Earth’s Features & Changes Study Guide –________________ Parent Signature: _____________ Name: _______________________ 1. Study the chart and be able to identify the landforms. Water or Land Feature Oceans Sea Rivers Streams Lakes Ponds Glaciers Volcanoes Mountains Valleys Definition /Description A large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. There are 4 on Earth (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Artic) A large body of salt water that is connected to an ocean and may be surrounded by land on some sides. Large, flowing bodies of fresh water that empty into an ocean. May cause erosion. Small, flowing bodies of fresh water that flow into rivers Fresh water surrounded by land All lakes in South Carolina are manmade. Smaller than a lake, fresh water, surrounded by land Huge sheets of ice that cover the land, found in cold areas such as the Poles & mountains, Move slowly and cause erosion Openings in the Earth’s surface from which lava flows; cause rapid changes to the Earth’s surface, Mountains and islands can be formed from volcanoes A land mass that rises steeply above the land that surrounds it Lowland area between hills or mountains Canyons Deep valleys with steep sides, rivers often flow through them, most are formed by rivers Caverns Large caves or underground chambers, most were formed by water wearing away rock Test Earth’s Features & Changes Study Guide –________________ Test Parent Signature: _____________ Name: _______________________ Islands Plateau Land completely surround by water Mountain with a flat level top 2. Materials found in nature are called natural resources. Earth materials such as rock, minerals, water, etc.. are natural resources. 3. Natural resources can be renewable or non renewable. 4. Oil and coal are natural resources that are used for energy. They are burned to produce heat. 5. 75% of the Earth is covered by water. Most of this is the salt water of the oceans. 6. Most of the freshwater on Earth is frozen in the glaciers. 7. The seven continents are Asia, Antarctica, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa. 8. Slow processes that change the Earth are weathering, erosion, and deposition. 9. Rapid or fast process that change the Earth are earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, or landslides. 10. Erosion is when weathered rock or land is carried away by wind, glaciers or water. a. Example: Beach erosion b. Canyons are formed by rivers eroding mountain areas. 11. Weathering is the breaking down of rock into smaller pieces. Weathering is caused by wind, water, rain and roots of plants. a. Mountains change over time due to weathering 12. Deposition is the dropping of eroded rock into a new place. a. Glaciers can melt and drop a pile of rocks in a new place. b. Sand blown by wind can be dropped off and form a dune. c. When large amounts of sand and rock are deposited at the end of a river a delta forms. 13. Landslides occur when rocks and soil move quickly down a slope or cliff. 14. An earthquake is a shaking or rolling of the ground. a. Cracks form in the Earth b. Roads, bridges & buildings can be damaged 15. Floods occur when water overflows onto land that is normally dry. Water can also overflow from rivers during heavy rains or storms.