LEARNING OUTCOME BASED ON E.Q.F. AND ECVET SYSTEM. GUIDE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF Proa Professional Profiles (PPP) PROA PROJECT INDEX OF CONTENTS 0.- INTRODUCTION: Why we will use the EFQ as a framework to develop our COMPETENCE STANDARS? ................................... 3 1.- BASIC CONCEPTS OF THE ECVET FOR LIFELONG LEARNING4 2.- INTRODUCTION TO E.Q.F.´s LEARNING OUTCOME BASIC CONCEPTS ..................................................................................... 6 3.- THE LEVELS OF THE EQF FOR PROA PROJECT ...................... 7 4.- EXPLANATION OF THE PROA´S PROJECT LEARNING OUTCOME TEMPLATE ...................................................................................... 8 5.- ANNEX ........................................................................................... 11 5.1- Template to develop the LEARNING OUTCOME .............................. 11 5.2.- Glossary ............................................................................................. 12 5.3.- BLOOM TAXONOMY ......................................................................... 13 0.- INTRODUCTION: Why we will use the EFQ as a framework to develop our COMPETENCE STANDARS? The EQF is a common European reference framework which links countries’ qualifications systems together, acting as a translation device to make qualifications more readable and understandable across different countries and systems in Europe. It has two principal aims: to promote citizens’ mobility between countries and to facilitate their lifelong learning. The EQF will relate different countries’ national qualifications systems and frameworks together around a common European reference – its eight reference levels. The levels span the full scale of qualifications, from basic (Level 1, for example school leaving certificates) to advanced (Level 8, for example Doctorates) levels. As an instrument for the promotion of lifelong learning, the EQF encompasses all levels of qualifications acquired in general, vocational as well as academic education and training. Additionally, the framework addresses qualifications acquired in initial and continuing education and training. The eight reference levels are described in terms of learning outcomes. The EQF recognizes that Europe’s education and training systems are so diverse that a shift to learning outcomes is necessary to make comparison and cooperation between countries and institutions possible. In the EQF a learning outcome is defined as a statement of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process. Learning outcomes are specified in three categories – as knowledge, skills and competence. PROA is an European project that develops from a transnational point of view. In this sense the using of a tool that allow us to talk “in the same language” will be very useful to obtain logical results… that´s why we have to use the E.Q.F. as a framework to develop the training material of our project. 1.- BASIC CONCEPTS OF ECVET FOR LIFE LONG LEARNING. EQF What is the EQF and what are its The EQF is a common European reference system which will link benefits? different countries’ national qualifications systems and frameworks together. In practice, it will function as a translation device making qualifications more readable. This will help learners and workers wishing to move between countries or change jobs or move between educational institutions at home. No, the EQF describes levels of qualifications in terms of learning Does the EQF award qualifications? outcomes. The awarding of qualifications will remain a matter for national qualifications bodies. LEARNING OUTCOMES What are Learning Outcomes? Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process. Learning outcomes may be acquired through a variety of learning pathways, modes of delivery (school-based, in-company, etc.), in different learning contexts (formal, non-formal and informal) or settings (i.e. country, education and training system …). How are described? Learning Outcomes The European definition of learning outcomes uses the terms of knowledge, skills and competence. How are Learning Outcomes used in To implement ECVET it is necessary that qualifications are ECVET? described using learning outcomes. Learning outcomes are grouped to create units. Assessed learning outcomes constitute credit. Credit is the basis for enabling the transfer between learning contexts and for the accumulation of learning outcomes. In ECVET, learning outcomes are used as a basis for credit transfer and accumulation. Learning outcomes are not dependent on the learning process, the content of teaching or the learning context in which they have been achieved and therefore it is possible to use them to identify whether what the learner has achieved in one learning setting or context is comparable to what s/he is expected to have achieved in another setting or context. UNITS OF LEARNING OUTCOMES What is a Unit of Learning Outcome? A unit is a component of a qualification, consisting of a coherent set of knowledge, skills and competence that can be assessed and validated. Units enable progressive achievement through transfer and accumulation of learning outcomes. They are subject to assessment and validation which verify and record that the learner has achieved the learning outcomes expected. Why does ECVET require the use of The objective of ECVET is to facilitate the transfer, recognition Units? and accumulation of assessed learning outcomes of individuals who are aiming to achieve a professional profile. This is possible because each unit is documented and the learning outcomes it contains are assessed, and validated. Hence learners can: Progressively (unit-by-unit or set of units by set of units) accumulate learning outcomes in view of achieving a professional profile. ECVET POINTS What are ECVET points? ECVET points are a numerical representation of the overall weight of learning outcomes in a qualification and of the relative weight of units in relation to the professional profile. Together with units, descriptions of learning outcomes and information about the level of qualifications, ECVET points can support the understanding of a professional profile. The number of ECVET points allocated to a Proa Professional Profile, together with other specifications, can indicate for example, that the scope of the professional profile is narrow or broad. The number of ECVET points allocated to a unit provides the learner with information concerning the relative weight of what s/he has accumulated already. It also provides the learner with information concerning what remains to be achieved. How many ECVET points are allocated From the total number of ECVET points allocated to a PPP, each to units and how is this done? unit is allocated a number of ECVET points based on its relative. The relative weight of a unit is established using one or a combination of these approaches: - The relative importance of the units which constitute the learning outcome for labour market participation, for progression to other qualification levels or for social integration; - The complexity, scope and volume of unit in the learning outcome. - The effort necessary for a learner to acquire the knowledge, skills and competence required for the unit. 2.- INTRODUCTION TO LEARNING OUTCOME BASIC CONCEPTS LEARNING OUTCOME DEFINITION BASIC CONCEPTS KNOWLEDGE SKILLS COMPETENCE Learning outcomes means statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process, which are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence E.Q.F. DEFINITION In the context of EQF, KNOWLEDGE is described as Theoretical and/or factual knowledge. In the context of EQF, SKILLS is described as Cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical skills (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, material tools and instruments). In the context of EQF, COMPETENCE is described in terms of Responsibility and autonomy E.U. PARLAMENT & COMMISSION DEFINITION KNOWLEDGE means the outcome of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge is the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study. SKILLS means the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems COMPETENCE means the proven abilitiy to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and/or methodological abilities, in work in study situations and in professional and personal development COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE BLOOM TAXONOMY KNOWLEDGE could be WHAT Select IS IT mention name In terms of verbs: define KNOWS … recognize identify place describe SKILLS could be HOW CAN BE Explain DONE interpret classify In terms of verbs: give UNDERSTANDS analyse relate COMPETENCE it could be the Use APPLICATION OF produce KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS organize … In terms of verbs: APPLIES / DEVELOPS express distinguish inter priority judge … solve, create 3.- THE LEVELS OF THE EQF´s LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR PROA PROFESSIONAL PROFILES As we agreed in Marseille meeting the levels that we will use for developing Proa Professional Profiles are 3 and 4. EQF´s The EQF set up 8 different levels to define the 3 elements (KNOWLEDGE – SKILLS – COMPETENCE) of the LEARNING OUTCOMES. These levels go from 1 (which is the minimum) to 8 (which is the maximum) LEVELS EQF´s KNOWLEDGE SKILLS COMPETENCE LEVELS In the context of EQF, SKILLS is described as In the context of EQF, COMPETENCE is DESCRIPTION In the context of EQF, KNOWLEDGE is Cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive described in terms of Responsibility and LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 described as Theoretical and/or factual and creative thinking) and practical skills knowledge (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, material tools and instruments) knowledge of facts, principles, a range of cognitive and practical skills required to accomplish tasks and solve processes and general concepts, in a problems by selecting and applying basic field of work or study methods, tools, materials and information factual and theoretical knowledge in range of cognitive and practical skills broad contexts within a field of work required to generate solutions to specific or study problems in a field of work or study autonomy take responsibility for completion of tasks in work or study adapt own behavior to circumstances in solving problems exercise self-management within the guidelines of work or study contexts that are usually predictable, but are subject to change supervise the routine work of others, taking some responsibility for the evaluation and improvement of work or study activities 4.- EXPLANATION OF THE PROA´S LEARNING OUTCOME TEMPLATE PROJECT The LEARNING OUTCOME template we will use in PROA´s project will be composed by 2 parts: 4.1.- PART 1: GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME CHART EQF LEVEL: PROA PROFESSIONAL PROFILE PARTNER: COUNTRY: NAME OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME DEFINITION OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME To fill up the above chart “GENERAL INFO OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME” you can follow these Instructions: CONCEPTS EXPLANATION EQF´s LEVEL As you know, the EQF has 8 levels of Learning Outcomes. Knowing that the levels from 5 to 8 are the ones used for the HIGH EDUCATION, and the level 1 to 2 are very low qualification levels; we propose to place our learning outcomes between 3 – 4 levels. Just write the short definition (TITLE) you will use to describe your Learning Outcome. NAME OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME DEFINITION OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME 4.2.- The definition of the Learning outcome must give us a quick and concrete view about what we pretend with the learning outcome described. HOW TO PERFORM A DEFINITION OF A LEARNING OUTCOME Firstable, to be able to define a LEARNING OUTCOME we must know what is meant by Learning Outcome? Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process. Learning outcomes are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence. Knowledge means the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study. It is described as theoretical and/or factual knowledge; Skills means the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems. They are described as cognitive (logical, intuitive and creative thinking) or practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments); Competence means the proven ability to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and methodological abilities in work or study situations and in professional and personal development. It is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy. 4.3.- HOW ARE LEARNING OUTCOMES FORMULATED? The following basic principles can make it easier to reach an understanding between the mobility partners when describing learning outcomes: o o o o Use of active, clearly understandable verbs. Specification and contextualization of the active verb The learning outcomes formulation should consist of a verb and the related object as well as an additional (part of a) sentence describing the context. Avoiding vague, open formulations. Competence level is described comprehensibly Formulations, particularly verbs and adjectives should reflect the level of competence of a unit of learning outcomes. The learning outcomes description should comprehensibly depict whether the vocational competences can for example be applied under supervision, autonomously or responsibly and competently. 4.4.- WHAT ARE UNITS OF LEARNING OUTCOMES? A unit of learning outcomes (also called “unit” or “module”) is a component of a professional profile consisting of a coherent set of knowledge, skills and competence that can be assessed and validated. This presupposes that the units of learning outcomes are structured comprehensively and logically and that they can be examined. Units of learning outcomes can be specific to a single professional profile or common to several. 4.5.- HOW ARE UNITS OF LEARNING OUTCOMES DETERMINED? Units of learning outcomes should be designed in such a way that they can be completed as independently as possible of other units of learning outcomes. Units of learning outcomes should include all necessary learning outcomes, i.e. they should describe the intended professional competences as well as the necessary social and personal competences in this context. Units of learning outcomes should be structured and dimensioned in such a way that the relevant learning outcomes can actually be achieved in the given time, i.e. during the period of mobility. Units of learning outcomes should therefore not be too extensive. Units of learning outcomes should be assessable. Orienting units of learning outcomes towards occupational activities and tasks makes it easier to determine assessment criteria. 4.6.- DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME´s UNITS CHART* As we agreed in Marseille, is very important to focus all our efforts describing Competences. The main reason is because we will describe professional profiles and measuring the competences we can know how the learner develops his/her job in a professional field. TITLE OF UNIT OF LEARNING OUTCOME 1 KNOWLEDGE SKILLS COMPETENCE TITLE OF UNIT OF LEARNING OUTCOME 2 KNOWLEDGE SKILLS COMPETENCE TITLE OF UNIT OFLEARNING OUTCOME 3 KNOWLEDGE SKILLS COMPETENCE * Use as many charts as UNITS will have your Learning Outcome To fill up the above chart “DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME´s UNITS” you can follow these Instructions: TITLE OF THE UNIT´s LEARNING OUTCOME LEARNING OUTCOME UNITS Each Learning Outcome will be divided in different parts that will be called UNITS. Each Unit will like the “SKELETON” of the Learning Outcome. Each UNIT will be described in terms of KNOWLEDGE – SKILLS – COMPETENCES. Introduce here the different elements that can be included under KNOWLEDGE – SKILLS COMPETENCE category inside this Unit of the Learning Outcome. Depending on the different characteristic of each Learning Outcome it will be necessary to introduce different number of elements on each part of the L.O. (knowledge-skills-competence)... 5.- ANNEX 5.1- Template to develop the LEARNING OUTCOMES EQF LEVEL: PROA PROFESSIONAL PROFILE PARTNER: COUNTRY: NAME OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME DEFINITION OF THE LEARNING OUTCOME TITLE OF UNIT OF LEARNING OUTCOME 1 KNOWLEDGE SKILLS COMPETENCE TITLE OF UNIT OF LEARNING OUTCOME 2 KNOWLEDGE SKILLS COMPETENCE KNOWLEDGE TITLE OF UNIT OFLEARNING OUTCOME 3 SKILLS COMPETENCE KNOWLEDGE TITLE OF UNIT OFLEARNING OUTCOME 4 SKILLS COMPETENCE 5.2.- Glossary For a proper use of E.Q.F., the definitions which apply are the following: a) “qualification” means a formal outcome of an assessment and validation process which is obtained when a competent body determines that an individual has achieved learning outcomes to given standards; b) “national qualifications system” means all aspects of a Member State’s activity related to the recognition of learning and other mechanisms that link education and training to the labour market and civil society. This includes the development and implementation of institutional arrangements and processes relating to quality assurance, assessment and the award of qualifications. A national qualifications system may be composed of several subsystems and may include a national qualifications framework; c) “national qualifications framework” means an instrument for the classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria for specified levels of learning achieved, which aims to integrate and coordinate national qualifications subsystems and improve the transparency, access, progression and quality of qualifications in relation to the labour market and civil society; d) “learning outcomes” means statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process, which are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence; e) “knowledge” means the outcome of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge is the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study. In the context of the European Qualifications Framework, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual; f) “skills” means the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems. In the context of the European Qualifications Framework, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) or practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments); g) “competence” means the proven ability to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and/ or methodological abilities, in work or study situations and in professional and personal development. In the context of the European Qualifications Framework, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy. 5.3.- BLOOM TAXONOMY The BLOOM TAXONOMY is an instrument that could help in the process of definition of your Learning Outcome. Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin Bloom who also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals. This BLOOM TAXONOMY was designed to improve communication between educators on the design of curricula and examinations. It refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives).