Safe Food Preparation (pp 52-55) Safe Food Preparation: Cleaning, cutting, combining or cooking of food before it is served. It is important that food is prepared in a way that is safe to eat. Food can be unsuitable to eat when contaminants are introduced or because or inadequate cooking. FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOOD √ √ √ √ Keep Clean Separate Raw and Cooked Foods Cook Food Thoroughly Keep Food at Safe Temperatures SAFE FOOD HANDLING The most frequently identified practices contributing to food poisoning incidents: - Improper cooling of food. - Lapses of 12hours or more between preparing and eating it. - Contamination by food handlers. - Contaminated raw foods or ingredients. To prevent food poisoning during the handling of food, whether in the home or commercially, the following factors must be considered: 1. Temperature Control: Temperature Danger Zone is between 5 and 60 Degrees Celsius. Rule is to keep hot foods hot (above 60 Degrees Celsius) and cold foods cold (below 5 Degrees Celsius). 2. Prevention of Cross-Contamination: Cross-contamination is the transfer of microorganisms from one food item to another. Cross-contamination of food can occur during any stage – during transport, storage, preparation or when food is served or displayed. 3. Clean Work Environment: Cleaning should be carried out during preparation (tidy as you go). Dishes should be air dried. Cleaning materials should be stored away from the food. Insects, rodents and other vermin need to be eliminated by professional exterminators. 4. Personal Hygiene: Food poisoning is often caused by the unhygienic habits of food handlers. - Any food handler who is ill or has a gastric upset should not touch food. This rule applies to anyone who comes in contact with food, including the dishwasher and person who clears the table. - Hands should never touch the food being sold to consumers from delis, restaurants, fast food outlets, food stalls or supermarkets. - Toilets must be separate from the food-handling and storage areas. - Clean tongs or disposable gloves must be used when handling food. - Any wounds and cuts to hands should be covered with a coloured, waterproof dressing and then covered with a clean glove. Commercial Food Preparation (pp 55-58) FOOD STORAGE ROOMS - Storage rooms must be well ventilated, easy to clean and well lit. Good ventilation reduces condensation, and therefore reduces the number of air-borne microorganisms. - To save energy and to keep the cold room below 5 Degrees Celsius, cold rooms open onto a small entry, creating an air lock. WORK FLOW IN THE KITCHEN - All commercial kitchens have a formal work-flow pattern. - The pattern describes the path food takes as it travels through food preparation and serving. A good patterns saves the food handler time and prevents crosscontamination. Walls, Ceilings, Floor and Bench Surfaces The materials used for walls, ceilings, floor and bench tops must be. - Easy to clean. - Undamaged by fats, water and cleaning agents. - Resistant to bumps from trolleys. - Non-absorbent. - Smooth, with a as few joints as possible. - Fitted with curved edges rather than sharp corners. Standard Operating Procedures There is a requirement for formal training of all food handlers to apply good hygiene practices which must be incorporated into standard operating procedures. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is an internationally recognized food safety system. It is a preventative approach to the identification of potential hazards and their control points. It critically assesses all the stages, including the ingredients of the food product, as well as the conditions of its processing, handling, storage, transport and packing before it gets to the consumer. It is a legislative requirement for all food businesses to develop and implement a food safety program which has to be kept on the premises in written form. Food Safety Program – A written document that identifies all food safety hazards in a food business, the arrangements to control each hazard and the monitoring and supervision of the controls.