Taxonomic group

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Supplementary Online Information
TABLE S1. Measures of population subdivision (Fst, Gst) and Nm values for bacteria and fungi.
Species
BACTERIA
Rhizobium etli biovar
phaseoli
Rhizobium leguminosarum
bv trifolii
Rhizobium leguminosarum
bv trifolii
FUNGI
Agaricus bisporus
Armillaria gallica
N
populations
N
loci
Marker type
Diploid or haploid
marker/organism
Measure of
population
subdivision
6
10
allozymes
haploid
Gst, Nm
6
13
allozymes
haploid
Fst, Gst
value
Nm (calculated or
provided by author)
0.072
4.50
0.096
4.70
0.128
3.40
Reference
(Silva et al. 1999)
Fst
(Strain et al. 1995)
5
15
allozymes
haploid
Gst, Nm
(Hagen & Hamrick 1996)
4
8
1
1
haploid
haploid
Fst
Fst
0.3154
0.026
1.09
18.73
(Xu et al. 1998)
(Saville et al. 1996)
Armillaria gallica
Chondrostereum
purpureum
8
7
mtDNA
mtDNA
anonymous
nuclear loci
diploid
Fst
0.012
20.58
(Saville et al. 1996)
4
22
diploid
Gst
0.048
4.96
(Gosselin et al. 1999)
Coccidiodes immitis
3
10
diploid
Fst
0.572
0.19
(Burt et al. 1997)
Daldinia loculata
7
6
diploid
Fst
0.07
3.32
(Johannesson et al. 2001)
Daldinia loculata
Epichloё festucae
Fomitopsis pinicola
Fomitopsis rosea
Fusarium oxysporum
Lobaria pulmonaria
Microbotryum violaceum
Microbotryum violaceum
Microbotryum violaceum
7
2
4
4
12
6
14
6
8
14
84
42
11
1
1
5
5
5
haploid
diploid
diploid
diploid
haploid
diploid
diploid
diploid
diploid
Gst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Gst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.14
0.197
0.172
0.13
0.203
0.24
0.393
0.42
0.92
3.07
1.02
1.20
1.67
1.96
0.79
0.39
0.35
0.02
(Johannesson et al. 2001)
(Garcia et al. 2002)
(Högberg et al. 1995)
(Hogberg & Stenlid 1999)
(Gordon et al. 1992)
(Zoller et al. 1999)
(Bucheli et al. 2001)
(Bucheli et al. 2001)
(Bucheli et al. 2001)
Mycosphaerella fijiensis
18
19
haploid
Fst
0.32
1.06
(Carlier et al. 1996)
Schizophyllum commune
Stereum sanguinolentum
Tapesia yallundae
5
12
5
5
23
10
RAPD
anonymous
nuclear loci
anonymous
nuclear loci
Minisatellites
for haploid
ascospores
AFLP
AP-PCR
AP-PCR
mtDNA
rDNA
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
anonymous
nuclear loci
anonymous
nuclear loci
minisatellites
AFLP
diploid
diploid
diploid
Fst
Gst
Fst
0.181
0.11
-0.008
1.13
2.02
NA
(James & Vilgalys 2001)
(Stenlid & Vasiliauskas 1998)
(Douhan et al. 2002)
2
TABLE S2. Measures of population subdivision (Fst, Gst, Φst) and Nm values for plants.
Fst,
Gst,
Φst
value
Nm
(calculated
or provided
by author)
Mating
system
Distribution
Range covered
Measure of
population
subdivision
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Gst
0.133
3.26
both
unknown
regional
regional
Φst
0.6372
0.14
Reference
(Vendramin et al.
1999)
(Liao & Hsiao
1998)
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst, Nm
0.107
2.08
(Ge & Sun 1999)
SSRs
both
mixed
regional
regional
Gst, Nm
0.178
1.16
(Ge & Sun 1999)
45
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Φst
0.325
0.52
3
138
RAPDs
both
endemic
regional
Fst
0.2935
0.60
Anisantha sterilis
3
9
SSRs
both
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
(Wolff et al. 1997)
(Kwon & Morden
2002)
widespread
local
Fst
0.3108
0.55
(Green et al. 2001)
Anthyllis montana
16
1199
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.4237
0.34
Antirrhinum charidemi
5
11
allozymes
both
outcrossing
endemic
local
Gst
0.054
4.38
Antirrhinum valentinum
Arceuthobium
americanum
5
11
allozymes
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Gst
0.48
0.27
51
85
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Gst
0.303
0.58
Argania spinosa
19
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Gst
0.6
0.33
(Kropf et al. 2002)
(Mateu-Andres &
Segarra-Moragues
2000)
(Mateu-Andres &
Segarra-Moragues
2000)
(Jerome & Ford
2002)
(ElMousadik &
Petit 1996)
Argyroxiphium kauense
3
7
SSRs
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.141
1.52
Aster tripolium
Astragalus
cremnophylax
8
33
RAPDs
both
mixed
regional
regional
Φst
0.175
1.18
(Friar et al. 2001)
(Kruger et al.
2002)
3
220
AFLP
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.41
0.36
(Travis et al. 1996)
Avicennia germinans
14
349
AFLP
both
outcrossing
widespread
species-wide
Φst, Nm
0.41
0.41
Avicennia marina
14
3
SSRs
both
unknown
widespread
species-wide
Fst
0.41
0.36
Beta vulgaris
40
1
cpDNA
seed
mixed
regional
regional
Fst, Nm
0.43
1.33
Buchloё dactyloides
4
10
allozymes
both
mixed
regional
regional
Φst
0.547
0.21
(Dodd et al. 2002)
(Maguire et al.
2000)
(Forcioli et al.
1998)
(Peakall et al.
1995)
Buchloё dactyloides
4
98
RAPDs
both
mixed
regional
regional
Φst
0.681
0.12
(Peakall et al.
N pop’ns
N
loci
Marker
Pollen or
seed?
Abies alba
17
1
cpSSRs
pollen
Acorus gramineus
12
17
RAPDs
Aegiceras corniculatum
10
9
allozymes
Aegiceras corniculatum
10
18
Alkanna orientalis
4
Alphitonia ponderosa
Species
3
1995)
Caesalpinia echinata
5
134
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Φst
0.58
0.18
Calluna vulgaris
Calycophyllum
spruceanum
23
1
cpDNA
seed
mixed
regional
species-wide
Gst
0.473
0.56
9
65
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.118
1.87
Carapa guianensis
3
3
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Rst, Nm
0.017
14.10
Carex bigelowii
2
10
allozymes
both
regional
regional
Gst
0.13
1.67
Carex ensifolia
8
10
allozymes
both
mixed
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
regional
Gst
0.151
1.41
Carex lugens
3
10
allozymes
both
mixed
regional
regional
Gst
0.057
4.14
Carex stans
6
10
allozymes
both
mixed
regional
regional
Gst
0.425
0.34
Carpentaria acuminata
37
14
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.379
0.39
Caryocar brasiliense
10
10
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.07
3.32
Castanea sativa
38
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
widespread
species-wide
Gst
0.43
0.66
Cedrela odorata
10
97
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Φst
0.349
0.47
Centaurea corymbosa
6
5
allozymes
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.35
0.46
Centaurea corymbosa
6
6
SSRs
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.23
0.84
Ceramium tenuicorne
Cerastium fischerianum
fischerianum
Cerastium fischerianum
molle
Cladophoropsis
membranacea
9
42
RAPDs
both
mixed
regional
regional
Fst
0.31
0.56
9
110
RAPDs
both
widespread
local
Φst
0.3909
0.39
8
71
RAPDs
both
endemic
local
Φst
0.3493
0.47
6
8
SSRs
both
mixed
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
widespread
local
Fst
0.205
0.97
Colubrina oppositifolia
4
155
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
endemic
regional
Fst
0.4573
0.30
Corylus avellana
26
1
cpSSRs
seed
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.857
0.08
Corylus avellana
26
1
cpRFLP
seed
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.08
5.75
Cycas taitungensis
2
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.0056
90.41
(Cardoso et al.
1998)
(Rendell & Ennos
2002)
(Russell et al.
1999)
(Dayanandan et al.
1999)
(Stenstrom et al.
2001)
(Stenstrom et al.
2001)
(Stenstrom et al.
2001)
(Stenstrom et al.
2001)
(Shapcott 1998)
(Collevatti et al.
2001)
(Fineschi et al.
2000)
(Gillies et al.
1997)
(Freville et al.
2001)
(Freville et al.
2001)
(Gabrielsen et al.
2002)
(Maki & Horie
1999)
(Maki & Horie
1999)
(Van der Strate et
al. 2002)
(Kwon & Morden
2002)
(Palme &
Vendramin 2002)
(Palme &
Vendramin 2002)
(Huang et al.
2001)
4
Cycas taitungensis
2
1
mtDNA
seed
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.021
23.18
Cyclobalanopsis glauca
25
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.612
0.32
Cypripedium calceolus
3
4
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
local
Fst, Nm
0.014
18.00
Dendropanax arboreus
5
29
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
widespread
local
Φst
0.032
7.56
Dicorynia guianensis
12
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
endemic
regional
Nst
0.25
1.50
Dryas integrifolia
42
1
cpDNA
seed
unknown
widespread
species-wide
Gst
0.44
0.64
Elliottia racemosa
10
9
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
species-wide
Gst, Nm
0.18
1.20
Eritrichium nanum
20
884
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.166
1.26
Erodium paularense
3
26
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.1974
1.02
Erodium paularense
2
127
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
endemic
biregional
Φst
0.2683
0.68
Eryngium alpinum
14
62
AFLP
both
mixed
regional
local
Fst
0.42
0.35
Euterpe edulis
11
429
AFLP
both
mixed
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.426
0.34
Fagus sylvatica
6
13
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Gst
0.0091
27.22
Festuca pratensis
6
36
RAPDs
both
unknown
widespread
regional
Φst
0.2603
0.71
Fitzroya cupressoides
12
54
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.1438
1.49
Fraxinus excelsior
10
6
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.087
2.62
Fraxinus excelsior
12
5
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.043
5.56
Grevillea macleayana
6
6
SSRs
both
mixed
endemic
regional
Fst
0.218
0.90
Grevillea scapigera
5
167
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.1305
1.67
Gymnadenia conopsea
Haplostachys
halplostachya
10
3
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst, Nm
0.06
3.90
3
54
RAPDs
both
endemic
local
Gst
0.079
2.91
Heteropogon contortus
6
33
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
widespread
regional
Φst
0.3185
0.53
Hippophae rhamnoides
11
156
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Φst
0.209
0.95
(Huang et al.
2001)
(Huang et al.
2002)
(Brzosko et al.
2002)
(Schierenbeck et
al. 1997)
(Caron et al. 2000)
(Tremblay &
Schoen 1999)
(Godt & Hamrick
1999)
(Stehlik et al.
2001)
(Martin et al.
1997)
(Martin et al.
1999)
(Gaudeul et al.
2000)
(Cardoso et al.
2000)
(Sander et al.
2000)
(Kolliker et al.
1998)
(Allnutt et al.
1999)
(Heuertz et al.
2001)
(Morand et al.
2002)
(England et al.
2002)
(Rossetto et al.
1995)
(Gustafsson 2000)
(Morden &
Loeffler 1999)
(Carino & Daehler
1999)
(Bartish et al.
1999)
5
(Dawson et al.
1993)
(Turpeinen et al.
2001)
(Chiang & Schaal
1999)
(Schierenbeck et
al. 1997)
(Arafeh et al.
2002)
Hordeum spontaneum
20
7
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.67
0.12
Hordeum spontaneum
10
18
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.36
0.44
Hylocomium splendens
3
1
nrDNA
both
mixed
widespread
regional
Fst
0.296
0.59
Inga thibaudiana
3
29
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Φst
0.009
27.53
Iris haynei/atrofusca
9
132
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Gst, Nm
0.18
1.14
Isotoma petraea
6
60
RAPDs
both
mixed
regional
regional
Gst
0.04
Kandelia candel
4
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst, Nm
36.20
Kandelia candel
4
1
mtDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.875
0.0232
5
0.0187
5
Lambertia orbifolia
2
1
cpDNA
seed
mixed
regional
biregional
Gst
0.855
0.08
Leucopogon obtectus
4
82
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.133
1.63
Leucopogon obtectus
4
264
AFLP
both
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.103
2.18
Limonium dufourii
6
33
RAPDs
both
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.656
0.13
Limonium dufourii
6
51
AFLP
both
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.243
0.78
16?
43
RAPDs
both
mixed
regional
local
Φst, Nm
0.1864
1.10
Medicago sativa
7
1
mtDNA
seed
regional
regional
Fst
0.12
3.67
Medicago truncatula
3
5
SSRs
both
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
local
Fst
0.37
0.43
Melaleuca alternifolia
40
5
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.072
3.40
Metrosideros bartlettii
3
286
AFLP
both
mixed
endemic
local
Fst
0.144
1.49
Oryza glumaepatula
37
12
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.346
0.47
(Byrne et al. 1999)
(Zawko et al.
2001)
(Zawko et al.
2001)
(Palacios &
GonzalezCandelas 1997)
(Palacios et al.
1999)
(Grashof-Bokdam
et al. 1998)
(Muller et al.
2001)
(Bonnin et al.
2001)
(Rossetto et al.
1999)
(Drummond et al.
2000)
(Akimoto et al.
1998)
Oryza glumaepatula
4
156
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.67
0.12
(Buso et al. 1998)
Oryza glumaepatula
4
3
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.31
0.56
Parnassia palustris
14
6
allozymes
both
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.16
1.31
Parnassia palustris
14
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.79
0.13
(Buso et al. 1998)
(Bonnin et al.
2002)
(Bonnin et al.
2002)
Phyteuma
69
240
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.59
0.17
(Schönswetter et
Lonicera periclymenum
28.60
(Bussell 1999)
(Chiang et al.
2001)
(Chiang et al.
2001)
6
globulariifolium
al. 2002)
Picea abies
8
7
SCAR
both
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.118
1.87
Picea abies
95
3
SSRs
both
outcrossing
widespread
species-wide
Fst
0.1451
1.47
Picea abies
36
1
mtDNA
seed
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.41
0.72
Picea glauca
6
13
allozymes
both
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.014
17.61
Picea glauca
6
11
ESTP
both
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.02
12.25
(Scotti et al. 2000)
(Bucci &
Vendramin 2000)
(Gugerli et al.
2001)
(Jaramillo-Correa
et al. 2001)
(Jaramillo-Correa
et al. 2001)
Pinanga aristata
7
8
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
local
Fst, Nm
0.21
0.93
(Shapcott 1999)
Pinanga dumetosa
Pinanga sp. aff.
brevipes
7
9
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
local
Fst, Nm
0.099
2.27
(Shapcott 1999)
7
8
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
local
Fst, Nm
0.261
0.70
(Shapcott 1999)
Pinanga tenella
7
9
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
local
Fst, Nm
0.148
1.44
(Shapcott 1999)
Pinanga veitchii
7
8
allozymes
both
mixed
endemic
local
Fst, Nm
1.03
Pinus albicaulis
41
1
cpSSRs
pollen
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Φst
0.194
0.0463
6
10.29
(Shapcott 1999)
(Richardson et al.
2002)
Pinus brutia
8
1
cpSSRs
pollen
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.289
1.23
(Bucci et al. 1998)
Pinus eldarica
2
1
cpSSRs
pollen
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.068
6.85
Pinus flexilis
40
1
mtDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.8
0.12
(Bucci et al. 1998)
(Mitton et al.
2000)
Pinus halepensis
10
1
cpSSRs
pollen
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.308
1.12
(Bucci et al. 1998)
Pinus oocarpa
10
131
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.122
1.80
(Diaz et al. 2001)
Pinus oocarpa
10
392
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.086
2.66
Pinus pinaster
12
19
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.047
5.07
Pinus pinaster
12
1
cpSSRs
pollen
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.039
12.32
(Diaz et al. 2001)
(Ribeiro et al.
2002)
(Ribeiro et al.
2002)
Pinus resinosa
7
1
cpSSRs
pollen
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Gst
0.121
3.63
Pinus resinosa
10
10
cpDNA
pollen
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.56
0.39
Pinus sylvestris
20
1
mtDNA
seed
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.37
0.85
Pinus sylvestris
7
1
mtDNA
seed
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.817
0.11
Pinus sylvestris
23
1
seed
regional
Φst
0.59
0.35
10
73
both
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
widespread
Plantago intermedia
mtDNA
RAPDs and
inter-SSRs
widespread
species-wide
Φst
0.672
0.12
(Echt et al. 1998)
(Walter &
Epperson 2001)
(Sinclair et al.
1999)
(Sinclair et al.
1999)
(Soranzo et al.
2000)
(Morgan-Richards
& Wolff 1999)
Plantago intermedia
9
8
allozymes
both
selfing and/or
widespread
species-wide
Fst
0.777
0.07
(Morgan-Richards
7
clonal
Plantago major
9
73
RAPDs and
inter-SSRs
Plantago major
9
8
allozymes
both
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
Plathymenia reticulata
6
51
RAPDs
both
Populus tremuloides
23
132
RAPDs
Posidonia oceanica
17
6
Potamogeton pectinatus
40
Protium glabrum
& Wolff 1999)
widespread
species-wide
Φst
0.397
0.38
widespread
species-wide
Fst
0.232
0.83
unknown
regional
regional
Φst, Nm
0.12
2.34
both
outcrossing
widespread
local
Fst
0.34
0.49
SSRs
both
endemic
regional
Fst, Nm
0.104
2.15
62
ISSR
both
mixed
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
regional
Φst
0.496
0.25
3
20
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Φst
-0.003
-83.58
Prunus africana
10
48
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Φst
0.734
0.09
Prunus mahaleb
7
73
RAPDs
both
mixed
regional
local
Gst, Nm
0.1935
1.19
Pseudotsuga menziesii
3
16
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.73
0.09
Pseudotsuga menziesii
3
19
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.26
0.71
Pseudotsuga menziesii
3
1
mtDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.62
0.31
Pseudotsuga menziesii
3
1
seed
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.72
0.19
Pseudotsuga menziesii
3
1
mtDNA
nuclear
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.25
0.75
Quercus gambelii
3
127
minisatellites
both
mixed
regional
local
Fst
0.243
0.78
Quercus ilex
24
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.33
1.02
Quercus petraea
21
8
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Gst
0.027
9.01
Quercus petraea
21
31
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Gst
0.024
10.17
Quercus suber
Rhododendron
championiae
73
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.84
0.10
3
18
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst, Nm
0.198
1.01
Rhododendron farrerae
Rhododendron
honkongense
5
15
allozymes
both
outcrossing
widespread
local
Fst, Nm
0.128
1.70
3
13
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst, Nm
0.191
1.06
both
(Morgan-Richards
& Wolff 1999)
(Morgan-Richards
& Wolff 1999)
(Lacerda et al.
2001)
(Stevens et al.
1999)
(Procaccini et al.
2001)
(King et al. 2002)
(Schierenbeck et
al. 1997)
(Dawson & Powell
1999)
(Jordano & Godoy
2000)
(Aagaard et al.
1995)
(Aagaard et al.
1995)
(Aagaard et al.
1995)
(Aagaard et al.
1998)
(Aagaard et al.
1998)
(Kumar & Rogstad
1998)
(Belahbib et al.
2001)
(LeCorre et al.
1997)
(LeCorre et al.
1997)
(Belahbib et al.
2001)
(Ng & Corlett
2000)
(Ng & Corlett
2000)
(Ng & Corlett
2000)
8
Rhododendron
moulmainense
Rhododendron
simiarum
4
15
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst, Nm
0.081
2.83
2
16
allozymes
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst, Nm
0.393
0.39
Rhododendron simsii
8
15
allozymes
both
outcrossing
widespread
local
Fst, Nm
0.056
4.21
Salicornia ramosissima
6
72
RAPDs
both
regional
regional
Φst
0.35
0.46
Sarconeurum glaciale
4
83
RAPDs
both
regional
local
Φst
0.273
0.67
Saxifraga cernua
2
38
RAPDs
both
widespread
local
Φst
0.4087
0.36
Saxifraga cespitosa
30
37
RAPDs
both
mixed
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
regional
Φst
0.71
0.10
Saxifraga oppositifolia
18
35
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Φst
0.36
0.44
Saxifraga oppositifolia
10
84
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
widespread
local
Φst
0.05
4.75
Saxifraga oppositifolia
15
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.213
1.85
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Schizachyrium
scoparium
15
151
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.152
1.39
(Ng & Corlett
2000)
(Ng & Corlett
2000)
(Ng & Corlett
2000)
(Kruger et al.
2002)
(Skotnicki et al.
1999)
(Gabrielsen &
Brochmann 1998)
(Tollefsrud et al.
1998)
(Gabrielsen et al.
1997)
(Gugerli et al.
1999)
(Holderegger et al.
2002)
(Holderegger et al.
2002)
4
60
RAPDs
both
regional
regional
Fst
0.05
4.75
(Huff et al. 1998)
Scutellaria indica
20
8
allozymes
both
regional
regional
Fst
0.937
0.02
(Sun 1999)
Scutellaria indica
10
?
RAPDs
both
unknown
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
regional
Gst
0.81
0.06
Senecio gallicus
11
9
RAPDs
both
regional
regional
Fst
0.339
0.49
Senecio vulgaris
9
26
RAPDs
both
widespread
local
Φst, Nm
0.382
0.40
Senecio vulgaris
10
183
AFLP
both
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
widespread
local
Φst
0.49
0.26
Silene acaulis
10
7
allozymes
both
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst, Nm
0.141
1.52
Silene paradoxa
8
59
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Φct
0.116
1.91
Silene paradoxa
8
1
cpSSRs
seed
outcrossing
regional
local
Φst
0.528
0.45
(Sun 1999)
(Comes & Abbott
2000)
(Muller-Scharer &
Fischer 2001)
(Steinger et al.
2002)
(Abbott et al.
1995)
(Mengoni et al.
2000)
(Mengoni et al.
2001)
Sorbus aucuparia
6
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Gst
0.29
1.22
Sticherus flabellatus
8
469
AFLP
both
unknown
regional
regional
Fst
0.783
0.07
Swietenia humilis
2
10
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.036
6.69
(Raspe et al. 2000)
(Keiper &
McConchie 2000)
(White & Powell
1997)
9
Swietenia humilis
4
10
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Rst, Nm
0.032
8.90
Symphonia globulifera
2
3
SSRs
both
mixed
regional
local
Fst
0.031
7.81
Symplocos laurina
2
380
SSRs
both
unknown
endemic
biregional
Gst, Nm
0.463
0.45
Trollius europaeus
18
117
AFLP
both
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.39
0.39
Viola riviniana
6
45
RAPDs
both
mixed
regional
local
Φst
0.41
0.36
Vouacapoua americana
14
1
cpDNA
seed
outcrossing
regional
local
Gst
0.89
0.06
Vouacapoua americana
4
8
SSRs
both
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.11
2.02
Vouacapoua americana
3
8
SSRs
both
regional
local
Fst
0.04
6.00
Wyethia reticulata
4
21
RAPDs
both
endemic
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.25
0.80
Wyethia reticulata
Yushania
niitakayamensis
4
9
allozymes
both
endemic
species-wide
Fst, Nm
0.19
1.10
13
43
RAPDs
both
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
regional
Φst
0.2007
1.00
Zostera marina
12
6
SSRs
both
mixed
widespread
species-wide
Φst
0.29
0.61
(White et al. 1999)
(Aldrich et al.
1998)
(Deshpande et al.
2001)
(Despres et al.
2002)
(Auge et al. 2001)
(Dutech et al.
2000)
(Dutech et al.
2002)
(Dutech et al.
2002)
(Ayres & Ryan
1997)
(Ayres & Ryan
1997)
(Hsiao & Lee
1999)
(Reusch et al.
2000)
10
TABLE S3. Measures of population subdivision (Fst, Gst, Φst) and Nm values for animals.
Fst,Gst,Φst
value
species-wide
species-wide
regional
Measure of
population
subdivision
Fst
Φst
Fst
0.724
0.023
0.356
Nm (calculated
or provided by
author)
0.19
21.24
0.90
endemic
regional
endemic
widespread
widespread
widespread
species-wide
species-wide
regional
local
local
local
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst
0.809
0.332
0.308
0.033
0.063
0.056
0.12
1.01
1.12
7.20
3.70
4.21
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Kst
0.247
1.52
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
endemic
endemic
endemic
regional
species-wide
species-wide
species-wide
Gst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.03
0.68
0.103
0.185
8.08
0.24
2.18
1.10
6
1
1
allozymes
mtDNA
SSRs
minisatellites
SSRs +
minisatellites
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
endemic
regional
species-wide
species-wide
local
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
0.119
0.639
0.294
1.85
0.28
1.20
4
2
3
4
4
5
10
11
11
11
1
5
11
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
regional
endemic
regional
widespread
widespread
widespread
regional
local
local
local
local
local
regional
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.106
0.007
0.188
0.052
0.066
0.013
0.1647
2.11
35.46
1.08
4.56
7.08
18.98
1.27
Aphis gossypii
Aphodius fossor
Apis mellifera
Apis mellifera
Arctocephalus gazella
Arctocephalus tropicalis
18
14
5
5
8
8
37
7
8
1
1
1
RAPDs
allozymes
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mixed
outcrossing
mixed
mixed
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
widespread
widespread
widespread
regional
regional
regional
regional
local
local
species-wide
species-wide
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Φst
Φst
0.879
0.011
0.0772
0.1907
0.074
0.19
0.03
22.48
2.99
2.12
6.26
2.13
Atypus affinis
Austropotamobius
4
25
15
19
allozymes
allozymes
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
regional
species-wide
regional
Fst, Nm
Fst
0.052
0.925
4.60
0.02
Species
N
pop’ns
N
loci
Marker
Mating
system
Distribution
Range
covered
Acanthurus bahianus
Acanthurus chirurgus
Acanthurus coeruleus
6
3
4
1
1
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
Achatinella mustelina
Acipenser brevirostrum
Acrossocheilus paradoxus
Aedes aegypti
Aedes aegypti
Aedes aegypti
18
9
12
3
3
20
1
1
1
137
6
6
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
AFLP
RFLP
SSRs
unknown
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
Aepyceros melampus
12
1
mtDNA
Aglais urticae
Amblyrhynchus cristatus
Amblyrhynchus cristatus
Amblyrhynchus cristatus
9
22
22
6
5
1
3
3
Amblyrhynchus cristatus
Andrias davidianus
Anolis marmoratus
6
6
5
Anopheles arabiensis
Anopheles dirus A
Anopheles dirus C
Anopheles dirus D
Anopheles gambiae
Anopheles gambiae
Anopheles gambiae
Reference
(Rocha et al. 2002)
(Rocha et al. 2002)
(Rocha et al. 2002)
(Holland & Hadfield
2002)
(Grunwald et al. 2002)
(Wang et al. 2000)
(Yan et al. 1999)
(Yan et al. 1999)
(Huber et al. 2002)
(Nersting & Arctander
2001)
(Vandewoestijne et al.
1999)
(Rassmann et al. 1997)
(Rassmann et al. 1997)
(Rassmann et al. 1997)
(Rassmann et al. 1997)
(Murphy et al. 2000)
(Schneider 1996)
(Onyabe & Conn
2001)
(Walton et al. 2001)
(Walton et al. 2001)
(Walton et al. 2001)
(Lehmann et al. 1997)
(Lehmann et al. 1997)
(Pinto et al. 2002)
(Vanlerberghe-Masuti
& Chavigny 1998)
(Roslin 2001)
(De la Rua et al. 2001)
(De la Rua et al. 2001)
(Wynen et al. 2000)
(Wynen et al. 2000)
(Pedersen &
Loeschcke 2001)
(Largiader et al. 2000)
11
pallipes
Axoclinus nigricaudus
Batillariella estuarina
Bemisia tabaci, biotype B
Bemisia tabaci, biotype Q
Bettongia tropica
Bettongia tropica
Biomphalaria glabrata
9
16
6
6
4
4
20
1
11
234
234
1
7
7
mtDNA
allozymes
RAPDs
RAPDs
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
Biomphalaria pfeifferi
30
8
Birgus latro
8
Bombus pascuorum
Bombus terrestris
Brachyramphus
marmoratus
Bufo calamita
Bufo canorus
Calidris alpina
Calidris melanotos
Calidris pusilla
Camponotus floridanus
Canis lupus
(Riginos & Nachman
2001)
(Pudovskis et al. 2001)
(Moya et al. 2001)
(Moya et al. 2001)
(Pope et al. 2000)
(Pope et al. 2000)
(Mavarez et al. 2002)
(Charbonnel et al.
2002)
endemic
regional
widespread
widespread
endemic
endemic
regional
species-wide
regional
regional
regional
local
local
local
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.536
0.455
0.325
0.273
0.561
0.062
0.23
0.43
0.30
0.52
0.67
0.39
3.78
0.84
SSRs
outcrossing
unknown
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
mixed
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
Fst
0.8
0.06
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
regional
almost
species-wide
Gst, Nm
0.37
0.85
18
14
6
8
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
0.0451
0.106
5.29
2.11
(Lavery et al. 1996)
(Widmer & SchmidHempel 1999)
(Estoup et al. 1996)
9
40
28
3
2
5
nuclear introns
SSRs
mtDNA
RAPDs
RAPDs
RAPDs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
endemic
widespared
regional
regional
regional
local
species-wide
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
Φst
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
0.093
0.365
0.76
0.26
0.27
0.16
2.44
0.43
0.16
0.71
0.27
1.31
(Friesen et al. 1997)
(Rowe et al. 1998)
(Shaffer et al. 2000)
(Haig et al. 1997)
(Haig et al. 1997)
(Haig et al. 1997)
3
30
4
8
1
6
10
8
2835
1
DNA Fing.
mtDNA
mixed
outcrossing
widespread
widespread
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
0.19
0.744
1.07
0.17
Canis lupus
Canis simensis
Capra ibex
Capreolus capreolus
Caretta caretta
Ceratitis capitata
9
2
7
17
6
16
9
9
18
1
1
1
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
endemic
regional
widespread
widespread
widespread
regional
regional
species-wide
regional
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst
Φst
Φst
Fst
0.091
0.057
0.167
0.63
0.331
0.296
2.50
4.14
1.25
0.29
1.01
0.59
Ceratitis capitata
Cervus nippon
Cervus nippon
Chalcides viridanus
Charadrius semipalmatus
Chelonia mydas
20
3
14
17
3
9
1
1
9
2
9
1
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
Adh1 intron
glucose-6phosphate
dehydrogenase
intron
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
RAPDs
mtDNA
(Gadau et al. 1996)
(Vilá et al. 1999)
(Carmichael et al.
2001)
(Gottelli et al. 1994)
(Maudet et al. 2002)
(Vernesi et al. 2002)
(Laurent et al. 1998)
(Gomulski et al. 1998)
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
regional
regional
endemic
regional
widespread
regional
local
regional
species-wide
regional
regional
Φst
Φst
Fst
Nst
Fst, Nm
Nm
0.2
0.36
0.415
0.768
0.25
NA
1.00
0.89
0.35
0.15
0.75
0.64
Chioglossa lusitanica
Chrysochus cobaltinus
17
5
7
1
allozymes
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
regional
species-wide
regional
Fst
Φst
0.678
0.766
0.12
0.15
(He & Haymer 1999)
(Nagata et al. 1998)
(Goodman et al. 2001)
(Brown et al. 2000)
(Haig et al. 1997)
(Encalada et al. 1996)
(Alexandrino et al.
2000)
(Dobler & Farrell
12
Clethrionomys glareolus
Clevelandia ios
31
10
1
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
local
regional
Fst
Φst
0.234
0.0281
1.64
17.29
Coelopa frigida
2
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
regional
biregional
Fst
0.76
0.16
Columbia inornata
Coregonus
lavaretus/oxyrhynchus
Coregonus
lavaretus/oxyrhynchus
Corophium volutator
2
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
endemic
local
Gst, Nm
0.0956
1.18
1999)
(Stacy et al. 1997)
(Dawson et al. 2002)
(MacDonald &
Brookfield 2002)
(Young & Allard
1997)
12
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.434
0.65
(Hansen et al. 1999)
12
6
6
32
SSRs
RAPDs
outcrossing
unknown
regional
widespread
regional
local
Fst
Φst
0.106
0.2051
2.11
0.97
Corvus kubaryi
2
9
SSRs
outcrossing
endemic
biregional
Fst
0.281
0.64
Cottus gobio
12
31
allozymes
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst, Nm
0.35
0.56
Cottus gobio
Cottus gobio
Craterocephalus
stercusmuscarum
Crepidula atrasolea
Crepidula convexa southern
Crepidula convexanorthern
Crepidula depressa
Crepidula fornicata
Crocidura russula
Cucumaria miniata
Cucumaria pseudocurata
Culex pipiens
Culex quinquefasciatus
Culicoides bolitinos
Culicoides imicola (ss)
Culicoides loxodontis
69
44
9
10
allozymes
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
0.54
0.49
0.21
0.26
16
3
7
1
allozymes
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
0.79
0.543
0.07
0.42
(Hansen et al. 1999)
(Wilson et al. 1997)
(Tarr & Fleischer
1999)
(Hänfling & Brandl
1998)
(Kontula & Vainola
2001)
(Hanfling et al. 2002)
(McGlashan & Hughes
2000)
(Collin 2001)
5
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.872
0.07
(Collin 2001)
3
3
5
15
3
11
14
7
4
6
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
4
196
196
196
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
allozymes
SSRs
RAPDs
RAPDs
RAPDs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
widespread
widespread
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Φst, Nm
Φst, Nm
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.761
-0.074
0.221
0.24
0.05
0.97
0.17
0.056
0.338
0.264
0.363
0.16
1.76
1.58
10.00
0.02
1.22
4.21
0.49
0.70
0.44
(Collin 2001)
(Collin 2001)
(Collin 2001)
(Ehinger et al. 2002)
(Arendt & Smith 1998)
(Arendt & Smith 1998)
(Chevillon et al. 1998)
(Fonseca et al. 2000)
(Sebastiani et al. 2001)
(Sebastiani et al. 2001)
(Sebastiani et al. 2001)
Cyclura carinata carinata
23
2
SSRs
outcrossing
endemic
regional
regional
regional
local
species-wide
species-wide
local
regional
regional
regional
regional
subspecieswide
Fst, Nm
0.41
0.36
Cynictis penicillata
21
1
mtDNA
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.411
0.72
Daphnia ambigua
10
12
allozymes
widespread
local
Gst
0.016
15.38
(Michels et al. 2001)
Daphnia pulex
Daphnia pulex
11
20
1
5
mtDNA
allozymes
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
(Welch et al. in press)
(Van Vuuren &
Robinson 1997)
regional
regional
regional
regional
Gst
Gst
0.568
0.253
0.38
0.74
(Raay & Crease 1995)
(Raay & Crease 1995)
13
Daphnia pulex
37
5
SSRs
Daphnia pulex
20
13
allozymes
Daphnia pulex
Dasyurus maculatus
Dasyurus maculatus
20
9
9
6
1
6
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
selfing and/or
clonal
outcrossing
outcrossing
Delphinapterus leucus
25
1
mtDNA
Delphinapterus leucus
5
1
Delphinapterus leucus
Dendroica petechia
Dendroica petechia
Diacamma cyaneiventre
Diacamma cyaneiventre
Diacamma cyaneiventre
Diacamma cyaneiventre
24
8
7
3
3
7
7
Dicentrarchus labrax
Dicentrarchus labrax
Discus macclintocki
regional
regional
Fst
0.4295
0.33
(Palsson 2000)
regional
regional
Gst
0.325
0.52
(Pfrender et al. 2000)
regional
endemic
endemic
regional
species-wide
species-wide
Gst
Φst
Φst
0.365
0.644
0.171
0.43
0.28
1.21
outcrossing
widespread
species-wide
Φst
0.385
0.80
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.33
1.02
5
6
1
8
1
8
1
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
widespread
widespread
endemic
endemic
endemic
endemic
regional
species-wide
species-wide
local
local
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.047
0.014
0.53
0.0195
0.33
0.26
0.75
5.07
17.61
0.44
12.57
1.02
0.71
0.17
4
14
10
6
6
1
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
unknown
regional
regional
narrow
biregional
regional
regional
Fst, Nm
Fst
Φst
0.007
0.0169
0.893
37.00
14.54
0.06
Drosophila buzzatii
5
10
outcrossing
widespread
species-wide
Fst
0.136
1.59
Drosophila madeirensis
5
3
SSRs
transposable
elements
(Pfrender et al. 2000)
(Firestone et al. 1999)
(Firestone et al. 1999)
(Brown Gladden et al.
1997)
(O'Corry-Crowe et al.
1997)
(Brown Gladden et al.
1999)
(Gibbs et al. 2000)
(Milot et al. 2000)
(Doums et al. 2002)
(Doums et al. 2002)
(Doums et al. 2002)
(Doums et al. 2002)
(García de León et al.
1997)
(Lemaire et al. 2000)
(Ross 1999)
(Frydenberg et al.
2002)
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.01069
23.14
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
10
2
48
19
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
widespread
regional
biregional
Fst
Fst
0.039
0.009
6.16
27.53
Drosophila mettleri
Drosophila
nigrospiracula
3
8
allozymes
outcrossing
endemic
regional
Fst
0.012
20.58
3
8
allozymes
outcrossing
endemic
regional
Fst
0.013
18.98
Drosophila pachea
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila teissieri
3
2
5
8
19
8
allozymes
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
widespread
regional
regional
biregional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.002
0.003
0.1218
124.75
83.08
1.80
Echinometra lucunter
10
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
species-wide
Fst
0.261
1.42
Echinometra vanbrunti
Echinometra viridis
3
4
1
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
0.057
0.361
8.27
0.89
(Lepetit et al. 2002)
(Agis & Schlotterer
2001)
(Colson 2002)
(Pfeiler & Markow
2001)
(Pfeiler & Markow
2001)
(Pfeiler & Markow
2001)
(Colson 2002)
(Cobb et al. 2000)
(McCartney et al.
2000)
(McCartney et al.
2000)
(McCartney et al.
14
Emberiza citrinella
Emberiza schoeniclus
Emydoidea blandingii
Emys orbicularis
8
8
5
65
7
4
156
1
SSRs
SSRs
RAPDs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
widespread
regional
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
species-wide
Fst
Fst, Nm
Φst
Φst
0.01
0.0444
0.4505
0.89
24.75
5.40
0.30
0.06
Epinephelus marginatus
3
9
allozymes
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.214
0.92
Epinephelus marginatus
Eretmodus cyanostictus
Eretmodus cyanostictus
7
4
4
7
1
6
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
endemic
endemic
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.018
0.089
0.127
13.64
5.12
1.72
Erinaceus europaeus
8
6
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
local
Rst, Nm
0.079
2.34
Eubalaena glacialis
Eucyclogobius newberryi
2
9
1
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
biregional
regional
Fst
Φst
0.219
0.9023
1.78
0.05
Euhadra quaesita
Ficedula hypoleuca
Ficedula hypoleuca
27
3
3
1
7
1
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
unknown
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
Φst
Fst
Fst
0.84
0.017
0.4233
0.10
14.46
0.68
Formica cinerea
Gadus morhua
23
5
5
1
SSRs
mtDNA
mixed
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
0.111
0.0016
2.00
312.00
Gadus morhua
Gadus morhua
Galaxias maculatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Geochelone elephantopus
Globicephala melas
Gnamptogenys striatula
Greya politella
9
14
7
3
17
4
33
27
1
5
1
7
10
8
8
1
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
mixed
outcrossing
regional
regional
widespread
regional
endemic
regional
widespread
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
regional
species-wide
regional
local
species-wide
Nst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
Nst
-0.001
0.0084
0.458
0.159
0.188
0.006
0.172
0.979
1.16
29.40
0.59
1.32
1.08
41.42
.07 - .26
0.01
Gulo gulo
Gulo gulo
Halichoerus grypus
Haptosquilla pulchella
12
3
2
24
12
15
8
1
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
local
regional?
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
Φst
0.0668
0.045
0.006
0.87
3.49
5.31
41.00
0.07
Heterocephalus glaber
15
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
regional
species-wide
Φct
0.68
0.24
Heterohyrax brucei
Hirundichthys affinis
Hyla arenicolor
Hyla arenicolor
Hyla regilla
16
6
20
12
7
8
58
1
1
40
SSRs
RAPDs
mtDNA
mtDNA
multilocus
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
widespread
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
local
local
Fst
Φst
Φst
Φst
Φst
0.176
0.42
0.861
0.699
0.056
1.17
0.35
0.08
0.22
4.21
2000)
(Lee et al. 2001)
(Grapputo et al. 1998)
(Mockford et al. 1999)
(Lenk et al. 1999)
(De Innocentiis et al.
2001)
(De Innocentiis et al.
2001)
(Ruber et al. 2001)
(Ruber et al. 2001)
(Becher & Griffiths
1998)
(Rosenbaum et al.
2000)
(Dawson et al. 2002)
(Watanabe & Chiba
2001)
(Haavie et al. 2000)
(Haavie et al. 2000)
(Goropashnaya et al.
2001)
(Carr et al. 1995)
(Árnason & Pálsson
1996)
(Ruzzante et al. 1998)
(Waters et al. 2000)
(Reusch et al. 2001)
(Ciofi et al. 2002)
(Fullard et al. 2000)
(Giraud et al. 2000)
(Brown et al. 1997)
(Kyle & Strobeck
2001)
(Walker et al. 2001)
(Allen et al. 1995)
(Barber et al. 2002)
(Faulkes et al. 1997)
(Gerlach & Hoeck
2001)
(Gomes et al. 1998)
(Barber 1999)
(Barber 1999)
(Call et al. 1998)
15
Isodon obesulus
11
39
microsatellites
RAPDs
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.208
0.95
Kobus kob
Lagopus lagopus scoticus
Lagopus mutus
Lanius ludovicianus
Larinus cynarae
Lasiorhinus krefftii
Lasiorhinus krefftii
Lates niloticus
Lepus americanus
Lepus corsicanus
Limosa haemastica
7
14
16
5
15
2
2
5
14
3
2
1
7
1
1
7
16
16
50
7
1
7
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
allozymes
SSRs
SSRs
allozymes
SSRs
mtDNA
RAPDs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
endemic
narrow
regional
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
local
species-wide
local
regional
species-wide
local
local
regional
species-wide
regional
Kst
Rst
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
0.49
0.153
0.93
0.75
0.154
0.05
0.058
0.015
0.015
0.8
0.69
0.52
1.38
0.04
0.17
1.37
4.75
4.06
16.42
16.42
0.13
0.12
Linckia laevigata
4
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Φst, Nm
0.147
2.90
Linepithema humile
Litoria fallax
10
22
8
1
SSRs
mtDNA
mixed
outcrossing
widespread
regional
local
species-wide
Fst
Φst
0.003
0.985
83.08
0.01
Litoria pearsoniana
Littorina saxatilis X
tenebrosa
Loligo forbesi
13
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.69
0.22
15
7
1
7
mtDNA
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
0.411
0.093
0.72
2.44
Loligo opalescens
Lontra canadensis
11
7
6
9
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional?
regional
Fst
Fst, Nm
0.0028
0.038
89.04
6.68
Loxodonta africana
3
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.553
0.40
Loxodonta africana
3
4
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.013
18.98
Loxodonta africana
Lycaon pictus
Lycaon pictus
Lycosid sp.
Lymnaea truncatula
2
6
6
6
12
9
1
60
1
6
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
mixed
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
biregional
regional
regional
regional
regional
Gst
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.141
0.525
0.097
0.086
0.753
1.52
0.45
2.33
5.31
0.08
Macaca sylvanus
Macquaria
novemaculeata
Macropus rufus
Macrosiphoniella
tanacetaria
Macrotis lagotis
9
5
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.118
1.87
10
13
1
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
regional
regional
species-wide
biregional
Φst
Φst
0.05
0.18
9.50
2.28
9
10
9
1
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
outcrossing
regional
endemic
regional
species-wide
Fst
Φst
0.12
0.317
1.83
1.08
(Cooper 2000)
(Birungi & Arctander
2000)
(Piertney et al. 1998)
(Holder et al. 2000)
(Mundy et al. 1997)
(Briese et al. 1996)
(Taylor et al. 1994)
(Taylor et al. 1994)
(Hauser et al. 1998)
(Burton et al. 2002)
(Pierpaoli et al. 1999)
(Haig et al. 1997)
(Williams & Benzie
1997)
(Krieger & Keller
2000)
(James & Moritz 2000)
(McGuigan et al.
1998)
(Small & Gosling
2000)
(Shaw et al. 1999)
(Reichow & Smith
2001)
(Blundell et al. 2002)
(Nyakaana &
Arctander 1999)
(Nyakaana &
Arctander 1999)
(Whitehouse & Harley
2001)
(Girman et al. 2001)
(Girman et al. 2001)
(Colgan et al. 2002)
(Meunier et al. 2001)
(von Segesser et al.
1999)
(Jerry & Baverstock
1998)
(Clegg et al. 1998)
(Massonnet et al.
2002)
(Moritz et al. 1997)
16
Macrotis lagotis
6
9
SSRs
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.11
2.02
Makaira nigricans
2
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
biregional
Nm
NA
1.88
Makaira nigricans
2
5
SSRs
outcrossing
widespread
biregional
Nm
NA
0.74
Makaira nigricans
2
4
allozymes
outcrossing
widespread
biregional
Nm
NA
1.50
Makaira nigricans
Manorina melanophrys
Martes pennanti
Matsucoccus feytaudi
Megaptera novaengliae
Megaptera novaengliae
2
8
13
22
14
8
4
5
13
1
1
1
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
endemic
regional
regional
widespread
widespread
biregional
local
species-wide
species-wide
species-wide
regional
Nm
Fst
Fst
Nst
Gst, Nm
Φst
NA
0.08
0.136
0.87
0.42
0.51
1.29
2.88
1.59
0.07
0.69
0.48
Megaptera novaengliae
Melanochromis auratus
Melanoplus oregonensis
Meleagris gallopavo
Meleagris gallopavo
Meleagris gallopavo
8
9
15
5
5
5
5
4
1
1
83
5
scnDNA
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
SSRs + actin
intron
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
AFLP
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
endemic
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
local
species-wide
species-wide
species-wide
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.048
0.151
0.46
0.546
0.175
0.113
4.96
1.41
0.59
0.42
1.18
1.96
Melitaea didyma
Melospiza melodia
Merluccius merluccius
Merluccius merluccius
Mesomys hispidus
Microstomus pacificus
9
18
6
2
4
6
25
1
6
5
1
1
allozymes
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
widespread
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
species-wide
biregional
regional
species-wide
Fst, Nm
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
Φst
0.09
0.294
0.039
0.0067
0.737
0.278
2.15
1.20
6.16
37.06
0.56
1.30
Microtus oeconomus
9
8
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.167
1.25
Mogurnda adspersa
Mus musculus domesticus
Mus musculus musculus
Myotis bechsteinii
Myotis bechsteinii
Myotis bechsteinii
Myotis bechsteinii
Myotis myotis
Myotis myotis
Myrmecobius fasciatus
Mytilocypris ambiguosa
Mytilocypris henricae
Mytilocypris mytiloides
13
6
10
10
10
10
10
2
2
2
19
7
41
1
6
5
1
7
1
1
6
1
1
6
6
6
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mtSSR
mtSSR
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
allozymes
allozymes
allozymes
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
widespread
widespread
narrow
regional
endemic
regional
local
local
local
local
local
local
local
biregional
biregional
species-wide
regional
regional
regional
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Φst
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.977
0.18
0.14
0.68
0.015
0.658
0.961
0.333
0.991
0.15
0.354
0.108
0.363
0.01
1.14
1.54
0.24
16.42
0.13
0.01
0.50
0.00
2.83
0.46
2.06
0.44
(Moritz et al. 1997)
(Buonaccorsi et al.
2001)
(Buonaccorsi et al.
2001)
(Buonaccorsi et al.
2001)
(Buonaccorsi et al.
2001)
(Painter et al. 2000)
(Kyle et al. 2001)
(Burban et al. 1999)
(Baker et al. 1994)
(Baker et al. 1998)
(Baker et al. 1998)
(Markert et al. 1999)
(Knowles 2001)
(Mock et al. 2002)
(Mock et al. 2002)
(Mock et al. 2002)
(Johannesen et al.
1996)
(Fry & Zink 1998)
(Lundy et al. 1999)
(Lundy et al. 2000)
(Patton et al. 1996)
(Stepien 1999)
(Van de Zande et al.
2000)
(Hurwood & Hughes
1998)
(Dallas et al. 1995)
(Dallas et al. 1995)
(Kerth et al. 2000)
(Kerth et al. 2002)
(Kerth et al. 2002)
(Kerth et al. 2002)
(Castella et al. 2000)
(Castella et al. 2000)
(Fumagalli et al. 1999)
(Finston 2002)
(Finston 2002)
(Finston 2002)
17
Mytilocypris praenuncia
Mytilocypris splendida
10
7
6
6
allozymes
allozymes
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
endemic
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
0.11
0.192
2.02
1.05
Mytilus galloproviancialis
3
1
F mtDNA
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.176
1.17
Mytilus galloproviancialis
Necator americanus
Negaprion brevirostris
3
4
4
1
1
4
M mtDNA
mtDNA
SSRs
regional
widespread
regional
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
0.402
0.24
0.016
0.37
1.58
15.40
Nematostella vectensis
Nerodia sipedon
Noturus exilis
Odobenus rosmarus
rosmarus
Odobenus rosmarus
rosmarus
9
3
21
31
8
1
RAPDs
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
outcrossing
outcrossing
(Finston 2002)
(Finston 2002)
(Ladoukakis et al.
2002)
(Ladoukakis et al.
2002)
(Hawdon et al. 2001)
(Feldheim et al. 2001)
regional
regional
endemic
regional
local
species-wide
Φst
Fst
Fst
0.2176
0.006
0.512
0.90
41.42
0.48
(Pearson et al. 2002)
(Prosser et al. 1999)
(Hardy et al. 2002)
4
11
SSRs
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.037
6.51
(Anderson et al. 1998)
4
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Φst
0.873
0.07
Odontesthes argentinensis
6
9
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
species-wide
Fst
0.029
8.37
Odontesthes argentinensis
Oedura reticulata
Oedura reticulata
Oedura reticulata
Oligoryzomys microtis
Oncorhynchus clarki
clarki
6
4
2
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
narrow
narrow
narrow
regional
species-wide
local
local
local
regional
Φst
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
0.085
0.12
0.11
0.32
0.206
5.38
3.67
4.05
1.06
2.57
(Anderson et al. 1998)
(Beheregaray &
Sunnucks 2001)
(Beheregaray &
Sunnucks 2001)
(Sarre 1995)
(Sarre 1995)
(Sarre 1995)
(Patton et al. 1996)
13
6
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.121
1.82
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
9
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
regional
regional
Φst
0.453
0.60
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
stonei
Oncorhynchus nerka
Oncorhynchus nerka
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
9
16
30
30
1
3
6
1
mtDNA
SSRs
scnDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
local
species-wide
species-wide
Φst
Fst
Φst
Φst
0.106
0.058
0.44
0.74
4.22
4.06
0.32
0.18
(Wenburg et al. 1998)
(Churikov & Gharrett
2002)
(Churikov & Gharrett
2002)
(Small et al. 1998)
(Bagley & Gall 1998)
(Bagley & Gall 1998)
15
5
5
11
1
2
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
regional
regional
regional
local
local
Fst
Φct
Fst
0.02
0.023
0.01
12.25
21.24
24.75
(Nielsen et al. 1999)
(Taylor et al. 1997)
(Taylor et al. 1997)
4
1
SSRs
mtDNA
minisatellites
somatolactin
intron
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.24
0.79
(Ford 2000)
4
1
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.057
4.14
(Ford 2000)
4
12
1
1
p53 intron
transferrin (noncharge changing
sites)
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
widespread
regional
regional
Fst
Φst, Nm
0.07
0.08
3.32
6.00
(Ford 2000)
(Fuller et al. 1997)
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
Oryctoloagus cuniculus
18
Oryzomys capito
Osmerus mordax
Otis tarda
Ovis canadensis
Ozotoceros bezoarticus
Panthera onca
Panthera onca
Panthera onca
Panthera onca
Panthera onca
Panthera onca
3
49
2
23
6
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
29
1
29
1
29
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
biregional
regional
species-wide
species-wide
species-wide
triregional
triregional
biregional
biregional
Fst, Nm
Gst
Φst
Fst
Fst, Nm
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.012
0.96
0.49
0.497
0.37
0.063
0.3
0.295
0.065
0.342
0.045
17.34
0.02
0.52
0.51
0.87
3.72
1.17
0.60
7.19
0.48
10.61
Panthera pardus
9
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
regional
Fst
0.782
0.14
Panthera pardus
Partula suturalis
Partula taeniata
Peltoperla tarteri
Penaeus monodon
Perameles gunnii
Perca fluviatilis
Perca fluviatilis
9
11
14
8
13
2
66
35
25
1
1
1
1
2
1
19
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
minisatellites
mtDNA
RAPDs
outcrossing
unknown
unknown
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
endemic
endemic
regional
widespread
endemic
widespread
widespread
species-wide
regional
regional
local
regional
local
regional
regional
Fst
Φst
Φst
Φst
Φst
Fst
Φst
Φst
0.364
0.682
0.474
0.17
0.835
0.352
0.66
0.48
0.44
0.23
0.55
2.44
0.10
0.46
0.26
0.27
Perna canaliculus
22
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Φst
0.162
2.59
Peromyscus leucopus
Peromyscus maniculatus
Peromyscus maniculatus
Peromyscus maniculatus
Petrogale lateralis
Petrogale xanthopus
Petrogale xanthopus
Phalacrocorax carbo
Phalaropus lobatus
Phascolarctos cinereus
Phascolarctos cinereus
Phascolarctos cinereus
Phocoena phocoena
Phocoena phocoena
11
2
6
9
5
3
3
21
3
10
16
5
4
4
8
12
12
12
11
4
1
7
9
6
1
1
1
8
SSRs
RAPDs
RAPDs
RAPDs
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
RAPDs
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
mtDNA
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
widespread
widespread
regional
regional
regional
widespread
widespread
local
regional
biregional
local
local
local
local
regional
regional
species-wide
species-wide
regional
regional
regional
Fst
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst
Nst
Nst
Rst
Fst, Nm
Fst
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.04
0.01
0.36
0.1
0.192
0.107
0.272
0.069
0.1
0.085
0.756
0.233
0.034
0.18
6.00
25.30
0.40
2.25
1.05
2.09
1.34
3.37
2.37
2.69
0.16
1.65
14.21
1.14
Phocoenoids dalli
4
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
biregional
Gst
0.1632
2.56
Phocoenoids dalli
Phocoenoids dalli
11
11
1
6
mtDNA
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
widespread
species-wide
species-wide
Φst
Fst
0.0369
0.007
13.05
35.46
(Patton et al. 1996)
(Bernatchez 1997)
(Pitra et al. 2000)
(Ramey II 1995)
(González et al. 1998)
(Eizirik et al. 2001)
(Eizirik et al. 2001)
(Eizirik et al. 2001)
(Eizirik et al. 2001)
(Eizirik et al. 2001)
(Eizirik et al. 2001)
(Uphyrkina et al.
2001)
(Uphyrkina et al.
2001)
(Goodacre 2002)
(Goodacre 2002)
(Schultheis et al. 2002)
(Benzie et al. 2002)
(Robinson et al. 1993)
(Nesbo et al. 1999)
(Nesbo et al. 1999)
(Apte & Gardner
2002)
(Mossman & Waser
1999)
(Vucetich et al. 2001)
(Vucetich et al. 2001)
(Vucetich et al. 2001)
(Eldridge et al. 2001)
(Pope et al. 1996)
(Pope et al. 1996)
(Goostrey et al. 1998)
(Haig et al. 1997)
(Houlden et al. 1996)
(Houlden et al. 1999)
(Fowler et al. 2000)
(Rosel et al. 1999)
(Rosel et al. 1999)
(McMillan &
Bermingham 1996)
(Escorza-Trevino &
Dizon 2000)
(Escorza-Trevino &
19
Dizon 2000)
(Toline & Baker 1995)
(Kim et al. 1998)
(Haig et al. 1994)
(Stangel et al. 1992)
(Haig et al. 1996)
(Rodriguez-Lanetty &
Hoegh-Guldberg 2002)
(Hoarau et al. 2002)
(Castilla et al. 1998)
(Gerlach & Hoeck
2001)
(Emerson & Wallis
1994)
(Emerson & Wallis
1994)
(Rico & Turner 2002)
(Roeder et al. 2001)
(Dallimer et al. 2002)
(Nusser et al. 1996)
Phoxinus eos
Phyllostis xanthopygus
Picoides borealis
Picoides borealis
Picoides borealis
18
10
14
26
20
1
1
47
16
47
mtDNA
mtDNA
RAPDs
allozymes
RAPDs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
endemic
endemic
endemic
endemic
local
regional
species-wide
species-wide
species-wide
Gst, Nm
Φst
Fst, Nm
Fst, Nm
Fst
0.431
0.28
0.19
0.14
0.21
0.57
1.29
1.04
1.53
0.94
Plesiastrea versipora
Pleuronectes platessa
Podarcis atrata
7
11
4
1
6
1
rDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
mixed
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
endemic
regional
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.536
0.0086
0.637
0.22
28.82
0.28
Procavia johnstoni
12
3
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.388
0.39
Prodontria bicolorata
7
7
allozymes
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.325
0.52
Prodontria modesta
Pseudotropheus callainos
Pygoscelis adeliae
Quela quela
Rallus longirostris levipes
7
3
13
8
4
7
6
5
6
16
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
endemic
endemic
regional
widespread
endemic
species-wide
local
species-wide
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
Fst
Gst
0.204
0.0343
0.0007
0.002
0.28
0.98
7.04
9.00
124.75
0.64
Rana luteiventris
7
44
allozymes
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
RAPDs
multilocus
microsatellites
outcrossing
regional
local
Φst
0.063
3.72
Rana sylvatica
Rangifer taarandus
platyrhynchus
Rangifer taarandus
platyrhynchus
11
5
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.014
17.61
(Call et al. 1998)
(Newman & Squire
2001)
2
9
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.034
7.10
(Cote et al. 2002)
2
9
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.069
3.37
Rattus fuscipes greyii
Rhinolophus
ferrumequinum
16
1
MHC
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.78
0.07
(Cote et al. 2002)
(Seddon & Baverstock
1999)
9
6
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.11664
1.89
Rhopalosiphum padi
11
1
mtDNA
widespread
widespread
Cpt
0.1318
3.29
Rhopalosiphum padi
Rhopalosiphum padi
5
8
7
7
SSRs
SSRs
widespread
widespread
regional
regional
Fst
Fst
0.0603
0.0323
3.90
7.49
(Delmotte et al. 2002)
(Delmotte et al. 2002)
Rhopalosiphum padi
Rhopalosiphum padi
Rhytidoponera sp. 12
Salmo marmoratus
Salmo salar
Salmo salar
Salmo salar
5
8
6
8
4
4
16
4
4
1
15
7
1
8
allozymes
allozymes
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mixed
selfing and/or
clonal
outcrossing
selfing and/or
clonal
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
(Rossiter et al. 2000)
(Martínez-Torres et al.
1996)
widespread
widespread
regional
narrow
regional
regional
widespread
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
local
local
regional
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Φst
Φst
Fst
0.169
0.0264
0.5
0.66
0.142
0.398
0.054
1.23
9.22
0.50
0.13
1.51
0.76
4.38
(Delmotte et al. 2002)
(Delmotte et al. 2002)
(Tek Tay et al. 1997)
(Fumagalli et al. 2002)
(Tessier et al. 1997)
(Tessier et al. 1997)
(McConnell et al.
20
Salmo salar
Salmo salar
4
14
7
5
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
local
local
Fst
Fst
0.0957
0.034
2.36
7.10
Salmo trutta
11
38
allozymes
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.478
0.27
Salmo trutta
10
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.59
0.35
Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
13
11
11
41
7
1
6
8
33
1
mtDNA
SSRs
allozymes
allozymes
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
local
local
regional
regional
Nst
Fst
Fst
Gst
Φst
0.91
0.263
0.258
0.268
.390 - .475
0.05
0.70
0.72
0.68
-
Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
58
39
1
34
mtDNA
allozymes
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
Φst
Gst
0.559
0.455
0.39
0.30
Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
Salvelinus alpinus
Salvelinus confluentus
9
32
5
15
47
10
7
8
6
1
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
local
regional
local
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
Φst
Φst
0.401
0.049
0.037
0.37
0.8805
0.37
4.85
6.50
0.43
0.07
Salvelinus fontinalis
Salvelinus fontinalis
Sceloporus woodi
Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosoma mansoni
Sciurus vulgaris
Sebastes fasciatus
Sebastes fasciatus
Sebastes marinus
Sebastes mentella
Sebastes mentella
Sebastes viviparus
Semibalanus balanoides
Sigmodon hispidus
58
24
5
17
17
17
17
15
2
6
2
2
10
2
14
13
1
6
1
7
7
7
7
1
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
1
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
RAPDs
RAPDs
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
MHC
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
mixed
mixed
mixed
mixed
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
endemic
widespread
widespread
widespread
widespread
widespread
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
widespread
widespread
local
local
species-wide
local
local
local
local
regional
biregional
regional
biregional
biregional
regional
biregional
regional
regional
Fst
Φst
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Φst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
Φst
Fst
0.47
0.191
0.896
0.07
0.035
0.143
0.072
0.681
0.022
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.008
0.016
0.011
0.163
0.56
1.06
0.06
3.32
6.89
1.50
3.22
0.23
11.11
27.53
27.53
27.53
31.00
15.38
22.48
1.28
Silurus glanis
Sistrurus c. catenatus
Sitobion avenae
13
5
8
10
6
5
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
selfing and/or
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
local
regional
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.364
0.164
0.032
0.44
1.27
7.56
1997)
(Tessier & Bernatchez
1999)
(Garant et al. 2000)
(Bernatchez & Osinov
1995)
(Bernatchez & Osinov
1995)
(Apostolidis et al.
1997)
(Estoup et al. 1998)
(Estoup et al. 1998)
(Bouza et al. 1999)
(Weiss et al. 2000)
(Machordom et al.
2000)
(Bouza et al. 2001)
(Aurelle & Berrebi
2001)
(Ruzzante et al. 2001)
(Hansen et al. 2002)
(Brunner et al. 1998)
(Taylor et al. 1999)
(Danzmann & Ihssen
1995)
(Hebert et al. 2000)
(Clark et al. 1999)
(Prugnolle et al. 2002)
(Prugnolle et al. 2002)
(Prugnolle et al. 2002)
(Prugnolle et al. 2002)
(Barratt et al. 1999)
(Roques et al. 1999)
(Roques et al. 2001)
(Roques et al. 1999)
(Roques et al. 1999)
(Roques et al. 2001)
(Roques et al. 1999)
(Dufresne et al. 2002)
(Pfau et al. 2001)
(Triantafyllidis et al.
2002)
(Gibbs et al. 1997)
(Simon et al. 1999)
21
clonal
Sorex araneus
17
7
Sorex araneus
14
Sorex araneus
(Lugon-Moulin et al.
1999)
(Lugon-Moulin &
Hausser 2002)
(Lugon-Moulin &
Hausser 2002)
(Maldonado et al.
2001)
(Finch & Lambert
1996)
(Garcia-Martinez et al.
1999)
(Stepien & Faber
1998)
(Simonsen et al. 1998)
(Simonsen et al. 1998)
(van Hooft et al. 2000)
outcrossing
regional
local
Fst
0.076
3.04
1
SSRs
Y chromosome
SSR
outcrossing
regional
local
Rst
0.738
0.09
14
8
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
local
Rst
0.061
3.85
Sorex ornatus
12
30
allozymes
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.278
0.65
Sphenodon punctatus
4
135
minisatellites
outcrossing
endemic
species-wide
Fst
0.15
1.42
Stenella coeruleoalba
2
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
biregional
Gst, Nm
0.34
0.98
Stizostedion vitreum
Syncerus caffer
Syncerus caffer
Syncerus caffer
6
11
11
9
1
1
6
14
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
Φst
Kst
Fst
Fst
0.153
0.1
0.085
0.059
2.77
4.50
2.69
3.99
Syncerus caffer caffer
4
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
MHC class II
DRB gene
outcrossing
regional
regional
Gst
0.076
3.04
Tamias amoenus
Tanganicodus irsacae
Tanganicodus irsacae
Telespiza cantans
3
3
3
4
7
1
6
9
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
endemic
endemic
endemic
local
regional
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.036
0.526
0.24
0.169
6.69
0.45
0.79
1.23
Tetranychus uricae
7
5
allozymes
mixed
widespread
regional
Fst
0.38
0.41
Tetrao urogallus
Thalassarche
chrysostoma
Thalassarche
chrysostoma
Thalassarche melanophris
Thalassarche melanophris
Thaleichthys pacificus
Thaumetopoea
pityocampa
Thaumetopoea
pityocampa
Thymallus arcticus
Thymallus thymallus
18
10
SSRs
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst
0.046
5.18
(Wenink et al. 1998)
(Schulte-Hostedde et
al. 2001)
(Ruber et al. 2001)
(Ruber et al. 2001)
(Tarr et al. 1998)
(Tsagkarakou et al.
1998)
(Segelbacher & Storch
2002)
5
1
mtDNA
outcrossing
widespread
species-wide
Fst
0.00136
367.15
(Burg & Croxall 2001)
4
5
4
12
7
1
7
4
SSRs
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
widespread
widespread
regional
species-wide
species-wide
species-wide
regional
Fst
Fst
Fst
Fst
0.02
0.275
0.032
0.023
12.25
1.32
7.56
21.24
(Burg & Croxall 2001)
(Burg & Croxall 2001)
(Burg & Croxall 2001)
(McLean et al. 1999)
8
183
AFLP
outcrossing
regional
regional
Fst, Nm
0.356
0.47
(Salvato et al. 2002)
8
6
28
1
10
1
mtDNA
SSRs
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
widespread
regional
regional
regional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Φct
0.446
0.23
0.59
0.62
0.84
0.35
Tragelaphus trepsiceros
Trichechus manatus
8
8
1
1
mtDNA
mtDNA
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
species-wide
species-wide
Kst
Φst
0.527
0.798
0.45
0.13
(Salvato et al. 2002)
(Koskinen et al. 2002)
(Koskinen et al. 2000)
(Nersting & Arctander
2001)
(Garcia-Rodriguez et
22
Triturus cristatus
Triturus marmoratus
Uria aalge
Uria lomvia
Urophora cardui
2
3
10
7
41
8
8
1
1
18
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
mtDNA
allozymes
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
widespread
widespread
regional
local
local
biregional
biregional
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Gst, Nm
Gst, Nm
Fst
0.0455
0.13
0.65
0.56
0.128
5.24
1.67
0.60
0.10
1.70
Ursus americanus
Ursus arctos
Ursus maritimus
12
4
16
10
19
16
SSRs
SSRs
SSRs
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
regional
regional
widespread
regional
species-wide
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Fst, Nm
0.106
0.069
0.0028
2.11
3.37
89.00
Varanus komodoensis
4
10
SSRs
outcrossing
endemic
regional
Fst, Nm
0.32
0.30
Vespula germanica
Vulpes vulpes
Wilsonia pusilla
Zacco pachycephalus
4
4
9
12
3
7
1
26
SSRs
SSRs
mtDNA
allozymes
mixed
outcrossing
outcrossing
outcrossing
widespread
regional
regional
endemic
regional
local
species-wide
species-wide
Fst
Fst
Φst
Fst
0.28
0.01-0.15
0.55
0.497
0.64
0.41
0.25
al. 1998)
(Jehle et al. 2001)
(Jehle et al. 2001)
(Friesen et al. 1996)
(Friesen et al. 1996)
(Eber & Brandl 1997)
(Marshall & Ritland
2002)
(Waits et al. 2000)
(Paetkau et al. 1999)
(Ciofi & Bruford
1999)
(Goodisman et al.
2001)
(Lade et al. 1996)
(Kimura et al. 2002)
(Wang et al. 1999)
23
TABLE S4. Selection gradients and differentials for studies with experimentally enhanced phenotypic variation. Studies are classified according to
experimental design, whether traits were varied by phenotypic manipulation or by combining varying strains, and fitness measure. Linear selection
gradient or differential, with significance levels, and sample size are provided.
Taxonomic
group
Experimental
design
Source of
phenotypic
variation
Experimental
conditions
Trait or
conditions
varied or
manipulated
Trait class
Trait name
Episode, site,
or treatment
Fitness
measure
Linear
gradient
(β)
P(β)
Linear
differential
(s)
P(s)
N
Source
FUNGI
Cochliobolus
carbonum
Cochliobolus
carbonum
Cochliobulus
heterostrophus
Cochliobulus
heterostrophus
Cochliobulus
heterostrophus
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
varying
strains
varying
strains
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
laboratory
among
subspecies
physiology
against race O
growth rate
0.58
na
laboratory
among
subspecies
physiology
growth rate
0.17
na
laboratory
single allele
life history
growth rate
0.025
na
laboratory
single allele
physiology
growth rate
0.302
na
laboratory
single allele
physiology
against race 3
Mating type
allele
Against O
allele
Selection
against T
allele
growth rate
0.12
na
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
laboratory
laboratory
laboratory
laboratory
laboratory
among races
among races
among races
among races
among races
laboratory
among races
physiology
laboratory
among races
physiology
competitive
ability
competitive
ability
(Welz &
Leonard
1993)
(Welz &
Leonard
1993)
(Leonard
1977)
(Leonard
1977)
(Leonard
1977)
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
low density
growth rate
-0.374
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
low density
growth rate
-0.196
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
low density
growth rate
-4.62
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
low density
growth rate
-0.749
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
low density
growth rate
0.048
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
low density
growth rate
-0.608
na
high density
growth rate
0.083
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
24
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Erysiphe
graminis
tritici
Ophiostoma
ulmi
Phytophthora
infestans
Puccinia
graminis
avenae
Puccinia
graminis
avenae
Puccinia
graminis
tritici
Puccinia
graminis
tritici
Puccinia
graminis
tritici
Puccinia
hordei
Puccinia
hordei
Puccinia
striiformis
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
manipulated
trait
varying
strains
varying
strains
laboratory
laboratory
laboratory
laboratory
among races
among races
among races
among races
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
physiology
competitive
ability
against
nonagressive
subsp.
competitive
ability
Unneccessary
virulence
allele
Unneccessary
virulence
alleles
competitive
ability for host
variety
competitive
ability for
temperature
and density
Unneccessary
virulence
alleles
competitive
ability
laboratory
among races
laboratory
among
subspecies
physiology
laboratory
among races
physiology
laboratory
single allele
physiology
laboratory
laboratory
among races
among races
physiology
physiology
physiology
common
garden
varying
strains
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
laboratory
laboratory
among races
among races
physiology
laboratory
among races
physiology
experimental
plots
among races
physiology
laboratory
among races
physiology
competitive
ability
competitive
ability
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
high density
growth rate
0.113
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
high density
growth rate
-3.52
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
high density
growth rate
0.164
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
high density
growth rate
0.527
na
(Ohara &
Brown 1996)
high density
growth rate
0.185
growth rate
0.517
(0.087)
0.622
(0.131)
growth rate
0.126
(0.013)
growth rate
0.163
(0.041)
growth rate
0.423
(0.06)
growth rate
na
(Brasier
1987)
na
na
(Thurston
1961)
(Leonard
1969)
na
(Martens
1973)
na
(Loegering
1951)
na
(Katsuya &
Green 1967)
growth rate
0.279
(0.035)
growth rate
0.384
(0.024)
growth rate
0.194
(0.02)
growth rate
growth rate
0.804
0.435
(0.033)
na
(Osoro &
Green 1976)
na
na
na
na
(FalahatiRastegar et
al. 1981)
(FalahatiRastegar et
al. 1981)
(Brown &
Sharp 1970)
25
Venturia
inaequalis
Venturia
inaequalis
PLANT
Amphicarpaea
bracteata
common
garden
common
garden
manipulated
trait
varying
strains
common
garden
varying
strains
laboratory
laboratory
single allele
among
populations
experimental
plots
among
lineages
physiology
physiology
physiology
Unnecessary
benomyl
resistance
benomyl
sensitivity
high/low light
environments
number of
rosette leaves
(i.e.
developmental
stage of
flowering)
(McGee &
Zuck 1981)
growth rate
growth rate
offspring after 3
generations
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
life history
date of bolting
1996-1997, AS
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
morphology
rosette
diameter
1996-1997, AS
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
morphology
number of
rosette leaves
1997-1998, AS
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
life history
date of bolting
1997-1998, AS
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
morphology
rosette
diameter
1997-1998, AS
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
morphology
number of
rosette leaves
1996-1997, SR
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
life history
date of bolting
1996-1997, SR
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
morphology
rosette
diameter
1996-1997, SR
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
morphology
number of
rosette leaves
1997-1998, SR
Arabidopsis
thaliana
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
varying
strains
experimental
plots
experimental
plots
shading
regimes
shading
regimes
life history
morphology
date of bolting
rosette
diameter
0.57
na
(McGee &
Zuck 1981)
na
na
294
Arabidopsis
thaliana
morphology
0.056
0.215
(0.07)
1996-1997, AS
1997-1998, SR
1997-1998, SR
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
0.3
<0.0001
0.59
-0.13
<0.001
-0.14
0.52
<0.0001
0.16
ns
-0.18
<0.01
<.0001
<.05
294
0.69
<.0001
294
0.36
<.0001
256
-0.25
<.0001
256
0.3
<0.0001
0.41
<.0001
256
0.1
ns
0.45
<.0001
151
-0.33
<.0001
151
-0.17
<0.01
(Parker
1994)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
0.54
<0.0001
0.63
<.0001
151
0.21
<0.0001
0.62
<.0001
555
-0.1
<0.001
-0.37
<.0001
555
0.56
<0.0001
0.72
<.0001
555
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
26
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
number of
rosette leaves
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
life history
date of bolting
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
rosette
diameter
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
number of
rosette leaves
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
life history
date of bolting
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
rosette
diameter
unshaded
early,
unshaded late
unshaded
early,
unshaded late
unshaded
early,
unshaded late
unshaded
early, shaded
late
unshaded
early, shaded
late
unshaded
early, shaded
late
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
number of
rosette leaves
shaded early,
unshaded late
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
life history
date of bolting
shaded early,
unshaded late
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
rosette
diameter
shaded early,
unshaded late
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
number of
rosette leaves
shaded early,
shaded late
Arabidopsis
thaliana
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
life history
date of bolting
shaded early,
shaded late
Arabidopsis
thaliana
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
shading
regimes
morphology
rosette
diameter
shaded early,
shaded late
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
total number of
fruits/mean for
site
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
physiology
photosynthetic
rate
dry
environment
reproductive
biomass
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
physiology
stomatal
conductance
dry
environment
reproductive
biomass
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
physiology
water-use
efficiency
dry
environment
reproductive
biomass
0.07
ns
0.12
ns
139
-0.37
<0.0001
-0.33
<.0001
139
0.48
<0.0001
0.51
<.0001
139
0.26
<0.05
0.05
ns
144
-0.61
<0.0001
-0.44
<.0001
144
0.45
<0.0001
0.59
<.0001
144
0.15
ns
0.08
0.4074
116
-0.41
<.0001
116
<.01
116
-0.45
<0.0001
0.17
ns
0.29
0.24
<0.01
-0.11
ns
127
-0.75
<0.0001
-0.62
<.0001
127
0.27
<0.0004
0.38
<.0001
127
0.41
<.05
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Callahan &
Pigliucci
2002)
(Dudley
1996)
57
(Dudley
1996)
-0.33
<.05
57
(Dudley
1996)
0.51
<0.01
0.66
<.001
57
27
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
Cakile
edentula var.
lacustris
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
wet and dry
races
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
experimental
plots
Impatiens
capensis
Impatiens
reciprocal
transplant
reciprocal
manipulated
trait
manipulated
experimental
plots
experimental
wet and dry
races
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
morphology
leaf size
dry
environment
reproductive
biomass
morphology
vegetative
biomass
dry
environment
reproductive
biomass
physiology
photosynthetic
rate
wet
environment
reproductive
biomass
physiology
stomatal
conductance
wet
environment
reproductive
biomass
physiology
water-use
efficiency
wet
environment
reproductive
biomass
physiology
leaf size
wet
environment
reproductive
biomass
morphology
vegetative
biomass
life history
emergence
time
morphology
leaf length
morphology
height
life history
emergence
time
morphology
leaf length
morphology
height
morphology
leaf length
morphology
morphology
height
leaf length
wet
environment
at
transplantation,
high density
at
transplantation,
high density
at
transplantation,
high density
at
transplantation,
low density
at
transplantation,
low density
at
transplantation,
low density
after
transplantation,
high density
after
transplantation,
high density
after
reproductive
biomass
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
number of
(Dudley
1996)
0.2
ns
0.54
<.001
57
(Dudley
1996)
0.89
<.001
57
(Dudley
1996)
0.18
<.05
99
(Dudley
1996)
0.1
ns
99
(Dudley
1996)
0.01
ns
0.01
ns
99
(Dudley
1996)
0
ns
0
ns
99
(Dudley
1996)
0.39
<.001
99
-0.139
<0.01
203
0.223
<0.001
203
0.082
ns
203
-0.078
ns
193
0.25
<0.01
193
-0.153
<0.05
193
0.129
<0.05
203
0.252
0.468
<0.001
<0.001
203
193
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
28
capensis
transplant
trait
plots
experimental
plots
elongated vs.
nonelongated
experimentally
elongated vs.
nonelongated
height
transplantation,
low density
after
transplantation,
low density
reproductive
structures
number of
reproductive
structures
Impatiens
capensis
reciprocal
transplant
manipulated
trait
morphology
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
morphology
plant size
Bruuk
total seeds
produced
0.41
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
life history
growth habit
Bruuk
total seeds
produced
0
ns
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
life history
onset of
flowering
Bruuk
total seeds
produced
0.05
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
morphology
fresh weight
Bruuk
total seeds
produced
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
morphology
plant size
Heteren
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
life history
growth habit
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
life history
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
reciprocal
transplant
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
Plantago
lanceolata
Plantago
reciprocal
transplant
reciprocal
varying
strains
varying
experimental
plots
experimental
-0.119
<0.05
<0.001
193
<.001
189
-0.14
ns
189
ns
0.07
ns
32
-0.3
ns
0.44
ns
189
total seeds
produced
0.36
<0.001
0.46
<0.001
312
Heteren
total seeds
produced
-0.19
<0.001
-0.28
<0.001
312
onset of
flowering
Heteren
total seeds
produced
-0.01
ns
-0.36
<0.001
283
morphology
fresh weight
Heteren
total seeds
produced
-0.08
ns
0.19
<0.001
312
reciprocal
transplant
morphology
plant size
Junne
total seeds
produced
0.29
<0.001
0.75
<0.001
247
reciprocal
transplant
reciprocal
life history
life history
growth habit
onset of
Junne
Junne
total seeds
produced
total seeds
-0.26
-0.11
-0.06
-0.39
ns
<0.05
247
140
ns
ns
1.25
Schmitt
1996)
(Dudley &
Schmitt
1996)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
29
lanceolata
transplant
strains
plots
transplant
Plantago
lanceolata
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
experimental
plots
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
Sinapis
arvensis
ANIMAL
Chelydra
serpentina
reciprocal
transplant
varying
strains
greenhouse
reciprocal
transplant
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
lineages for
stress
treatments
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
greenhouse
flowering
produced
morphology
fresh weight
Junne
morphology
leaf hair
density
control
morphology
leaf size
morphology
leaf hair
density
morphology
leaf size
morphology
leaf hair
density
morphology
leaf size
morphology
leaf hair
density
morphology
leaf size
morphology
leaf hair
density
morphology
leaf size
morphology
leaf hair
density
morphology
leaf size
control
water
potential of
control
high boron
high boron
high salt
high salt
low water
low water
low light
low light
low nutrient
low nutrient
total seeds
produced
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
seed
weight/treatment
mean
recapture
0.04
ns
0.16
ns
247
0.07
(0.07)
ns
0.09
ns
144
-0.05
(0.07)
-0.007
(0.09)
0.09
(0.09)
-0.16
(0.12)
0.21
(0.11)
-0.05
(0.07)
0.23
(0.07)
-0.38
(0.18)
0.51
(0.19)
-0.01
(0.03)
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(van
Tienderen &
van der
Toorn 1991)
(Roy et al.
1999)
(Roy et al.
1999)
ns
-0.08
ns
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
ns
-0.004
ns
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
ns
0.08
ns
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
ns
-0.18
ns
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
ns
0.22
<0.05
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
ns
-0.15
<0.05
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
<0.001
0.25
<0.001
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
<0.001
-0.45
<0.01
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
<0.001
0.52
<0.001
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
ns
0.01
ns
144
(Roy et al.
1999)
-0.03
(0.03)
ns
-0.156
ns
-0.03
ns
144
112
(Janzen
1993)
30
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
conditions
hatchling size
by incubation
conditions
Chelydra
serpentina
common
garden
manipulated
trait
experimental
pond
incubation
temperature
Chelydra
serpentina
common
garden
manipulated
trait
experimental
pond
incubation
temperature
Chelydra
serpentina
Chelydra
serpentina
Chelydra
serpentina
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
experimental
pond
experimental
pond
experimental
pond
Parus
caeruleus
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
incubation
temperature
incubation
temperature
incubation
temperature
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
Parus
caeruleus
Parus
caeruleus
markrecapture
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
incubation
substrate
(Janzen
1993)
life history
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
behavior
morphology
morphology
morphology
behavior
clutch size
PC1 (body
size and
shape)
PC2 (body
size and
shape)
PC3 (body
size and
shape)
PC4 (body
size and
shape)
PC5 (body
size and
shape)
recapture
recapture
112
0.327
<0.05
112
(Janzen
1993)
recapture
0.048
ns
112
(Janzen
1993)
recapture
0.282
<0.05
112
(Janzen
1993)
recapture
0.162
<0.05
112
(Janzen
1993)
recapture
0.057
ns
112
(Janzen
1993)
locomotor
performance
PC1 (body
size and
shape)
PC2 (body
size and
shape)
PC3 (body
size and
shape)
recapture
behavior
morphology
nestling
fledging
condition
combined
years and
treatments
hatching date
nestling
fledging
combined
years and
treatments
1992,
combined
morphology
ns
(Janzen
1993)
running speed
propensity to
run
control
-0.096
-0.001
survival to first
year
-0.901
(0.884)
survival to first
year
-0.012
(0.234)
survival to first
year
survival to first
year
survival to first
year
-0.247
(0.262)
0.809
(1.822)
0.758
(0.376)
survival to first
year
0.027
(0.016)
ns
112
(Janzen
1995)
ns
0.295
ns
121
(Janzen
1995)
ns
0.093
ns
121
(Janzen
1995)
ns
-0.408
ns
121
ns
0.196
ns
121
<0.05
0.671
ns
121
<0.05
(Janzen
1995)
(Janzen
1995)
(Merila et al.
1999)
3659
(Merila et al.
1999)
survival to first
year
survival to first
year
-0.019
(0.016)
0.034
(0.032)
ns
3659
ns
1038
(Merila et al.
1999)
31
Parus
caeruleus
Phyllonorycter
mespilella
Phyllonorycter
mespilella
Phyllonorycter
mespilella
markrecapture
common
garden
common
garden
common
garden
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
experimental
plots
experimental
plots
experimental
plots
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
crossfostering,
brood size
manipulation
timing of sapfeeding stage
timing of sapfeeding stage
timing of sapfeeding stage
Salmo salar
common
garden
manipulated
trait
experimental
pond
Salmo salar
Thalassoma
common
garden
disturbed
manipulated
trait
varying
experimental
pond
natural
Parus
caeruleus
Parus
caeruleus
Parus
caeruleus
Parus
caeruleus
Parus
caeruleus
Parus
caeruleus
markrecapture
markrecapture
markrecapture
markrecapture
markrecapture
markrecapture
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
manipulated
trait
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
condition
treatments
control
hatching date
1992,
combined
treatments
morphology
nestling
fledging
condition
1993,
combined
treatments
control
hatching date
1993,
combined
treatments
morphology
nestling
fledging
condition
1994,
combined
treatments
control
hatching date
1994,
combined
treatments
morphology
nestling
fledging
condition
1995,
combined
treatments
control
life history
hatching date
sapfeeding
duration
sapfeeding
duration
sapfeeding
duration
egg size
life history
egg size
egg size
dominance
life history
morphology
egg size
standard
life history
life history
(Merila et al.
1999)
survival to first
year
0.02
(0.032)
ns
1038
(Merila et al.
1999)
survival to first
year
-0.019
(0.029)
ns
1177
(Merila et al.
1999)
survival to first
year
0.05
(0.029)
ns
1177
(Merila et al.
1999)
survival to first
year
0.041
(0.041)
ns
594
(Merila et al.
1999)
survival to first
year
-0.001
(0.041)
ns
594
(Merila et al.
1999)
survival to first
year
0.043
(0.034)
ns
850
(Merila et al.
1999)
1995,
combined
treatments
mixed
treatments
mixed
treatments
mixed
treatments
survival to first
year
total
survivorship
survivorship
from parasitoid
suvivorship
from other
-0.01
(0.034)
0.488
(0.126)
0.001
1401
1988-1990
offspring
survival
proportion
offspring
survivalX
potential
maternal
fecundity
quality of
0.358
(0.145)
0.35
0.009
<0.01
1401
70
ns
850
0.33
<0.001
0.34
<0.001
0.16
ns
(McGregor
1998)
(McGregor
1998)
(McGregor
1998)
(Einum &
Fleming
2000)
(Einum &
Fleming
2000)
(Warner &
32
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
habitat, markrecapture
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
length
mating site
Schultz
1992)
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body depth
1988-1990
quality of
mating site
0.09
ns
70
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
tail length
1988-1990
quality of
mating site
0.08
ns
70
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
pectoral fin
length
1988-1990
quality of
mating site
0.26
<0.05
70
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
black + white
area
1988-1990
quality of
mating site
0.05
ns
70
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
relative white
area
1988-1990
quality of
mating site
-0.04
ns
70
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
standard
length
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
0.64
<0.01
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body depth
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
0.13
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
morphology
tail length
pectoral fin
length
1989-1990
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
quality of
mating site
0.14
ns
55
0.46
<0.05
55
(Warner &
Schultz
33
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
disturbed
habitat
varying
strains
natural
conditions
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
disturbed
habitat
varying
strains
natural
conditions
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
1992)
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
black + white
area
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
0.07
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
relative white
area
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
-0.27
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body weight
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
-0.1
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
physiology
gut parasites
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
-0.07
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
physiology
muscle
parasites
1989-1990
quality of
mating site
-0.06
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
standard
length
1988-1990
mating site
defense
0.32
<0.01
67
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body depth
1988-1990
mating site
defense
0.07
ns
67
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
tail length
morphology
pectoral fin
length
1988-1990
mating site
defense
1988-1990
mating site
defense
0.09
-0.04
ns
ns
67
67
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
34
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
black + white
area
1988-1990
mating site
defense
0.02
ns
67
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
relative white
area
1988-1990
mating site
defense
0.18
ns
67
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
standard
length
1989-1990
mating site
defense
0.47
<0.05
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body depth
1989-1990
mating site
defense
0.23
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
tail length
1989-1990
mating site
defense
-0.06
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
pectoral fin
length
1989-1990
mating site
defense
-0.09
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
black + white
area
1989-1990
mating site
defense
0.02
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
morphology
relative white
area
body weight
1989-1990
1989-1990
mating site
defense
mating site
defense
0.39
<0.05
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
-0.29
ns
55
35
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
physiology
gut parasites
1989-1990
mating site
defense
-0.02
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
physiology
muscle
parasites
1989-1990
mating site
defense
-0.07
ns
55
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
standard
length
1988-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.12
ns
63
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body depth
1988-1990
attractiveness to
female
-0.03
ns
63
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
tail length
1988-1990
attractiveness to
female
-0.06
ns
63
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
pectoral fin
length
1988-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.11
ns
63
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
black + white
area
1988-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.07
ns
63
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
relative white
area
1988-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.19
<0.05
63
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
standard
length
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.04
ns
51
36
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thalassoma
bifasciatum
Thamnophis
elegans
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
disturbed
habitat
common
garden, markrecapture
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
varying
strains
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
natural
conditions
laboratory,
natural
conditions
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
dominance
hierarchies
through
transplanting
males
birth size
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body depth
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.06
ns
51
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
tail length
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.04
ns
51
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
pectoral fin
length
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.12
ns
51
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
black + white
area
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
0
ns
51
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
relative white
area
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
0.28
ns
51
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
morphology
body weight
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
-0.2
ns
51
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
physiology
gut parasites
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
-0.11
ns
51
(Warner &
Schultz
1992)
physiology
life history
muscle
parasites
birth size
1989-1990
attractiveness to
female
survivorship
0.05
0.23
(0.04)
ns
51
(Bronikowski
2000)
0.001
448
TABLE S5. Effects of quantitative trait loci for animal crosses.
Species
Acyrthosiphon pisum pisum
Acyrthosiphon pisum pisum
Acyrthosiphon pisum pisum
Acyrthosiphon pisum pisum
Acyrthosiphon pisum pisum
Acyrthosiphon pisum pisum
Acyrthosiphon pisum pisum
Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
Caenorhabditis elegans
Drosophila mauritiana X D. sechellia
Drosophila mauritiana X D. simulans
Drosophila mauritiana X D. simulans
Drosophila mauritiana X D. simulans
Drosophila mauritiana X D. simulans
Drosophila mauritiana X D. simulans
Drosophila mauritiana X D. simulans
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
cross
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
Trait
alfalfa race - fecundity on alfalfa
alfalfa race - fecundity on clover
alfalfa race - acceptance of alfalfa
clover race - fecundity on alfalfa
clover race - fecundity on clover
clover race - acceptance of alfalfa
clover race - acceptance of clover
mean lifespan
fertility
early fertility fraction
age of first reproduction
population growth
lifespan
body length
fertility
female pheromones
anal plate bristle number
clasper bristle number
sex comb tooth number
fifth sternite bristle number
anal plate area
posterior lobe area
lifespan - males
lifespan - females
sternopleural bristle number, 18°C, males
sternopleural bristle number, 25°C, males
sternopleural bristle number, 29°C, males
sternopleural bristle number, 18°C, females
sternopleural bristle number, 25°C, females
sternopleural bristle number, 29°C, females
abdominal bristle number, 18°C, males
abdominal bristle number, 25°C, males
abdominal bristle number, 29°C, males
abdominal bristle number, 18°C, females
abdominal bristle number, 25°C, females
abdominal bristle number, 29°C, females
male lifespan - low density
male lifespan - high density
female lifespan - low density
Trait Type
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
morphology
life history
physiology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
life history
life history
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
life history
life history
life history
No.
QTLs
4
4
5
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
4
3
8
1
3
6
6
1
2
1
3
8
4
1
5
5
4
5
4
6
4
6
6
6
5
6
3
2
3
Largest
effect size
0.8
-1.46
0.78
1.46
-1.29
24
25
23
33
46.2
53.6
-29.2
50.2
-15.9
1.22
-1.52
31.26
32.24
18.23
35
30.49
13.11
23.32
26.57
13.95
16.2
15.21
20.58
4.79
6.18
-4.2
Minor
QTL2
Minor
QTL3
Minor
QTL4
Minor
QTL5
Minor
QTL6
Minor
QTL7
Minor
QTL8
-1.02
0.9
-0.87
0.045
0.85
-0.7
0.06
14
13
-3.5
0.61
0.11
0.06
0.12
-11.8
21.7
15
14.3
46.1
-6.9
-0.69
15.6
-14.8
-0.63
-6.9
-0.6
-4.9
-15.3
6.83
7.89
6.85
13.01
4.67
3.64
7.38
5.56
6.89
3.27
4.02
3.21
-2.89
3.45
-3.76
7.71
13.83
8.15
2.86
14.55
6.1
21.51
6.59
10.32
10.78
2.68
8.79
-1.48
9.96
9.66
8.37
16.82
11.06
7.73
2.47
19.65
3.28
12.12
3.81
6.31
7.87
12.35
0.1
0.15
-21.5
3.88
4.56
7.67
10.84
8.04
13.5
12.48
15.21
19.84
4.79
4.57
10.83
5.52
-10.5
-11.2
Minor
QTL9
Minor
QTL10
Minor
QTL11
Minor
QTL12
Minor
QTL13
Minor
QTL14
Minor
QTL15
Minor
QTL16
Minor
QTL17
Minor
QTL18
Minor
QTL19
Method of
measurement
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
PVE
PVE
PVE
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
SD
SD
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
absolute
absolute
absolute
Reference
(Hawthorne & Via 2001)
(Hawthorne & Via 2001)
(Hawthorne & Via 2001)
(Hawthorne & Via 2001)
(Hawthorne & Via 2001)
(Hawthorne & Via 2001)
(Hawthorne & Via 2001)
(Shook & Johnson 1999)
(Shook & Johnson 1999)
(Shook & Johnson 1999)
(Shook & Johnson 1999)
(Shook & Johnson 1999)
(Ayyadevara et al. 2001)
(Knight et al. 2001)
(Knight et al. 2001)
(Coyne & Charlesworth 1997)
(True et al. 1997)
(True et al. 1997)
(True et al. 1997)
(True et al. 1997)
(True et al. 1997)
(True et al. 1997)
(Nuzhdin et al. 1997)
(Nuzhdin et al. 1997)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Gurganus et al. 1998)
(Leips & Mackay 2000)
(Leips & Mackay 2000)
(Leips & Mackay 2000)
38
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila pseudoobscura X D. persimilis
Drosophila pseudoobscura X D. persimilis
Drosophila simulans X D. mauritiana
Drosophila simulans X D. mauritiana
Drosophila simulans X D. melanogaster
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila simulans X D. sechellia
Drosophila yakuba X D. santomea
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
inter
female lifespan - high density
sex comb tooth number
male lifespan
female lifespan
hindgrooming (autonomic)
quivering (autonomic)
grasping (autonomic)
self-righting (autonomic)
cuticular hydrocarbon profile
reproductive success
ovariole number
courtship song - interpulse interval
sternopleural bristle number - line 2
courtship song - intrapulse frequency
courtship song - interpulse interval
posterior lobe size/shape
shape of posterior lobe
female pheromones
male pheromone
octanoic acid resistance - males
octanoic acid resistance - females
posterior lobe area - sim BC
posterior lobe area - sec BC
adj PC1 (posterior lobe shape) - sim BC
adj PC1 (posterior lobe shape) - sec BC
sex comb tooth number - sim BC
sex comb tooth number - sec BC
testes length - sim BC
testes length - sec BC
cyst length - sim BC
cyst length - sec BC
tibia length - sim BC
tibia length - sec BC
testicular atrophy - sim BC
testicular atrophy - sec BC
absence of cysts - sim BC
absence of cysts - sec BC
quantity of sperm - sim BC
quantity of sperm - sec BC
larval hairs
larval toxin resistance
abdominal pigmentation
number of short gill rakers
lateral plate number
life history
morphology
life history
life history
behavior
behavior
behavior
behavior
physiology
life history
life history
behavior
morphology
behavior
behavior
morphology
morphology
physiology
physiology
physiology
physiology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
life history
morphology
physiology
morphology
morphology
morphology
1
2
23
23
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
3
1
2
3
9
19
5
5
4
5
11
11
9
9
4
4
7
7
3
3
5
5
3
3
4
4
3
3
1
3
3
2
2
-5.24
0.34
-0.6
-0.58
-0.73
0.51
100
-0.016
-2.98
24.9
31
30
37.3
15.9
14.9
-0.23
-0.3
0.2
0.55
0.44
-0.008
-2.71
19.4
9.7
6.8
34.1
13.6
4.4
24.4
14.7
4.5
21
25
-25.5
-36.9
63.6
27.9
53.2
-58.1
72.6
46.1
-37.3
34.1
44.5
-34.9
-0.285
-0.022
-0.453
-0.315
-1.165
-0.47
100
29
18
18
-3.5
-6.1
-1.6
-6
-13.5
-34.4
12
37
-35.8
23.8
-9.6
5.8
-2.79
-0.018
-0.401
-0.103
-0.943
0.255
5
9
-18.5
-19.7
-9.3
-7.1
15.9
-0.4
-5.3
35
-22.3
31.9
40.6
19.1
0.187
-0.007
-0.235
-0.306
-0.228
0.448
15.4
10
14.9
8.5
6.6
0.1
7
6
-7
-13.6
1.6
24.5
39.3
-16.5
35.4
-15.8
34.1
2.8
10
0.063
0.229
5.7
3.8
15.5
6.7
15.8
3.3
12
-6.5
-28.8
36.5
15.6
21.7
-19.2
34
-13.5
3.7
-3.6
38.4
-6.3
51.8
-15.3
44.7
-30.3
58.5
40.9
27.2
-33.3
10.4
2.5
-15.7
-22.1
43.1
5.5
11.8
-0.7
-14.89
-30.7
30
19.1
3.2
-9.5
-36.3
4.5
-6.7
-23.3
7.7
12.7
0.7
2.6
4.3
4.2
1.3
4.4
absolute
absolute
absolute
absolute
SD
SD
SD
SD
%D
SD
SD
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
%D
PVE
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
%D
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
%D
%D
PVE
PVE
(Leips & Mackay 2000)
(Nuzhdin & Reiwitch 2000)
(Vieira et al. 2000)
(Vieira et al. 2000)
(Ashton et al. 2001)
(Ashton et al. 2001)
(Ashton et al. 2001)
(Ashton et al. 2001)
(Takahashi et al. 2001)
(Wayne et al. 2001)
(Wayne et al. 2001)
(Gleason et al. 2002)
(Robin et al. 2002)
(Williams et al. 2001)
(Williams et al. 2001)
(Liu et al. 1996)
(Zeng et al. 2000)
(Coyne 1996b)
(Coyne 1996a)
(Jones 1998)
(Jones 1998)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Macdonald & Goldstein 1999)
(Sucena & Stern 2000)
(Jones 2001)
(Llopart et al. 2002)
(Peichel et al. 2001)
(Peichel et al. 2001)
39
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Laupala kohalensis X L. paranigra
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
inter
inter
inter
inter
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
dorsal spine 1
dorsal spine 2
pelvic spine length
singing pulse rate variation
weight at 1 week
weight at 2 weeks
weight at 3 weeks
weight at 4 weeks
weight at 5 weeks
weight at 6 weeks
weight at 7 weeks
weight at 8 weeks
weight at 9 weeks
weight at 10 weeks
early growth
middle growth
six-week growth
late growth
body size
coronoid height
superior condylar length
condylar width
inferior condylar length
condylar base length
posterior angular height
posterior angular length
anterior angular length
superior angular length
posterior corpus height
coronoid base length
posterior-inferior basal length
anterior-inferior basal length
inferior incisor alveolus length
incisor alveolus width
superior incisor alveolus length
anterior corpus height
molar alveolus height
superior molar alveolus length
inferior molar alveolus length
superior coronoid length
body weight
abdominal fat weight
abdominal fat percentage
liver weight
morphology
morphology
morphology
behavior
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
physiology
physiology
physiology
physiology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
2
2
1
3
7
10
16
13
16
15
14
14
16
17
11
12
14
12
11
12
8
5
9
11
8
8
5
4
8
12
5
11
5
5
4
8
11
7
8
9
10
8
4
5
1.53
2.72
3.35
9
9.6
8.8
15.6
18.3
18
18
16.3
12.7
18.4
15.2
11.3
8.5
11.1
8.4
-0.28
16.5
4.1
10.5
9.3
4.9
16.4
6.6
3.6
3.9
5.9
14.1
3.8
6.1
4.4
13.3
7.6
14.5
6.5
7
7.4
9.9
23.1
18.1
10.2
24.7
1.42
2.57
6.5
5.4
4.5
6.5
1.9
2
2.7
5.2
5.1
6.3
5.3
5.3
4.8
4.1
1.9
-0.17
3.4
3.1
2.7
2.8
3.8
2
2.8
1.9
1.6
1.8
3.9
2.7
3.3
2.4
3.6
1.7
2.9
3.7
3.5
5.5
4.6
7.1
4
8.3
4.4
6.1
2.3
3.2
5.8
5.3
4
6.3
2.3
6.7
3
7.2
2.8
7.7
6.8
2.6
0.18
3.2
3.8
2.6
5.1
1.9
7
2.5
3.5
1.9
2.8
1.5
3.5
2.9
4.4
3.2
6.5
3.2
3.2
1.9
3.4
5.2
5.1
13.4
4.7
6.6
7.6
2.5
2.7
2.3
2.4
8.2
5.1
3
6.2
3.1
3.5
3.4
1.8
2.4
0.18
2.5
2.1
9.6
2.5
2
2.6
2
2.6
3.8
4.9
6.7
2.1
3.9
1.8
2.4
1.8
2.3
2.9
2.8
2.4
3.4
7
3.9
5.3
9.7
9.2
2.1
2.2
7.8
5.9
2.5
12.4
6.4
9
2.6
4.5
3.6
5.4
3.4
-0.21
9.2
3.8
2.5
4.4
2.5
3.2
3.8
2.3
3.8
8.6
10.2
8
3.1
4.7
12
10.1
16.2
12.4
2.4
3.9
6
2
-0.19
2.5
2.8
1.3
1.9
2.9
6.6
9.1
11.5
16.3
8.7
13.6
6.3
2
4.9
8.2
2.4
-0.21
5.7
1.8
2.8
4.4
13.7
8.2
12.6
3.5
10.2
1.5
10.4
1.8
2.3
10.6
2.4
0.24
2.3
1.7
1.5
12.7
1.6
12.3
17.8
3.4
3.3
4
11.7
2.9
2.4
3.4
2.4
-0.2
2
2.1
1.4
2.3
17.7
3
3.6
3.4
3.2
15
1.3
2.1
2.6
4.4
0.17
2.8
2.2
4.4
1.9
2.4
2.1
2.7
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.9
3.5
2.9
0.22
1.5
6.5
4.4
3.4
2.3
3.1
4
5.2
2.1
2.2
1.8
2.2
3.1
6.7
4.8
5
2.8
3.3
2.9
1.6
2.6
2.4
1.5
2.7
2.6
3.2
2.8
1.9
10.6
2.8
6.1
2.2
4.7
4.9
2.9
3.5
3.7
2.5
6.8
2.7
2.4
2.8
7.3
3
4.1
5.6
3.1
3.1
6.6
3.2
4.3
8.3
3.6
3.2
2.5
2.5
3.3
10.1
7.7
2.7
2.3
3.3
2.9
3.5
2.5
0.2
3.3
6.8
1.6
2.6
4.2
2.9
3.4
6.4
4.4
3.7
2.1
1.8
2
3.6
2.3
2.6
4.4
3.4
4.3
2.2
4.3
2.9
1.5
1.3
1.9
2.1
1.7
2.8
4
1.8
2.6
2.5
3.4
2.2
3.2
5.1
1.9
3.4
4.3
3.3
3
1.5
3.4
6.6
3.3
2.1
PVE
PVE
PVE
%D
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
SD
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
(Peichel et al. 2001)
(Peichel et al. 2001)
(Peichel et al. 2001)
(Shaw & Parsons 2002)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1996)
(Keightley et al. 1996)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Cheverud et al. 1997)
(Brockmann et al. 1998)
(Brockmann et al. 1998)
(Brockmann et al. 1998)
(Brockmann et al. 1998)
40
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Mus musculus
Nasonia giraulti X N. vitripennis
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
intra
inter
intra
intra
intra
kidney weight
spleen weight
growth rate
left-right centroid size (mandibular)
assymetry of centroid size (mandibular)
unsigned assymetry of centroid size
testis weight
seminal vesicle weight
aggression
maternal performance
early growth
early growth (maternal effect)
molar centroid size
wing size
time to hatch - pooled
embryonic length - pooled
weight at swim-up - pooled
morphology
morphology
life history
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
morphology
behavior
behavior
physiology
physiology
morphology
morphology
life history
morphology
morphology
5
4
20
11
2
1
5
1
2
2
5
4
3
2
3
2
2
13.4
23
11
8.78
2.24
2.38
20.7
24.2
6.18
3.02
9.53
6.57
44
14.7
13.1
15.3
8.2
7.3
7.3
8.5
6.2
10.7
4.9
2.9
2.11
3.76
3.38
3.58
17.5
11.9
13.5
9.2
4.61
2.49
9.07
5.46
1.88
9.13
2.14
3
5.21
1.82
4.6
9.5
10.9
5.3
2.15
6.57
3.93
4.66
3.86
3.17
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
PVE
%D
PVE
PVE
PVE
(Brockmann et al. 1998)
(Brockmann et al. 1998)
(Vaughn et al. 1999)
(Klingenberg et al. 2001)
(Klingenberg et al. 2001)
(Klingenberg et al. 2001)
(Le Roy et al. 2001)
(Le Roy et al. 2001)
(Brodkin et al. 2002)
(Peripato et al. 2002)
(Wolf et al. 2002)
(Wolf et al. 2002)
(Workman et al. 2002)
(Weston et al. 1999)
(Robison et al. 2001)
(Robison et al. 2001)
(Robison et al. 2001)
41
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