Hard VS. Soft Water

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Quality Control
Quality Control
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PA Standards
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3.2.12.A: Inquiry and Design
3.2.12.C: Inquiry and Design
3.2.12.D: Inquiry and Design
3.4.12.A: Physical Science,
Chemistry, and Physics
3.7.12.A: Technological Devices
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“Quality isn't something that can be
argued into an article or promised
into it. It must be put there. If it
isn't put there, the finest sales talk
in the world won't act as a
substitute.”
- G.C. Campbell
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Evaluate the nature of
scientific and technological
knowledge.
Apply the elements of
scientific inquiry to solve
multi-step problems.
Analyze and use the
technological design process
to solve problems.
Apply concepts about the
structure and properties of
matter.
Apply advanced tools,
materials and techniques to
answer complex questions.
Key Questions
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What is quality control and why is it
important in the production process?
How do properties of matter relate to the
carbonated beverage industry?
What lab techniques can be used in
quality control testing of carbonated
beverages?
What is quality control and why is it
important in the production process?
Quality Control
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What is important in products that you consume,
such as carbonated beverages?
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Quality Control
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Taste of the product
Consists of the policies and procedures followed by an
industry to assure the consumer that the final product
meets specifications.
Specifications
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Set properties that a particular product or process
must possess to meet a company’s standards.
Off-Specification
Carbonated Beverage Industry
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Economics
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National Soft Drink Association
Late 1990s, >136,000 people employed in soft
drink industry in the U.S.
 95% of the people in the U.S. drink soft drinks
 At least 450 different types
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Carbonated Beverage Industry
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Product
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Solution – a homogenous mixture in which
one or more substances (solutes) are
dissolved in another substance (solvent)
Raw Materials
Water
 Sweetener – corn syrup
 Flavoring Concentrate
 Carbon Dioxide
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Quality Control Testing
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What tests need to be carried out on the
off-spec batch of cola?
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Taste
Sugar Content
pH
Color
Carbonation Level
Manufacturing Process
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Carbonated Beverage Video
How do properties of matter
relate to the carbonated
beverage industry?
Lab
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The Soft Drink Taste Test
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Pages 11-13
Complete Lab with Lab Group
Discuss Results as a Class
Taste Buds
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What are Taste Buds?
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Small sensory organs
found on the tongue
that allow you to
experience tastes
Most basic level, to
promote the ingestion of
nutritious substances
and prevent the
consumption of potential
poisons/toxins
Taste receptors specific
to a certain type of taste
Taste Buds
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What do we taste?
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Tastes may be sweet, salty, sour, bitter,
and umami (savory)
Sweet – energy rich nutrients
 Salty – allows regulating diet for electrolyte
balance
 Umami – taste of amino acids (ex. meat, cheese)
 Sour – taste of acids
 Bitter – allows sensing of natural toxins
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Taste Buds
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How many taste buds do we have?
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Approximately 10,000 on human tongue
Replaced approximately every 2 weeks
 Older person may only have 5,000 working taste
buds
 Females typically have more taste buds than males
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Weakest of the five senses
Structure
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Papillae
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Bumps on top of tongue that aid in gripping
food, most of which contain taste buds
Taste Buds
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Flask-like shape with broad base and taste pore
opening on top
Chemoreceptors
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Translate chemical signals in food into electrical
signals in body
Structure
Papillae
Types of Papillae
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Fungiform papillae
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Filiform papillae
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Thing, long, “V”-shaped
Don’t contain taste buds
Most numerous
Foliate papillae
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Resemble a mushroom
Present at tip and sides of tongue
Ridges and grooves near posterior part
of tongue
Circumvallate papillae
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3-14 total
Present on back of tongue
Arranged in circular-shaped row
Taste Buds
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Study of Taste Buds
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“Average Taster”
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“Supertaster”
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One in every four people
425 taste buds (fungiform
papillae) per square centimeter
“Non-Taster”
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184 taste buds per square
centimeter of tongue
96 taste buds per square
centimeter
Warming – sweet taste?
Cooling – salty or sour taste?
How Do They Work?
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Microvilli
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Very sensitive microscopic hairs
Chewing and salvia breaks down food
Send messages to brain about tastes
Role of the Smell
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Olfactory Receptors send messages to brain about
what you smell
When chewing, chemicals from food released into
nose
Trigger olfactory receptors to create a true flavor
How Do They Work?
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Sweet, Bitter, and Umami
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G-protein (guanine) Coupled Receptors
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Salty and Sour
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Ion Channels
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Triggers a release of a messenger protein
Triggers other channels to create an action potential
Ions (sodium ion or hydrogen ion) trigger ion channels in
taste buds
Change electric charge and begins action potential
Cranial Nerves
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Three nerves carry action potential from taste buds to
brain
What Impacts Your Taste?
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Think about times that you cannot taste very
well…
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Cold or Allergies
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Nose is stuffy and food may lack flavor
Nose cannot receive chemicals to trigger olfactory receptors
Hold your nose when you eat
Do you get the exact flavor?
Medications, smoking, hot food, lack of vitamins,
brain health, chemical exposure, and radiation
may impact ability to taste
Lab
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Mapping Your Taste Buds Lab
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Pages 14-16
Complete Lab with Lab Group
Discuss Results as a Class
After completing the lab, read the taste
bud articles and complete the writing
assignment.
Article Assignment
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Read the taste bud articles and complete
the writing assignment.
Water
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Very abundant
Makes up most of the tissue of living things
Many products are based on water
Water is a fundamental ingredient of
Carbonated Beverages
Two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen
atom
H2O
Polarity
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Hydrogen and Oxygen
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Share electrons
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Do not share atoms equally
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Covalent bonds
Oxygen 8 protons
Hydrogen 1 proton
Pulls shared electrons toward
oxygen’s nucleus
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Electrical charge distributed unevenly
Oxygen – slightly negative
Hydrogen – slightly positive
Polarity
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Polar – uneven pattern of charge
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Water is very effective in dissolving many
other substances
Good solvent
Polar substance placed in water  regions of
+/- charges are attracted to regions of
opposite charges on water molecules
Ex. NaCl in water
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HMxVEpiM5Xw
&feature=related
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Hydrogen Bonding
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Water molecules attract to each other
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Hydrogen bond
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Weak chemical bond between the hydrogen atom in one
molecule and a negatively-charged region of another
molecule
Cohesion
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Attractive force between particles of same kind
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Surface tension of water – a thin “skin” on surface
 Ex. Water spider
Adhesion
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Attractive force between unlike substances
Capillarity – water moves upward against force of gravity
Temperature Moderation
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Must gain or lose a relatively large amount
of energy for its temperature to change
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High Specific Heat – amount of energy
needed to change 1 g of water 1 degree C
Heated – most energy absorbed breaks H bonds
between molecules
 After bonds broken, thermal energy increases
motion of molecules and raises temperature
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Other Properties
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States of Water
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Solid, liquid, gas
pH
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neutral – pH of 7
Carbonated Beverages
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Taste is Critical
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Pure water – no dissolved impurities
Water must be treated
Appearance
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Clear and Colorless
Coloring agents
Review
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Polar
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Cohesion
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Surface tension
Adhesion
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Solubility
Capillarity
Specific Heat
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Temperature moderation
Water Property Demos
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Water in a straw
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Water Drops on Penny
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Adhesion
Water in overflowed Test Tube
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Polarity
Water in Paper
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Cohesion
Sugar in Water
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Adhesion
Cohesion
Lake Temperature in Summer
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Temperature Moderation (Specific Heat)
What lab techniques can be used
in quality control testing of
carbonated beverages?
Hard vs. Soft Water
Hard Water
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How does water become hard?
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As water moves through soil and rock
(limestone or chalk), it dissolves very small
amounts of minerals and holds them in
solution.
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Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+)
Soft Water
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Where does it come from?
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Granite or sandstone source
Contains sodium ions
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Small amounts of calcium and magnesium.
Hard vs. Soft Water
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Measured in parts per million (ppm) or grains per
gallon (gpg)
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What type of water does Pennsylvania have? Why?
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Hard water - limestone
Hard Water
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Advantage
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Watering lawn
Irrigate crops
Tends to taste better than soft water
Disadvantage
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More soap/detergents needed to clean items
Combines with soap to create “scum”
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Forms insoluble salt with metal ions in hard water
Soft Water
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Advantage
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Improves cleaning efficiency by 250%
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Soap can create far more bubbles
Prevents scaled build up in pipes/appliances
Can save 21-29% in water heating bill
Disadvantage
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Avoid drinking soft water if you have cardiovascular
disease, high blood pressure, or on a low-salt diet
Recent studies, though, indicate amount of salt is
insignificant
Solutions Notes
Solutions
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Solution
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Solvent
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Mixture of two or more substances
One or more of which is dissolved in the other
Present in the largest amount
Does the dissolving
Solute
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Small amounts
What is being dissolved
Solutions
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Carbonated Beverage
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Solvent
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Water
Solute
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Corn syrup, flavoring concentrate, carbon dioxide
Solutions
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Concentration
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Ratio of the solute to the solvent in a solution
Mass Percentage
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Way to make solution
Ex. 10 g sucrose + enough water to bring the mass of
the solution to 100 g is what percent sugar solution?
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10 percent
Carbonated Beverages
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Regular
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Very sweet, high sugar
Concentrated
Regular with melted ice
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Not sweet
Diluted
Hydrometer
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Hydrometer
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Instrument used to determine sugar
concentration
Specific Gravity
Solution’s density compared to the density of pure
water at 4 degrees C
 Density
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Ratio of mass to volume
Ex. large Styrofoam block or small iron bar magnet
Density of Water – 1 g/mL at 4 degrees C
Activity
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Density Problems Worksheet
Sugar Content Lab 2A-C
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Work in Group – Everyone must complete lab
Steps:
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TITLE: Sugar Content Lab: Solution Preparation and Hydrometer Calibration
Read background pages 27-35
PURPOSE: Identify the purpose of all 3 labs
Half of your group:
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Whole group:
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Calibrate Hydrometer
Data/Observations
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Prepare Solutions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% sucrose solutions)
Construct Hydrometer (1 per group)
Hydrometer Readings for 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% (see Fig. 7 – page 34)
Analysis/Conclusions
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Calibration Curve (see Figure 8 – page 35)
Questions: (answer in complete sentences)
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1. Explain the difference between a diluted and a concentrated sample of flavoring syrup.
2. If you knew the hydrometer height for a test solution, how could you use the calibration curve
to find the percentage of sucrose in that solution?
3. Describe what a technician must do to make a 50% dilution of a concentrated flavoring syrup.
Turn in Lab Report
Sugar Content Lab 2D – pg. 36
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Work in Group – Everyone must complete lab
Steps:
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Title
Purpose
Procedure – own words
Hypothesis
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Observations – Record measurements for samples 1-4
Analysis/Conclusions
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Based on visual observations
Rate as High, Normal, or Low Sugar Content
How might knowing the percentage of sugar in the different cola samples help in
solving the cola quality control problem?
Would it be more reliable to use a taste test or an instrument like a hydrometer to
determine sugar content?
Describe how density of a solution impacts the hydrometer.
Turn in Lab Report
pH Notes
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What is pH?
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Measure of how acidic a solution is
Concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) in a
solution
Scale
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0 to 14
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What indicates the most acidic?
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0
What indicates the most basic?
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14
Acid/Base
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Acid
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Base
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Water-based solution having a pH of less than 7
Sour taste
pH greater than 7
Bitter taste
Neutral
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pH of 7
Can occur when acid/base are added to each other
Name an example of something being neutralized:
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Tums
Acid Rain
Everyday Acids/Bases
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Lemon juice
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Grapefruit
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Base
Soap and Water
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Base
Baking soda
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Acid
Bleach
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Base
Vinegar
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Acid
Ammonia
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Acid
Base
Fertilizers
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Acid
• Aspirin
• Acid
• Deodorants
• Base
• Glass Cleaner
• Base
• Vitamin C
• Acid
• Carbonated Beverages
• Acid
• Plaster
• Base
• Car Batteries
• Acid
• Dish Detergent
• Base
pH of Solutions Lab 3B – pg. 40
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Work in Group – Everyone must complete lab
Steps:
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Title
Purpose
Procedure – own words
Observations – pH of Solutions Data Table
Analysis/Conclusions
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Complete sentences
QUESTIONS
Turn in Lab Report
Review Key Questions
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What is quality control and why is it
important in the production process?
How do properties of matter relate to the
carbonated beverage industry?
What lab techniques can be used in
quality control testing of carbonated
beverages?
Off Spec Testing
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NO Taste Tests
Sugar Content
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Calibrated Hydrometer
pH Test
Color Test
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