PSYCH ∙ Ms. Wiley ∙ Intro to Psych Notes, D ___
The Meaning of Psychology
The word psychology comes from the Greek word psyche, meaning “__________”
or “__________,” and the Latin word logia, meaning “study of”
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
o Behavior: observable/measurable actions
o Mental processes: cognitive activities such as dreams, perceptions,
thoughts, memories
The goals of psychology are to observe, describe, explain, ___________________________ the events they study
What Psychologists Do
Investigate factors that give rise to behaviors and that explain mental processes
__________________ about why people/animals do what they do
_________theories by predicting when specific behaviors will occur
Provide therapy to help people change their behaviors and better meet their goals
Teach, spreading psychological knowledge in classrooms and workshops
Psychologists do NOT prescribe medicine (that’s _____________________)
The [Short] History of Psychology
A long past but short history
Ever since human beings developed the capacity to ponder their existence, they have!
Its “short history” refers to the relatively brief period since psychology became a modern science
o First psychological lab was founded in Germany, 1879 by ____________________
o Increased precision in study of human behavior, extending beyond everyday experience and speculation
Types of Psychologists—
Clinical Psychologists
Largest group
Treat people with depression, anxiety, relationships, drug abuse
Split time between hospitals, colleges, private practice, research
Cannot prescribe medicine (only psychiatrists can)
Developmental Psychologists
Study changes throughout a person’s lifetime
Physical, emotional, cognitive, and social
Attempt to sort out relative influences of heredity and the environment on development (nature vs. nurture)
Informs educational psychology
Educational Psychologists
Not to be confused with school counselors who help students with adjustment problems
Instructional methods for entire districts/states
Generally do not work with students
Sometimes involved in creating SAT and other standardized tests
Environmental psychologists
o Ways in which people influence and are influenced by physical environment
o Why do crowded cities make some people cranky?
Consumer psychologists
o Study behavior of shoppers to explain/predict behavior
o Why is milk furthest item in store from front door?
Forensic psychologists
o Testify about the competence of defendants
Social Psychologists
Concerned with behavior in social situations
Conformity and obedience
Physical and psychological factors that attract people to one another
How people’s behavior changes when they are members of a group
Situations in which people help others
Bystander effect
1. What kind of psychologist would you like to be? Why?
2. Summarize videos (2) on the “bystander effect” and include your reactions:
Psychological Perspectives (5)—(Biopsychology, Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Humanistic, Cognitive)
Biopsychology / Neuroscience
Emphasizes role of biology on behavior and mental processes
Studies the organization of the __________________________________________________________
How does damage to parts of brain affect personality, ability to learn, etc.?
Research methods:
o Brain scans
o Monitoring blood flow
3. Summarize video on Phineas Gage:
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Founded by ____________________________
Focuses on the __________________________ and its influence on human behavior
Most feelings come from the “hidden place” in the mind (iceberg theory)
We protect ourselves from our real feelings by repressing them and are often not consciously aware of them
People must gain insight into their unconscious conflicts, particularly those that are sexual and aggressive, in
order to “get better”
Investigates observable behavior
How does learning create and change behavior?
Began in 1913 with _________________________
o Rebelled against introspection and studies of consciousness
o Psychology should focus on objectivity
Behaviorists believe that almost everything a person does is influenced by
John B. Watson (Behaviorism Continued)
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to
take any one at random and ________________ to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer,
artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, ____________________of his talents, penchants,
tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.
Classical Conditioning (Behaviorism Continued)
Occurs when a _____________________________________, through association with an unconditioned or
automatic stimulus, thereby develops capacity to elicit certain emotional or physiological response
Little Albert:
o Previously neutral stimulus: rat
o Unconditioned/automatic stimulus: fear at loud noise
o Conditioned response: fear of __________, which had been __________ with loud noise
4. Summarize video on the Little Albert experiment and include your reactions:
Pavlov’s dogs: (Ivan Pavlov, 1927)
o Previously neutral stimulus: buzzer
o Unconditioned/automatic stimulus: salivate when see food
o Conditioned response: salivate at ____________ after buzzer is paired with food
5. Summarize video on Pavlov’s dogs:
6. In your own words, summarize what “classical conditioning” means:
Operant Conditioning (Behaviorism Continued)
How consequences lead to changes in voluntary behavior
We learn through consequences and reinforcers
Behaviors tend to appear, disappear, or become modified according to their __________________________
Resists the mind as the _____________________ in human activity, instead consequences in environment was
influential agent
Pioneered by _________________:
o “The real question is not whether machines think but whether men do.”
7. How does the clip from the “Big Bang Theory” highlight the principle of operant conditioning?
Humanistic Perspective
Emphasis on inborn potential for favorable growth, self-healing,
Believes that human beings possess an inborn capacity for
Whether environment is favorable or adverse, there is an
automatic striving in life towards __________________ and
_________________________: our predisposition to seek the
fullest expression of our abilities and thereby achieve meaningful
Seeks to understand:
How people express and experience their uniqueness
___________________: all of the ideas, feelings, perceptions recognized as me, I or myself; how people view
___________________: standards of excellence prescribed for oneself
Self-esteem: overall evaluation of oneself
What constitutes happiness and life satisfaction
A greater understanding of human happiness and how to foster its presence
Abraham Maslow was the first to explain the stages people go through during the actualization process:
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs—Path to Self-Actualization
 Fulfillment of drives ____________________ basic biological or
psychological needs
 Individual pursues whatever constructive activities he/she is best
 Examples: MLKs, Lincolns, Mother Teresas
Cognitive awareness and
 To know and understand beauty, nature, and the complexity of the human
 _____________________________________________
Psychological motives
 Need for ____________________________________________
 Need for self-esteem, confidence, respect
 Employment, stability, friendship
Physiological motives
 Need for _____________________ oxygen
 Safety, freedom from harm
See ‘Self-Actualization Inventory’ document.
Cognitive Perspective
Sensation and perception:
o How senses respond to stimulation
o How perceptions are formed
Processes in memory:
o How do people store memories/info
o How people ________________ information
o Why people ________________
o How we reason and problem solve
o How language is _________________
On Not Forgetting (Cognitive Perspective Continued)
___________ forgetting by: thinking and transforming content in a special, genuine way
Organizing systematically:
o Graphic organizers, clear notes and visual aids
Chunking it with similar items:
o Cut down on items to remember by grouping into lesser items
Cueing it:
o Forming _________________________
o Signal/reminder for retrieval
Rehearsing it:
o Repeat, practice
Language Acquisition (Cognitive Perspective Continued)
By end of 1st year, most have gone from cooing/babbling to minor word recognition
End of 2nd year, words appear in combination with typical errors
Ages 2-6, most children increase their vocabularies by approximately 10 words a day
Key finding:
o Language is _______________________________________________________________________
Thought Acquisition (Cognitive Perspective Continued)
Memory starts to develop around 2nd year
o Gain images for thinking about things not in the present
Cannot yet think logically until around 5 (______________________________)
By age 6, realizes beakers are the same
o Understands ________________ operations but not hypothetical situations
Age 11, can understand abstract
Teen years, can test hypotheses
8. In your own words, describe what psychology is and some of the things psychologists seek to do:
9. In your own words summarize each psychological perspective:
DESCRIPTION (in own words)
10. Generate a list of at least three questions you have about the material discussed in this document:

Psychological Perspectives