Chapter 16 Study Guide - Warren Hills Regional School District

Chapter 16 Study Guide
What would happen if the Earth did not have an atmosphere? Pg. 484
Be reflected back into space
How do scientists determine modern climate change vs. ancient climate change?
Direct measures vs. indirect measures (proxy indicators—ice corps, tree
cookies, sediment)
What is global warming? Pg. 491
Increase in Earth’s average surface temperature
Carbon footprint vs. carbon offset vs. carbon sequestration pgs. 503 & 506
Footprint = amount of CO2 emissions for which an individual or group is
carbon offset = voluntary payment made when one industry
or person, instead of reducing its own greenhouse gas emissions, pays another
group or person to do so
carbon sequestration = storing captured carbon
How do trees help reduce CO2 in the atmosphere? Pg. 490 loss of trees means
that the CO2 they would have used remains in the atmosphere.
Describe thermohaline circulation. Pg. 488 warmer, less salty water moves along
the surface of the ocean, and colder, saltire water moves along the surfaces
of the ocean. As part of this pattern, cooler, saltier water at the poles sinks,
and warmer, less salty water from the Equator moves to take the place of the
cooler water.
What is topography? Pg. 489 describes the surface characteristics of the area,
including its elevation & features such as mountains, rivers, & lakes.
How has global warming affected polar bears? Pg.498 Ice sheets in the Artic are
melting & the sea ice is thinning. This makes it more difficult for polar bears
to hunt the seals they feed on. Some have even died of starvation/exhaustion
as they try to swim long distances between ice sheets.
How can global climate change affect human health? Pg. 500 Severe heat waves
have increased. Extreme heat can cause heat exhaustion/ heat stroke. A 1995
heat wave killed 465 people in Chicago, & another in Europe killed about
35,000 people.
What is cap-and-trade? Pg. 505 government puts a cap on the amount of
greenhouse gases that can be released by certain industries & power plants.
Industries that release less gas than they are allowed can sell their leftover
allowances to industries that are less efficient.
What was the goal of the Kyoto Protocol? Pg. 507 International agreement that
seeks to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Nations entered into a binding
agreement to reduce the levels of greenhouse gases to levels below that of
1990. The US did not sign it because they felt it was an unfair treaty.
Climate zones & their locations away from the equator pg. 486 Zones = tropical,
temperate, & poles. Tropics = HOT, because they are close to equator, Poles
= COLD, because the energy the poles receive from the sun’s rays is spread
out over a larger area, as compared to the energy needed by regions near the
equator. Temperate = (regions between the poles) cool during some parts of
the year & warm in others
What type of air rises and holds the most moisture? Pg. 487 warm air rises & can
carry more water vapor
How does the Earth’s orbit and tilt affect climate change? Pg. 490 they affect
the distribution of solar radiation over Earth’s surface. This change in the
distribution of sunlight can affect climate. Climate changes caused by these
variations may last for thousands of years.
What is radiation? Pg. pg. 484 the transfer of energy through space
Describe the greenhouse effect. Pg. 484 a natural process in which certain gases
in the atmosphere keep heat near Earth & prevent it from radiating into
What are the 4 evidences scientists have posed for the idea that climate change is
occurring? Rising atmospheric temperature, precipitation trends, melting ice &
rising seas
Tree rings – rainy season, a wide ring means there was a lot of rain that year
Dry season, a thin ring means there was no rain that year
A dark mark means the tree was damaged that year (by fire)
Global warming – name 2 things that can reverse or slow the process