. Kim, Jaegwon. “What is ‘naturalized epistemology’?” inTomberlin, J. E., ed. Philosophical Perspectives, v. 2. Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview. pp. 381-405, 1988. Philosopher: Dharmakīrti (ancient Indian Buddhist scholar) Key Questions: What are the ultimate constituents of reality? Philosopher: Henry Odera Okura (Kenyan philosopher known for Sage philosophy) Key Questions:What are the ultimate constituents from reality? Does a supreme being exist, and, if so, what role does it have in human life? What is the self? Philosopher: Francisco Miro-Quesada (contemporary Peruvian philosopher) Key Questions: Does “human nature” exist? What is the relationship of mind to matter? Collection of works written by First Nations and Metis people Key Questions: What is knowledge? What is truth? Are there different kinds of knowledge? Is scientific knowledge more reliable than other forms of knowing? Philosopher: IbnKhaldun (Tunisian Muslim historian and philosopher, author of Muqaddimah, 1377) Key Questions: What is knowledge? What is required to justify a belief? Philosopher: Marie McGinn (contemporary female philosopher who critiques scepticism) Key Questions: What is knowledge? What are the limits of knowledge? What is required to justify a belief? Philosopher: Jaegwon Kim (contemporary Korean American philosopher) Key Questions: What is knowledge? What is Ethics Confucian (Chinese)Ethics Wenn, Chase B. “Naturalistic Epistemology,” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005. http://www.iep.utm.edu/natepis/ Yu, Kam-por, Tao, Julia, and Ivanhoe, Phillip J., eds. Taking Confucian Ethics Seriously: Contemporary Theories and Applications. State University of New York Press, 2010. required to justify a belief? What is the difference between knowledge and opinion? Clarkson, Linda, et. al. Our Responsibility to the Seventh Generation: Indigenous Peoples and Sustainable Development. The International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, 1992. Tibetan Buddhist Ethics YouTube.“His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama: Ethics for our Time.” 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8p776tJ8DUc Female Philosopher Gilligan, Carol. “In a Different Voice” in Ethical Theory: A Concise Anthology. Ed. Geirsson, Heimir, and Holmgren, Margaret. Toronto: Broadview Press, 2001. Islamic Ethics BBC Religions. “Islam and war,” 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/islamethics/war.sh tml Aboriginal Ethics Social and Political Philosophy Japanese Philosophy Wakabayashi, Bob T. Modern Japanese Thought. Cambridge University Press, p. 214-218, 1998. Aboriginal Philosophy The Assembly of First Nations Report on Canada’s Dispute Resolution Plan to Compensate for Abuses in Indian Residential Schools, 2004. http://epub.sub.uni- Philosopher: Confucius Key Questions: What is duty? What is the nature of responsibility? What is virtue? What is a good life? Academic teacher resource about environmental responsibility based in the “Seven Generations” principle Key Questions: What is a good life? What is the nature of responsibility? Philosopher: Dalai Lama (the 14th) Key Questions: What is the nature of responsibility? What is the good life? What is virtue? Philosopher: Carol Gilligan (care ethicist) Key Questions: What is a good life? What is virtue? Scholarly article that describes the ethics of war according to Islam (includes primary excerpts from the Qur’an and an audio clip of a BBC news special on religious pacifism) Key Questions: What is duty? What is the nature of responsibility? Is morality separable from religion? Philosopher: Ikki Kita (Japanese political philosopher, authored “The Theory of National Polity and Pure Socialism,” 1906) Key Questions: What are the just limits of state authority? What are an individual’s rights and responsibilities? Is it possible in a democracy to adhere to the will of the majority and still respect the views of the minority? Primary government document Key Questions: Do governments have an obligation to redress historical injustices, and if hamburg.de/epub/volltexte/2009/2889/pdf/Indian_Residential_S chools_Report.pdf West African Philosophy Eze, E. C. (ed.), Postcolonial African Philosophy: A Critical Reader, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1997. Philosophy of Science Mohist (Chinese) Philosophy Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Mohism, 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mohism/ Chan, Wing-tsit, ed. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1969. North African Muslim Philosophy Issawi, Charles and Khaldun, Ibn. “An Arab Philosophy of History: Selections from the Prolegomena of IbnKhaldun of Tunis (1332-1406),”in Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi.Encyclopedia of the History of Arab Science 3, Routledge, 1950.http://www.questia.com/library/666440/anarab-philosophy-of-history-selections-from-the Islamic Philosophy Weiss, Dieter, "IbnKhaldun on Economic Transformation", International Journal of Middle East Studies, p. 29–37, 1995. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Arabic and Islamic Natural Philosophy and Natural Science.” 2012. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/arabic-islamic-natural/ Aboriginal Philosophy Female Philosopher Aikenhead, Glen, and Michell, Herman. Bridging Cultures: Indigenous and Scientific Ways of Knowing Nature. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2010 Cartwright, Nancy. “The Truth Doesn’t Explain Much,” Introductory Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Prometheus so, in what way? Is it possible in a democracy to adhere to the will of the majority and still respect the views of the minority? Philosopher: Emmanuel ChukwudiEze, (contemporary Nigerian philosopher known for postcolonial philosophy) Key Questions: How did colonialism impact its citizens? What are the just limits of state authority? How can social and political justice and equity be defined? Philosopher: Mo Di, better known as “Mozi” (pronounced Mo-Tzu, an ancient Chinese thinker known for challenging Confucianism) Key Questions: What are an individual’s rights and responsibilities? What limits, if any, should be put on the freedom of an individual citizen? Philosopher: IbnKhaldun (Tunisian Muslim historian and philosopher, author of Muqaddimah, 1377) Key Questions: What are the limits of state authority? What are an individual’s rights and responsibilities? Natural philosophy as seen from an Islamic perspective (including the theory Kalam, a form of atomism) Key Questions: What is science? Are scientific models accurate depictions of reality or just useful tools for developing hypotheses? Textbook Key Questions: What is science? What, if any, are the limits of scientific knowledge? Philosopher: Nancy Cartwright (American philosopher known for studies in Logic) South American Philosophy Books, New York, 1998. Bunge, Mario. "What is Pseudoscience", The Skeptical Inquirer, Vol.9, No.1, pp.36–46. 1984. Aesthetics Abiodun, Rowland. "African Aesthetics." Journal of Aesthetic Education 35 (2001), 4: 15 - 23. Available as a download from www.jstor.org African Aesthetics Belton, Val-Jean. "African Art and Aesthetics." Curriculum Unit 98.03.02. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1998/3/98.03.02.x.html Suzuki, David and McConnell, Amanda. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Toronto: Greystone Books, 2004. Aboriginal Aesthetics Feminist Aesthetics Klinger, Cornelia. “Aesthetics,” A Companion to Feminist Philosophy, Alison M. Jaggar and Iris Marion Young (eds.), Malden, MA: Blackwell, 343–352, 1998. Chinese Aesthetics Liyuan, Zhu and Blocker, Gene (eds.), “Contemporary Chinese Aesthetics,” Asian Thought and Culture, Vol. 7. Peter Lang, 1995. Guangqian, Zhu. The Beauty of Life. Peking University Press, 2010. Key Questions: What is science? Does science study reality?What, if any, are the limits of scientific knowledge? Philosopher: Mario Augusto Bunge (contemporary Argentine philosopher and physicist) Key Questions: Is astrology a science? Does science study reality? Scholarly article by West African professor Abdiun Rowland “African Art and Aesthetics” course introduction and lesson plans from the YaleNew Haven Teachers Institute Key Questions: What is beauty? What is the connection between beauty and utility? What do artworks say about the meaning of communal life? Photographic images that capture the beauty and balance of nature, paired with small passages that reflect Indigenous views on nature Key Questions: What is beauty? Is art a uniquely human endeavour? What factors are involved in making aesthetic judgments? Philosopher: Cornelia Klinger (contemporary feminist philosopher) Key Questions: Does art have social value, and, if so, how is its social value determined? What factors are involved in making aesthetic judgments? Philosopher: Zhu Guangqian (generally regarded as the thinker who founded the study of aesthetics in 20th-century China) Key Questions: What is beauty? What factors are involved in making aesthetic judgments?