Reading Guide - Belle Vernon Area School District

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Name __________________________________
Period _________
Mr. Reda
Date ______________________
AP: CHAPTER 11: MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA
1. How does the “blending hypothesis” differ from the “particulate hypothesis” for the
transmission of traits?
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2. List a few of the advantages of Mendel’s choice of the garden pea as a model organism.
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3. Use the diagram to label the generations: P, F1, F2, pure, hybrid, and make notes of
Mendel’s observations.
4. Define the Law of Segregation.
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5. Using the diagram in Question 3, describe how the Law of Segregation applies to the F1
and to the F2 generations.
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6. When does the segregation of alleles occur? _____________________________________
7. What is the difference between an allele and a gene?
a. allele __________________________________________________________________
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b. gene __________________________________________________________________
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8. Briefly define the following terms:
a. homozygous ____________________________________________________________
b. heterozygous ___________________________________________________________
c. phenotype ______________________________________________________________
d. genotype _______________________________________________________________
9. What is the purpose of a test cross? ____________________________________________
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10. When two traits are on different (non-homologous) chromosomes, how are they inherited?
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a. Indicate the phenotypic ratios that result in the F2 from the F1 cross (dihybrid cross)
11. Use the rules of probability to determine the expected ratio of offspring showing two
recessive traits in the trihybrid cross (PpYyRr X Ppyyrr).
12. Describe and give an example of incomplete dominance. ___________________________
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13. How does codominance compare to incomplete dominance? ________________________
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14. How is blood type an example of multiple alleles? _________________________________
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15. Define and give an example of pleiotropy. _______________________________________
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16. Define and give an example of epistasis. ________________________________________
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17. What is observed when traits are polygenic? _____________________________________
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18. The expression of phenotypes is often a result of both… ____________________________
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19. Briefly describe each of the following genetic disorders:
a. Cystic fibrosis ___________________________________________________________
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c. Sickle cell anemia _______________________________________________________
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d. Achondroplasia (color blind)____________________________________________________
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e. Huntington’s disease _____________________________________________________
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20. How can a parent learn the risks of having a child with a genetic disorder?
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21. After Morgan and fellow scientists developed the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, the
search was on for the chemical mechanism of inheritance. What are the two components of
the chromosome?
1. Describe some of the pieces of information that scientists discovered that contributed to the
“Chromosome Theory of Inheritance”?
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2. Summarize the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance.
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3. Why was Thomas Hunt Morgan’s choice of the fruit fly a good model organism?
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4. Describe Morgan’s first mutant. Why was it so significant from the wild type?
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5. Show the cross P, F1, F2 for the white-eyed male mutant.
6. What happens when we trace the inheritance of traits found on the same chromosome?
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7. Use the diagram to trace the body color and wing shape in this linked two trait cross.
8. What is recombination and when does it occur? ___________________________________
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9.
How is recombination frequency calculated? _____________________________________
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10. What determines sex in humans? ______________________________________________
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11. In what ways are sex-linked traits distinct from autosomal traits? _____________________
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12. Why are sex-linked recessive traits more common in human males than females?
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