Quarter 3 Exam Review

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PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUARTER 3 EXAM REVIEW Chapter 23 - Acids, Bases, & Salts TERMS:

acid hydroxide ion titration base salt         What are the pH values for an acid? A base? A neutral substance? What is the litmus test for an acid? A base? A neutral substance? What are the characteristics of acids? What are the characteristics of bases? What are examples of bases? What are examples of acids? such a reaction? hydronium ion neutralization pH litmus paper What is the type of reaction where an acid reacts with a base? What are the products of What is the process called where a solution of known concentration is used to find the concentration of another solution? What do we call the point where the acid has been completely neutralized by the base?

Chapter 2 – Motion and Speed

speed inertia velocity mass unbalanced forces force Be able to work a problem using d = rt. average speed weight Be able to find the acceleration of an object. a = v f - v i t Be able to identify balanced and unbalanced forces. What is shown by a distance-time graph? By a speed-time graph? What is Newton’s 1 st Law of Motion? How does it relate to seat belt use? acceleration net force

Chapter 3 – Forces

terminal velocity centripetal force action-reaction pairs friction projectile weightlessness air resistance gravity Why does an object reach terminal velocity? circular motion momentum force weight

How do you find the final velocity of an object in freefall? What does the law of conservation of momentum say? What do Newton’s 2 nd and 3 rd Laws of Motion say? Be able to do a problem using Newton’s 2 nd Law of Motion (F = ma) What are the units on force? Why does a projectile have both horizontal and vertical velocity? What are the 3 types of friction? Which is the largest? Smallest? Be able to do a problem involving momentum (  = mv)

Chapter 4 – Energy

energy mechanical energy heat kinetic energy (KE) thermal energy chemical potential energy potential energy gravitational potential energy (GPE) elastic potential energy nuclear fission nuclear fusion Calorie Be able to calculate GPE using the equation: GPE = mass x 9.8 m/s 2 x height Be able to calculate KE using the equation: KE = ½ mv 2 What is the Law of Conservation of energy?

Chapter 5 – Work and Machines

What are the 6 types of simple machines? What is meant by the mechanical advantage of a machine? Be able to find the efficiency of a machine. To do this you will need to find W o and W i. P = E/t W = Fd Efficiency = W o x 100 W i Be able to find the MA of a machine. What are the 3 types of levers? Describe them and give an example of each type. What is the MA of a single fixed pulley? How is the number of lifting strands related to the MA of a block and tackle pulley? Be able to find the energy transferred when an object is moved a given distance by applying a certain force. How does a machine make work easier? What are the effort force, resistance force, effort distance, resistance distance?

PROBLEMS

1.

Find the acceleration of a parachute on a drag-race car that opens and changes the velocity of the car from 65 m/s to 25/m/s in a time period of 2.5 seconds. 2.

How far can a car travel in 6.0 minutes if it is traveling at a speed of 15 m/s? 3.

What acceleration is given to a 625 g object that has a net force of 125 N applied to it? 4.

A. How much work is done when a force of 15 N is needed to move a crate across the floor a distance of 4.3 m? B.

If the person pushing the crate does it in a time of 12 seconds, how much power do they use? 5.

What is the velocity of an object that has a mass of 2500 g and has a momentum of 765 kg .

m? s

6. What is the kinetic energy of a 65 g object that has a velocity of 3.5 m/s? 7. Find the net force AND the acceleration on each object below. 35 N A. 10 N 40 N 5 kg m = 5 kg B. m = 3.5 kg 50 N 8. You have to move a box that weighs 250 N onto a platform that is 1.4 m off the ground. You use a ramp that is 4.2 m long. You push with a force of 93 N. Use this information to answer the questions below. 4.2 m A. How much work did you do? 1.4 m B. How much work did the machine do? C. What is the ideal mechanical advantage of the ramp? D. What is the mechanical advantage of the machine? E.

What is the efficiency of the machine?

9. How much potential energy does a 5 kg book have when it is on a shelf that is 2.3 m off the ground? 10. Fill in the following information regarding acids, bases & neutral substances:

pH values Color of Red litmus after testing this Color of Blue Litmus after testing this ACIDS BASES NEUTRAL

11. Classify each of the following as either an Acid (A), Base (B) or Neutral (N) substance.

Substance pH A, B, or N

A 6.25 B C D E F 9.86 7.0 6.5 1.56 7.09

NOTE:

THIS IS A REVIEW SHEET ONLY, AND ANYTHING COVERED THIS QUARTER COULD BE ON THE QUARTER 3 ASSESSMENT. YOU SHOULD BE STUDYING THE CHAPTERS IN THE TEXTBOOK, YOUR NOTES, AND WORKSHEETS WE HAVE DONE TO HELP YOU PREPARE FOR THIS TEST.

Equations

W = Fd d = vt a = v

f

-v

i

t KE = ½ mv

2

GPE = mgh F

net

= ma ρ = mv P = W t IMA = d

e

d

r

MA = F

r

F

e

efficiency = W

out

x 100 W

in

efficiency = MA x 100 IMA

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