14. Science Vocabulary Words 1-7 – 1-10 Sedimentary Rock - Rock that is formed by cementation and compaction of sediments and laid down in horizontal layers. Compaction - deeply buried sediments under pressure because of the weight of overlying layers. This squashes the grains together more tightly. Cementation - when new minerals stick the grains together. Metamorphic Rock-Rock formed by heat and pressure within the Earth. Igneous rock- Rock formed from cooled magma or lava Sediments- Bits of rock, soil, sand, shell and the remains of organisms. Fossil-dead plants and animals trapped in sedimentary rock. Oil (petroleum)- liquid fossil fuel made from dead marine animals millions of years ago Natural gas- flammable odorless gas made from dead animals millions of years ago Coal- solid fossil fuel made from dead plants millions of years ago Weathering – the breakdown of rocks at the Earth’s surface, by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity. Erosion – the process by which soil and rock particles are moved elsewhere by gravity, or by a moving transport agent – wind, water or ice. Deposition – Deposition is the laying down or dropping off of sediment carried by wind, water, or ice.