Experimental Design

advertisement
Experimental Design
The Gold Standard?
Today’s Goals
 Identify
issues of internal and
external validity with various
experimental designs
 Design an experiment for a given
topic
 Critique advantages and
disadvantages of different designs
To Review
 Why
is most educational research
comprised of non-experimental
research designs?
Ethical and logistical considerations.
To Review
 What
is the purpose of nonexperimental research?
It describes current existing characteristics
of the topic under study.
To Review
 How
does the independent variable
function in non-experimental
research?
It is not manipulated.
To Review
 Can
non-experimental research claim
causality?
NO!
An example
 Read
the example given in class and
in pairs respond to the questions
Experimental Research

Purpose
– To make causal inferences about the
relationship between the independent and
dependent variables

Characteristics
– Direct manipulation of the independent
variable
– Control of extraneous variables
 Eliminate
the variable from the study
 Statistically adjust for the effect of the variable
Experimental Designs
Single Group Post-test
 Single Group Pre-test Post-test
 Non-Equivalent Groups Post-test
 Quasi-Experimental Design
 Randomized Post-test only
 Randomized Pre-test Post-test
 Factorial

Experimental Validity
 Internal
validity
– The extent to which the independent
variable, and not other extraneous
variables , produced the observed effect
on the dependent variable
 External
validity
– The extent to which the results are
generalizable
Internal Validity
Threats that reduce the level of confidence
in any causal conclusions
 Key Question: Is this a plausible threat to
the internal validity of the study?

Threats to Internal Validity

History
– Extraneous events have an effect on the
subjects’ performance on the dependent
variable
– The crash of the stock market, 9-11, the
invasion of Iraq, etc.

Selection
– Groups that are initially not equal due to
differences in the subjects in those groups
– Positive and negative attitudes, high and low
achievers, etc.
Threats to Internal Validity
 Maturation
– Changes experienced within the subject
over time
 Pretesting
– The effect of having taken a pretest
 Instrumentation
– Poor technical quality (i.e. validity,
reliability) or changes in instrumentation
Threats to Internal Validity

Subject attrition
– Differential loss of subjects from groups

Statistical regression
– The natural movement of extreme scores
toward the mean

Diffusion of treatment
– The treatment is given to the control group

Experimenter effects
– Different characteristics or expectations of
those implementing the treatments across
groups
Threats to Internal Validity
 Subject
effects
– The effects of being aware that one is
involved in a study
– Four types
 Hawthorne
effect
 John Henry effect
 Novelty effect
Internal Validity
 Key
Point: Ultimately, validity is a
matter of judgment. Ask if it is
reasonable that possible threats
are likely to affect the results.
External Validity
 The
extent to which results can be
generalized from a sample to a
particular population.
 Question – Why would really good
internal validity often result in poor
external validity?
External Validity
 Factors
affecting external validity
– Subjects
 Representativeness
of the sample in
comparison to the population
 Personal characteristics of the subjects
– Situations - characteristics of the setting
 Specific
environment
 Special situation
 Particular school
External Validity
 Importance
of explanation of
sampling procedures
Experimental Designs
Single Group Post-test
 Single Group Pre-test Post-test –
 Non-Equivalent Groups Post-test –
 Quasi-Experimental Design –
 Randomized Post-test only –
 Randomized Pre-test Post-test –

 Examples
Your Task
 Based
on the topic of your proposal,
design an experimental study using
the design you were assigned.
– Write a research question and
hypothesis.
– Sketch out the methods.
 Identify
strengths and weaknesses of
the design.
Experimental Designs
 Notation
– R indicates random selection or random
assignment
– O indicates an observation
 Test
 Observation
 Scale
score
score
– X indicates a treatment
– A, B, C, ... indicates a group
Pre-Experimental Designs
No pre-experimental design controls
internal validity threats well
 Single group pretest only

–A
X O
– Internal validity threats
 History,
maturation, attrition, experimenter effects,
subject effects, and instrumentation are viable
threats
 Useful only when the research is sure of the status of
the knowledge, skill, or attitude being changed and
there are no extraneous variables affecting the
results
Pre-Experimental Designs

Single group pretest post-test
–AOXO
– Internal validity threats
 Maturation
and pretesting are threats
 History and instrumentation are potential threats
– Useful when subject effects will not influence
the results, history effects can be minimized,
and multiple pretests and post-tests are used
Pre-Experimental Designs

Non-equivalent groups post-test only
–A
X O
B
O
– Internal validity threats
 Definite
Threat: Selection
 Potential Threats: History, maturation, and
instrumentation
– Useful when groups are comparable and
subjects can be assumed to be about the same
at the beginning of the study
Quasi-Experimental Designs

Types
– Non-equivalent pretest/post-test, experimental
control groups
A
OXO
BO O
– Non-equivalent pretest/post-test, multiple
treatment groups
A
O X1 O
B O X2 O

Useful when subjects are in pre-existing
groups (e.g. classes, schools, teams, etc.)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
 Threats
to internal validity
– Selection is the major concern
– Controls for statistical regression
– Likely to control for most other threats,
provided the groups are not significantly
different from one another
– See Table 9.2 for specific threats related
to each design
True Experimental Designs

Important terminology
– Random assignment
 Subjects
placed into groups by random
 Ensures equivalency of the groups
– Random selection of subjects
 Subjects
chosen from population by random
 Ensures generalizability to the population
from which the subjects were selected (i.e.
external validity)
True Experimental Designs

Types
– Randomized post-test only experimental
control groups
R
A
RB
X O
O
– Randomized post-test only multiple treatment
groups
R
A
R B
X1 O
X2 O
True Experimental Designs
 Types
(continued)
– Randomized pretest/post-test multiple
treatment groups
R
A O X1 O
R B O X2 O
– Randomized pretest/post-test
experimental control groups
R
A O X O
R B O
O
True Experimental Designs
 Threats
to internal validity
– Controls for selection, maturation, and
statistical regression
– Likely to control for most other threats
– See Table 9.2 for specific threats related
to each design
Factorial Designs
 Research
designs containing two
or more independent variables
– Example: A study of the effects of
two instructional strategies on male
and female students’ math
achievement
 Examples
of factorial designs
Types of Effects
 Main
effects
– For each independent variable
 i.e.,
one main effect for instructional
strategy and one main effect for math
achievement
Types of Effects
 Interaction
effects
– Consider the vitamins you take.
 Iron
decreases fatigue.
 Vitamin C decreases stress.
 Vitamin C boosts the absorption of iron.
 If you are fatigued and stressed, you may
want to take both iron and Vitamin C.
 The interaction of Vitamin C and iron
means you may want to skip an iron
supplement when taking Vitamin C.
Types of Effects
 Interaction
effects
– A different effect for the level of the first
independent variable across the levels of the
second independent variable
 i.e.,
the first instructional strategy could be
effective for males but not females, whereas the
second instructional strategy could be effective for
females but not males
– One cannot state the effectiveness of the
treatment (i.e., instructional strategy)
without qualifying it relative to the dependent
variable (gender).
Evaluating Experimental
Designs
 Criteria
for evaluating experimental
research
– The primary purpose is to test causal
hypotheses
– There should be direct manipulation of
the independent variable
– There should be clear identification of
the specific research design
Evaluating Experimental
Designs
 Criteria
for evaluating experimental
research
– The design should provide maximum
control of extraneous variables
– Treatments are substantively different
from one another
– The number of subjects is dependent on
or equal to the number of treatment
replications
Download
Related flashcards
Motivation

17 Cards

Create flashcards