Evolution Notes Outline 2014

I. History: Darwin and his Influences
A. Darwin: Published ____________________________________ in 1859
1. HMS Beagle, 5 year trip around the world
2. ____________________________________ Islands off the coast of
South America
B. His Influences
1. Lamarck: believed that animals change over time, contrary to
popular belief
i. Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics:
Example #1:
Example #2:
Note: You CANNOT pass on traits you acquire
** Only ______________________ can be passed on. **
2. Lyell: proposed that gradual and observable geologic processes
such as erosion could explain the physical features of today’s Earth.
i. Earth was _____________ billion years old rather than 10,000.
ii. See Cosmic Calendar TIMELINE.
C. Fossils: Found on his trip.
1. Living things could descend from extinct forms known only from
the fossil record.
II. Darwin’s Finches
A. Biogeography:
B. Galapagos Islands: volcanic islands off the coast of South America
1. Species were slightly different than the ones on the ____________________
C. Finches: different beaks depending on the food available
i. Cactus-eating finch: more pointed beak
ii. Insect-eating finch: sharp (trees)
iii. Types of seeds: varying beak thickness
D. All descended from one mainland finch
____________________________________________________________________ from a
__________________________ _________________________
III. Natural Selection
A. Definition: mechanism for evolutionary change.
B. Components:
1. ________________________________________
- Mutations
- Meiosis (crossing over, independent assortment)
2. ________________________________________
3. Adaptations (____________________________________________________________)
to increase survival and reproductive success
(Fitness: ________________________________________________)
4. _________________________________________
- The results of natural selection is a population adapted to the
local environment.
** LACKS DIRECTION: not always towards a “best” or “strongest” **
** EXTINCTION- previous adaptations are no longer suitable to
changed environment **
IV. Artificial Selection
A. The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to produce
offspring with genetic traits that HUMANS value.
1. Examples:
V. Evidence For Evolution
A. Fossils: living things could descend from extinct forms known only
from fossil record.
1. Example:
B. Biogeographical: geographic distribution of life forms
1. Related forms evolved in one locale and then spread to other
accessible regions.
i. Example:
C. Anatomical:
1. Homologous structures:
structures that are similar because they
are inherited from a
2. Analogous structures:
features are similar in function but NOT
in structure. They do not derive from a
recent common ancestor but in
response to a similar
3. Vestigial structures: no longer have function.
They occur because inherit anatomy from their ancestors.
D. Biochemical/Molecular
1. Living organisms use DNA and many identical enzymes.
2. _________________________________ of DNA sequence or amino acid
structure based on how closely related
E. Embryology
1. ____________________________ of closely related organisms often have
similar stages during development
F. Present day examples:
Antibiotics Tuberculosis/MRSA and Antibiotic Resistance Video