Chapter 14 Europe in the Middle Ages Section One Feudalism and

Chapter 14
Europe in the Middle Ages
Section One
Feudalism and the Manor System
The Middle Ages
A. What is the Middle Ages
1. Years between ancient times and modern times
A.D. 500-1500
2. Also known as the medieval time
B. The Collapse of the Roman Empire
1. Roman Empire collapsing creating small kingdoms
2. Reading and writing were in danger of disappearing from Europe because invaders
could not do either
C. Charlemagne Reunites Western Europe
1. Franks- Invaders who conquered Gaul (Today’s France)
France comes from the word “Franks”
2. 768- Charlemagne became King of the Franks
Expanded Kingdom to include much of Western Europe
3. Charlemagne ruled for 50 years
Established schools throughout the land
o Promoted learning and culture
Spread Christianity
Issued money
Improved the economy
4. After Charlemagne’s death the empire was divided amongst three sons
Fought against each other and came under attack
o Fiercest attacks were from the Vikings
D. Attacks from the North
1. Vikings were skilled sailors and tough warriors
Attacked from 800-1100
2. Relied on surprise
Burned and looted European towns
3. Reopened trade routes to the Mediterranean lands
4. Settled other parts of N. Europe
A. The Feudal System
1. Land was owned by Kings or Lords but held by vassals
System would last for 100s of years
2. Power belonged to those who owned land
o Barons, princes or lords
3. Vassals- people who promised to follow landowner
B. Feudal Duties
Take care fo
children in the
event of
parent's death
Protect vassals
and their
to Vassal
Ask advice
before making
laws or going
to war
Treat vassal
with honor
Appeared at
the Lord's
court when
Paid taxes in
form of crops
to Lord
Raise and lead
armies that
would fight for
their lord
Many were
III. The Manor System
A. What is a Manor?
1. Large estate that included farm fields, pastures and often entire village
2. Manor house- Lord or ruler of the manor lived
B. Lords and Manors
1. Lords were typically a vassal of a King or more powerful lord
2. Manor was part of his fief
3. Self sufficient
4. Lords collected taxes, made rules and acted as judge
C. The Role of Noblewomen
1. Went to other noble houses for training before she could be lady of the household
2. Ladies duties included:
o Manage the household
o Performed medical tasks
o Supervised servants
3. Became “Lord of the Manor” when husband or father went to war
Peasants and Serfs
A. What is a Peasant?
1. Majority of people living in medieval Europe
2. Famers and laborers
3. Often very poor
4. Farmed the lords fields for his household
5. Only given small amount of land
Gave part of their harvest to the lord
B. Tied to the Manor
1. Most peasants were serfs
Tied to the Manor
2. Serfs needed permission to:
Leave the manor
Get married
3. Could buy freedom or own plot of land
4. Serfs that escape to city for one year become free
C. A Hard Life
1. Men, women and children were required to work
2. Lived in one room huts that had dirt floor
3. Ate simple foods such as black bread, cabbage and turnips
Rarely ate meat
4. Slept on mattresses stuffed with straw