APES-Chapter 9 Study Guide 1. 2. 3. Geological records indicate that the earth has experienced __________ mass extinctions over the course of time. What caused the last mass extinction? Humans have disrupted half if not 80% of earth’s land surface. Give three examples of human disturbances. 4. How does background extinction rate compare to an extinction rate? How does the historical background extinction rate compare to current extinction rates? How does it compare to the expected rate by the end of this century? 5. If estimates of an extinction rate of 1% per year are correct, what percentage of all species will be extinct by the end of this century? _____________ 6. List 6 characteristics of species that can put them in greater danger of becoming extinct. 7. What behavioral characteristic increased the speed/chance for the passenger pigeon to become extinct by 1900? 8. List four reasons why we should prevent human activities that cause extinction of other species. 9. Give and explain the acronym summarizing the most important direct causes of extinction resulting from human activities. 10. Which yields the greatest threat to wild species? ________________________________ 11. How do humans contribute to habitat fragmentation? How is this harmful to animals? 12. When a new species is introduced to a habitat, sometimes the species becomes invasive and harmful. Explain how/why this is possible? 13. What is “the vine that ate the south”? 14. Provide 3 methods of transport for accidental invasive species. 15. What year was DDT banned in the US? _______ 16. How did DDT become biomagnified in the food webs? 17. How did this biomagnifications of DDT negatively effect populations of birds such as the bald eagle? 18. What do honeybees do? 19. What caused the honeybee population to decline? 20. How can poaching endanger animals? What motivates people to poach? 21. Why are birds considered to be excellent environmental indicators? 22. Explain the: 1975 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). 23. Explain the: Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Who established the first US federal wildlife refuge? ______________________ Where was it? ___________________________________________________ It was established in____________ to protect specifically the _________________________. In what year was the brown pelican removed from the Endangered Species List? ____________ What is a seed bank? 29. What service do zoos and aquariums provide for endangered species? 30. In what way have humans been involved in the near extinction of the California condor? 31. What is the precautionary principle?