Problem based Learning

Problem based Learning
ICT-Supported, Scenario-Based Learning in
Preclinical Veterinary Science Education: Quantifying
Learning Outcomes and Facilitating the NoviceExpert Transition (EJ976021)
Author(s): Seddon, Jennifer M.; Pub Date:
McDonald, Brenda; Pub Type(s):
Schmidt, Adele L.
Reports Research
Australasian Journal
of Educational
Technology, v28 n2 Peer Reviewed: Yes
p214-231 2012
Veterinary Medical Education; Computer Uses in Education; Problem
Based Learning; Case Method (Teaching Technique); Genetics;
Premedical Students; Outcomes of Education; Learner Engagement;
Student Attitudes; Foreign Countries
Problem and/or scenario-based learning is often deployed in
preclinical education and training as a means of: (a) developing
students' capacity to respond to authentic, real-world problems; (b)
facilitating integration of knowledge across subject areas, and; (c)
increasing motivation for learning. Six information and
communication technology (ICT) supported, scenario-based learning
(SBL) problems using case studies that integrated information
across subject areas were implemented in a second-year genetics
course for undergraduate veterinary science students and linked to
educational outcomes. On a post-implementation questionnaire,
students appreciated the use of authentic scenarios but login
records indicated variable engagement among students.
Comparison of learning outcomes from SBL-supported and nonSBL-supported content (within and across student cohorts)
indicated that exposure to SBL generated quantifiable
improvements in learning in both high and low ability students.
Despite this, students did not perceive that the SBL activities
improved their learning. Thus, ICT-supported SBL have the
potential to reinforce connectivity of content across a range of preclinical courses, but to facilitate a genuine novice to expert
transition may require consideration of students' perceptions of
scenario relevance, their confidence, and how students of differing
learning styles engage with such activities.
Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based
Learning (EJ969340)
Author(s): Chang, Chen-Chi;
Pub Date:
Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu- Pub Type(s):
Journal of
Research, v46 n2
p195-206 2012
Reports Research
Peer Reviewed: Yes
Educational Resources; Structural Equation Models; Problem Based
Learning; Internet; Teaching Methods; Skill Development; Peer
Relationship; Facilitators (Individuals); Group Activities; Computer
Assisted Instruction; Educational Technology; Questionnaires;
Statistical Analysis; College Students; College Instruction; Online
Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking
through the process as well as team work on problem-based
learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online
learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic
resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To
overcome the problem of the limited teaching resources, electronic
resources can help students to engage in self-learning more easily.
This study addresses electronic resources usage in problem-based
learning. Therefore, the aim of this article is to investigate the
relationship between the capability to use electronic resources and
problem-based learning performance. A quantitative analysis was
conducted through the structural equation modeling approach in
order to indicate the direction and relationship between these
constructs. To conclude, this study suggests that tutor support,
peer participation, and internet search capability should be
conceptualized as forming part of an important learning context.
Further, the results indicate that both peer participation and
internet search capability are required to facilitate the development
of problem-solving skills
Designing for Problem-Based Learning: A Comparative Study
of Technology Professional Development (ED534307)
Author(s): Ye, Lei; Walker,
Andrew; Recker,
Mimi; Leary,
Robertshaw, M.
Brooke; Sellers,
Pub Date:
Pub Type(s):
Reports Research
Peer Reviewed:
Online Submission,
US-China Education
Review B 5 p510520 2012
Electronic Learning; Technology Integration; Problem Based
Learning; Rating Scales; Educational Technology; Comparative
Analysis; Teacher Attitudes; Pedagogical Content Knowledge;
Educational Resources; Inservice Teacher Education; Education
Courses; Federal Programs; Internet; Computer Software;
Instructional Design; Web Sites; Instructional Materials; Pretests
Posttests; Control Groups; Questionnaires; Teacher Surveys; Use
Studies; Teacher Workshops; Student Attitudes; Science
Instruction; Mathematics Instruction; Curriculum Implementation;
Statistical Analysis
Despite of much focus on professional development aimed
specifically at developing teachers' technology integration skills,
rigorous studies of effective PD (professional development) are
lacking. Evidence is also lacking on how these skills can best be
integrated with pedagogical and content knowledge to improve
student learning. The purpose of this article is to present two
"design-oriented" TTPD (technology-related teacher professional
development) designs and investigate the designs' impact on
teachers. In one TTPD (tech-only), teachers learned technology
skills to create activities using online learning resources. In the
other (tech+PBL), teachers learned to create PBL (
The Power of Problem-Based Learning in Developing Critical
Thinking Skills: Preparing Students for Tomorrow's Digital
Futures in Today's Classrooms (EJ923829)
Author(s): Kek, Megan Yih Chyn Pub Date:
A.; Huijser, Henk
Pub Type(s):
Higher Education
Research and
Development, v30
n3 p329-341 2011
Peer Reviewed:
Reports Descriptive
Problem Based Learning; Critical Thinking; Thinking Skills; Teaching
Methods; Role; Information Technology
This article describes problem-based learning as a powerful
pedagogical approach and an aligned teaching and learning system
to explicitly and directly teach critical thinking skills in a broad
range of disciplines. Problem-based learning is argued to be a
powerful pedagogical approach as it explicitly and actively engages
students in a learning and teaching system, characterised by
reiterative and reflective cycles of learning domain-specific
knowledge and doing the thinking themselves. At the same time,
students are guided and coached by the problem-based learning
teacher, who models critical thinking skills in the acquisition of the
domain-specific knowledge. This article will explore what critical
thinking actually means. What are critical thinking skills? How best
to teach such skills? What is the potential role of problem-based
learning in teaching critical thinking skills? Finally, the article
reflects on how critical thinking can be developed through problembased learning as a pedagogical approach in an aligned learning and
teaching context
Effects on Learners' Performance of Using Selected and Open
Network Resources in a Problem-Based Learning Activity
Author(s): Hsu, Ching-Kun;
Pub Date:
Hwang, Gwo-Jen;
Pub Type(s):
Chuang, Chien-Wen;
Chang, Chih-Kai
British Journal of
Technology, v43 n4
p606-623 Jul 2012
Reports Research
Peer Reviewed: Yes
Educational Objectives; Problem Based Learning; Problem Solving;
Information Systems; Computers; Statistical Analysis; Educational
Technology; Internet; Computer Networks; Teaching Methods; Web
Based Instruction; Student Surveys; Questionnaires; Student
Improvement; Instructional Effectiveness; Comparative Analysis;
Learning Activities; Educational Environment; High School
Students; Student Attitudes; Foreign Countries
Owing to the popularity of computers and computer networks,
fostering the web-based problem-solving ability of students has
become an important educational objective in recent years. This
study attempted to compare the effects of using selected and open
network resources on students' intentions with regard to their
information system usage by means of technology acceptance
model (TAM) questionnaires and learning effectiveness by analysis
of covariance of tests in web-based problem-solving activities. An
experiment was conducted by situating students from a senior high
school computer course in web-based learning environments with
open or selected resources to find the answers to several questions
about "structured programming design." The experimental results
showed that in either the open-resource network or the selectedresource network, low-achievement students made remarkable
progress. Moreover, the high-achievement students who learned in
the selected-resource network had significantly better performance
than those who learned in the open-resource network. In addition,
the learning task completion ratio and the difficulties the students
encountered were recorded and analyzed, and the perceptions of
the students regarding their engagement in the learning activity are
compared and discussed based on the TAM.
Scaffolding Teachers Integrate Social Media into a ProblemBased Learning Approach? (EJ969432)
Author(s): Buus, Lillian
Pub Date:
Electronic Journal of Pub Type(s):
e-Learning, v10 n1
p13-22 2012
Reports Descriptive
Peer Reviewed: Yes
Foreign Countries; Social Sciences; Problem Based Learning;
Systems Development; Cooperation; Workshops; Faculty
Development; Scaffolding (Teaching Technique); Electronic
Learning; Computer Assisted Instruction; Program Effectiveness;
Program Descriptions; Program Implementation; Student Attitudes;
Interviews; Data Analysis; College Students; College Faculty;
Teacher Attitudes; Social Networks; Educational Technology;
Instructional Design; Integrated Learning Systems; Open Source
Technology; Web 2.0 Technologies
At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problembased learning (PBL) in a particular way designated "The Aalborg
PBL model." In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge
sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it
interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning
that takes place. In this article I would like to depart from the use
of this pedagogical model, which integrates social media. The article
will look at a learning design model, which could be a spring-board
scaffolding teachers at AAU in their pedagogical approach to
learning design when combining the PBL approach with social media
or web 2.0 activities or/and technologies. With regard to the
discussions about PBL, three important characteristics of PBL can be
extracted; the problem, the work process, and the solution, which
can be used to distinguish between various theoretical and practical
constructions of PBL--regardless initially of whether it is
collaborative or cooperative. The three dimensions can then be
thought of as stretched between two ends of a continuum between
teacher and participant control. These fundamental questions of
ownership and control seem also to be more generally applicable in
relation to wider debates about social media and learning. The
learning design model is based on the collaborative eLearning
design (CoED) method. The CoED-workshop methodology aims to
support the design of targeted networked learning. The method
scaffolds the design work of practitioners and has been developed
and tried out in a number of different settings. Drawing on
knowledge and theoretical concepts within the fields of design,
systems development and collaborative learning, emphasis is on
bringing focus and structure to the early stages of the design
process. The method aims to develop design specifications and/or
early prototypes within a few hours of starting work. In order to
achieve one of the objectives of my PhD, I aim to further developing
and elaborate on this method, which hopefully will lead to a
pedagogical design method scaffolding teachers in their learning
designs, taking into account the PBL approach and integration of
social media and web 2.0 technologies. This article will be based on
theoretical and methodological considerations within PBL, social
media and web 2.0 technologies, together with learning designs
trying to illustrate a pedagogical design model scaffolding teachers
in their learning design when integrating social media and web 2.0
technologies into the PBL approach at AAU. The method has been
tried out at the Faculty of Social Science, AAU during Spring 2011
and the article will present some of the preliminary findings in this.
Comparing Technology-Related Teacher Professional
Development Designs: A Multilevel Study of Teacher and
Student Impacts (EJ965848)
Author(s): Walker, Andrew;
Pub Date:
Recker, Mimi; Ye,
Pub Type(s):
Lei; Robertshaw, M.
Brooke; Sellers,
Linda; Leary,
Peer Reviewed:
Technology Research
and Development,
v60 n3 p421-444
Jun 2012
Reports Research
Class Activities; Learning Activities; Problem Based Learning;
Program Effectiveness; Interaction; Educational Technology;
Science Teachers; Mathematics Teachers; Inservice Teacher
Education; Program Design; Comparative Analysis; Outcome
Measures; Outcomes of Education; Instructional Effectiveness;
Junior High School Students; Secondary School Teachers;
Quasiexperimental Design; Pretests Posttests; Instructional Design;
Web Based Instruction; Electronic Learning; Technology Integration
This article presents a quasi-experimental study comparing the
impact of two technology-related teacher professional development
(TTPD) designs, aimed at helping junior high school science and
mathematics teachers design online activities using the rapidly
growing set of online learning resources available on the Internet.
The first TTPD design ("tech-only") focused exclusively on
enhancing technology knowledge and skills for finding, selecting,
and designing classroom activities with online resources, while the
second ("tech + pbl") coupled technology knowledge with learning
to design problem-based learning (PBL) activities for students. Both
designs showed large pre-post gains for teacher participants (N =
36) in terms of self-reported knowledge, skills, and technology
integration. Significant interaction effects show that teachers in the
"tech + pbl" group had larger gains for self-reported knowledge and
externally rated use of PBL. Three generalized estimating equation
(GEE) models were fit to study the impact on students' (N = 1,247)
self reported gains in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes. In the
resulting models, students of "tech + pbl" teachers showed
significant increases in gain scores for all three outcomes. By
contrast, students of "tech-only" teachers showed improved gains
only in attitudes
Theory to Reality: A Few Issues in Implementing ProblemBased Learning (EJ935794)
Author(s): Hung, Woei
Pub Date:
Pub Type(s):
Technology Research
and Development,
v59 n4 p529-552
Aug 2011
Peer Reviewed:
Reports Evaluative
Evidence; Problem Based Learning; Learning Processes; Teaching
Methods; Curriculum Implementation; Educational Research;
Research Problems; Models; Outcomes of Education; Theory
Practice Relationship; Program Effectiveness; Instructional
Effectiveness; Comparative Analysis
The success of an intervention depends not only upon its theoretical
soundness, but also on proper implementation that reflects the
guidelines derived from its theoretical conception. Debates
surrounding the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) have
focused on its theoretical conception and students' learning
outcomes, but implementation is seemingly absent from the picture.
This paper attempts to describe what research evidence is needed
to fill in this missing information and provide a clearer picture of
PBL. The author examines current PBL implementation practices and
identifies potentially confounding variables that may play a role in
inconsistent or conflicting research results in PBL. For example,
various models of PBL have been developed and implemented to
afford the specific instructional needs of the institution or learner
population. These PBL models are in fact quite different in terms of
the nature of problem solving and the degrees of self-directed
learning, which theoretically, should result in different types of
learning outcomes. Without distinguishing the models used, the
results of comparative PBL research could have been confounded.
Furthermore, human factors are another set of confounding
variables that could influence the students' learning processes and
consequently affect PBL implementations and research results. To
remedy these problems and reach PBL's full potential, as well as
obtain a more accurate picture of PBL as an instructional method
and its effects on students' learning, some fundamental changes are
Learning about Problem Based Learning: Student Teachers
Integrating Technology, Pedagogy and Content Knowledge
Author(s): So, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Pub Date:
Pub Type(s):
Australasian Journal
of Educational
Technology, v25 n1
p101-116 2009
Peer Reviewed:
Reports Research
Problem Based Learning; Educational Technology; Pedagogical
Content Knowledge; Teaching Methods; Preservice Teacher
Education; Lesson Plans; Teacher Effectiveness; Preservice
Teachers; Education Courses; Computer Assisted Instruction;
Technology Integration; Instructional Design; Electronic Learning;
Foreign Countries
What should constitute knowledge bases that we expect our future
teachers to gain related to pedagogically sound technology
integration? Employing the Shulman's teacher knowledge base as a
theoretical lens, this study examined the complexity of pre-service
teachers' "technological pedagogical content knowledge" (TPCK) in
the context of integrating problem based learning (PBL) and
information and communications technology (ICT). Ninety-seven
pre-service teachers in this study engaged in a collaborative lesson
design project where they applied pedagogical knowledge about PBL
to design a technology integrated lesson in their subject area of
teaching. Data were collected from two sources: survey and lesson
design artifacts. Data analyses revealed that while participants had
theoretical understandings of pedagogical knowledge about PBL,
their lesson designs showed a mismatch among technology tools,
content representations, and pedagogical strategies, indicating
conflicts in translating pedagogical content knowledge into
designing pedagogically sound, technology integrated lessons. The
areas that students perceived to be particularly challenging and
difficult include: a) generating authentic and ill-structured problems
for a chosen content topic, b) finding and integrating ICT tools and
resources relevant for the target students and learning activities,
and c) designing tasks with a balance between teacher guidance
and student independence. The present study suggests the
potential of two explanations for such difficulties: lack of intimate
connection among beliefs, knowledge, and actions, and insufficient
repertoires for teaching with technology for problem based learning
A PBL Approach for Teaching Complex Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) Skills in Higher Education
Author(s): Macklin, Alexis Smith Pub Date:
Reports Research
Community & Junior Pub Type(s):
College Libraries,
v14 n4 p233-249
Peer Reviewed: Yes
Freshman Composition; Problem Based Learning; Prior Learning;
Information Retrieval; Teaching Methods; Information Literacy;
Technological Literacy; Pretests Posttests; Communities of Practice;
Critical Thinking; Educational Needs; Higher Education
This study explored the use of a problem-based learning (PBL)
approach for teaching information and communication technology
(ICT) skills to first-year students. Two questions were posed. The
first addressed the ICT skill needs of 20 students enrolled in a firstyear composition course. The second focused on the use of PBL to
facilitate ICT skill acquisition. Both qualitative and quantitative data
were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that ICT instruction
was most useful when: (1) students defined/interpreted information
needs by recalling prior knowledge and experiences; (2) those
interpretations were tested, refined, rejected, or revised for a
specific purpose; (3) access to resources and tools (artifacts,
symbols, and language) were readily available; and (4) formative
feedback supported critical thinking about the information retrieval
process. These findings provided important insights into using PBL
to facilitate and reinforce learning.
Entrepreneurship Education: Towards an Industry Sector
Approach (EJ796600)
Author(s): Richardson, Ita;
Hynes, Briga
Education &
Training, v50 n3
p188-198 2008
Pub Date:
Pub Type(s):
Reports Evaluative
Peer Reviewed: Yes
Problem Based Learning; Experiential Learning; Entrepreneurship;
Industry; Information Technology; Interdisciplinary Approach;
Foreign Countries; Global Approach; Self Employment; Career
Planning; Career Choice; Intellectual Property; Educational
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the requirements
for an industry sector approach to entrepreneurship education--the
information and communications technology (ICT) sector. A
modified Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education is
presented focusing specifically on ICT. The primary components of
the Process Framework are described inputs, process and content,
assessment and outputs to assist in the design of relevant and
targeted entrepreneurship education courses to create an
entrepreneurial mindset for graduates in this sector. This
Framework can be modified to suit courses focusing on other
industry sectors. Design/methodology/approach: Based on
experiential learning and industry sector knowledge, an existing
Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education is modified.
Findings: The Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education
can be modified for a specific sector. Inputs to the process include
the personal profiles and personality characteristics of the students.
The recognition that particular skills may be required within a sector
should be catered for when developing the content focus of the
process. Furthermore, the teaching focus should include action
learning, problem based learning and discovery teaching.
Consideration of all of these elements will help ensure that the
entrepreneurship teaching process will develop entrepreneurialfocused students within the sector. Entrepreneurship education is a
flexible learning mode easily modified to accommodate changing
workplace and employee needs. The use of the process framework
provides for a set of useful and relevant guidelines on the key
aspects which should be addressed and used as a checklist in
attempting to modify and design suitable and relevant
entrepreneurship education programmes for specific industry
sectors. Originality/value: This paper demonstrates that educators
need to consider entrepreneurship for industry sectors, thus
presenting the requirement for an inter-disciplinary approach to
entrepreneurship. It does so through the refinement of an existing
Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education, taking the
specific example of Information and Communications Technology.
While the framework can be modified for use in other sectors, this
paper presents the integration of and highlights the synergy that
exists in the linking of entrepreneurship with the technical
Investigating ICT Using Problem-Based Learning in Face-toFace and Online Learning Environments (EJ732130)
Author(s): Pearson, John
Pub Date:
Pub Type(s):
Reports Research
Computers and
Education, v47 n1
p56-73 Aug 2006
Peer Reviewed: Yes
Problem Based Learning; Learning Modules; Instructional Design;
Instructional Development; Evaluation; Information Technology;
Online Courses; Business Education; Secondary Schools; Secondary
School Students; Foreign Countries
This article reports on the design, implementation and evaluation of
a module in the MEd (Business) in the Faculty of Education at the
University of Hong Kong in which an explicit problem-based learning
(PBL) approach was used to investigate the challenges associated
with the adoption and use of information and communication
technologies (ICT) in Hong Kong secondary school classrooms. PBL
influenced both the way the curriculum was developed and the
process by which students (n=18) investigated topics related to the
integration of ICT in business studies classrooms. The evaluation
was based on five evaluative questions dealing with the
implementation of PBL, the extent to which PBL facilitated academic
discourse, the extent of "new" knowledge about ICT that had been
created, the role of the tutor, and the online learning environment
provided. The evaluation revealed that PBL provided a practical
approach to investigating ICT in both face-to-face and online
learning environments, leading to "new" knowledge about
challenges associated with the adoption and use of new
technologies in various educational settings.
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