Topic 4 Quiz Marking Scheme (a) (i) (b) Northern Andes 1 (ii) Amazon Basin 1 (iii) Overall figures are high /high productivity .../... and structural complexity of tropical ecosystems ; Northern Andes high biodiversity due to genetic isolation on mountain summits and in remote valleys /range of environments due to altitudinal variation /Amazon Basin a relatively homogeneous environment ; Any reasonable alternative. [Must have something more than ‘tropical forest ecosystems are complex’ for both marks.] 2 A species of organism, of which numbers are so low that there is a likelihood of its becoming extinct in the near future/owtte ; named species ; [IUCN definition = taxa in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if causal factors continue operating. Includes taxa with numbers at a critical level; those with drastically reduced habitats; and those not seen in the wild in the past 50 years.] 2 Any three of: small numbers /restricted distribution / complex migration patterns /complex breeding cycle / reduced habitat /low rate of reproduction /hunting pressure /economic value /or reasonable alternatives. 3 (i) (ii) (c) (d) Any 3 ways with examples  each, e.g. Protective legislation (koala in Australia in early 20th century) ; International treaty (CITES) (Green Amazon parrots) ; Breeding programmes (numbats in Australia/pandas) /protection of habitats (whooping crane in USA) ; Any reasonable alternative (2 ways, but no examples = ) 3 Natural selection = a mechanism of evolution /caused by removal of ill-adapted individuals and survival of those adapted to the environment ; evolution in long term → biodiversity by filling available niches ; isolation (cutting off islands/formation of mountains etc.) separates populations /changing environment may create isolated populations /climatic change may trigger adaptation to new conditions . 3  (a) governmental: UNEP/United Nations Environment Programme; Allow: international (e.g. UNEP/United Nations Environment Programme) national (e.g. United States National Parks Services/English Nature) state (e.g. Victoria Parks and Wildlife Services) non-governmental: Greenpeace/WWF/Worldwide Fund for Nature; 2 (b) Governmental organization Non-governmental organization use of media media liaison officers prepare and read a written statement use footage of activities (e.g. chasing whaling boats) to gains media attention; speed of response considered/slow/there must be consensus between member governments rapid; political/diplomatic considerable/activities are constraints hindered by political decisions/there may be disagreements between political parties or member nations (international organizations) unaffected by political considerations/activities may be illegal; enforceability no power/use public opinion to pressure governments to act; international treaties and national or state laws can lead to prosecutions of offenders 4 max Allow any other reasonable points. Comparisons must be made to gain full credit.