Evolution Study Guide Define the following Keyterms: evolution

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Evolution Study Guide
Define the following Keyterms:
evolution
adaptations
homologous structures
vestigial structures
artificial selection
Hardy Weinberg principle
stabilizing selection
directional selection
species
temporal isolation
gametic isolation
hybrid sterility
sympatric speciation
punctuated equilibrium
population
mutation
convergent evolution
analogous structures
gene pool
genetic drift
bottleneck effect
disruptive selection
reproductive isolation
behavioral isolation
postzygotic barriers
speciation
allopolyploidy
gradualism
natural selection
fossils
divergent evolution
biogeography
allele frequency
gene flow
founder effect
heterozygote advantage
prezygotic barriers
mechanical isolation
hybrid inviability
allopatric speciation
polyploidy
extinction
Review Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(a)
Outline how the organic compounds on Earth gave rise to the first prokaryotic cells. (3)
(b)
Outline the evidence for panspermia. (2)
In a randomly breeding population of mice, 640 had black fur and 360 brown fur. Black fur is
2
2
dominant to brown fur. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle (p + 2pq + q =1) can be used to calculate
allele and phenotype frequencies.
(a)
Calculate the frequency of the recessive allele. (1)
(b)
Calculate the number of homozygous black mice in the sample.(2)
(a)
Using the Hardy-Weinberg principle, calculate the percentage of carriers in a population
where the occurrence of the condition cystic fibrosis is 1 in 2500 births. (2)
(b)
Predict the effect on a gene pool in succeeding generations if the conditions of the
Hardy-Weinberg principle are not met. (1)
(a)
Explain briefly Darwin’s theory of evolution. (4)
(b)
Outline two modern examples where evolution can be observed. (2)
(c)
State two ways in which the remains of past living organisms have been preserved. (2)
(a)
Outline the experiments of Miller and Urey into the origin of organic compounds. (2)
(b)
(i)
State two conditions thought to be present in pre-biotic Earth. (2)
(ii)
Discuss the possible roles of RNA in the origin of life. (3)
1
(c)
6.
Draw a line to join each of the following theories of the origin of species with its
definition.
arrived from outer space
Panspermia
created from inorganic matter
Spontaneous generation
life made by God
(a)
Outline one disease that can occur as a result of gene mutation. (2)
(b)
(i)
(ii)
7.
Special creation
(1)
State the Hardy-Weinberg principle. (1)
List the conditions under which the Hardy-Weinberg principle applies. (2)
Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of the enzyme hexosaminodase. The
disorder causes a build-up of fatty deposits in the brain. A child affected by the disease usually
dies by the age of four. The frequency of Tay-Sachs disease (tt) in a Mediterranean population
is 0.0003.
(a)
Calculate the frequencies in the population of allele t and genotype Tt. (2)
allele t:
genotype Tt:
(b)
8.
9.
10.
11.
State two conditions required for the Hardy-Weinberg equation to be valid. (2)
Aerobic bacteria are considered to be the most likely ancestors of mitochondria.
(a)
State the name of the theory which suggests that mitochondria have evolved from a
free-living organism. (1)
(b)
Outline the characteristics of mitochondria that would support the theory. (2)
(a)
State an example of a radioisotope used in dating rocks and an example used in dating
fossils.
Rocks:
...................................................................................................................
Fossils:
................................................................................................................... (1)
(b)
Define the term half-life. (1)
(a)
Outline the possible role of clay molecules in polymerization reactions early in the origin
of life. (2)
(b)
Discuss the possible importance of RNA in the formation of macromolecules in the origin
of life. (3)
(a)
Outline the role of variation in evolution. (3)
(b)
Explain how polygenic inheritance leads to continuous variation. (2)
2
12.
(a)
Define the term homologous anatomical structures. (1)
(b)
Outline how membranes may have originated in the first cells. (2)
(c)
Discuss how variations in a specific protein can be used as an evolutionary clock. (3)
(a)
Explain the process of speciation. (5)
(b)
Describe the evidence for evolution provided by the vertebrate pentadactyl limb. (4)
14.
(a)
Discuss gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. (6)
15.
(a)
Define sympatric speciation. (1)
(b)
Describe two examples of barriers between gene pools. (4)
13.
16.
Describe the importance of changes in allele frequency for the evolution of one species into
another. (Total 4 marks)
17.
The term species is defined as a potentially interbreeding population having a common gene pool
and producing fertile young. Outline why this definition cannot be applied to all living organisms.
(Total 4 marks)
18.
Explain two examples of evolution in response to environmental change. (Total 8 marks)
19.
Outline one example of transient polymorphism and one of balanced polymorphism. (Total 4
marks)
20.
Explain how biochemical analysis of different molecules is used to study the evolutionary
relationships of different organisms. (Total 6 marks)
21.
Evaluate Lamarck’s theory for the origin of species. (Total 4 marks)
22.
The cladogram below shows how closely related a group of species of spiders are on the
Hawaiian island group. Two of the species have not been given a scientific name. Three pairs of
the spiders spin very similar webs. These are shown on the diagram. The island on which the
spider lives is also indicated.
(continued on the next page)
3
location:
T. laboriosa
- Mainland - USA
T. hawaiensis
- Hawai’i
“emerald
ovoid”
- O’ahu
T. limu
- O’ahu
“eurylike”
- O’ahu
T. acuta
- Maui
T. fliciphilia
- Maui
T. stelarobusta
- Maui
T. eurychasma
- Maui
T. perkinsi
- Hawai’i
[Source: T A Blackledge and R G Gillespie (November 2004), Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 101, (46), pages 16228 16233]
(a)
Deduce whether spiders that spin similar webs or spiders that live on the same island are
more closely related. (2)
(b)
Mitochondrial DNA from the spiders was analysed to produce the cladogram. Outline the
method of analysing the DNA to produce evidence for cladograms. (3)
(c)
Explain the evidence in the diagram for (3)
(i)
convergent evolution;
(ii) adaptive radiation.
(Total 8 marks)
4
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