October 26 AP Biology - John D. O`Bryant School of Math & Science

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AP Biology
John D. O’Bryant School of
Mathematics and Science
October 26, 2012
AP Biology
Agenda
 Do Now: Directions for tomorrow’s study session,





room assignments; HW Review
Case Study: A Rigorous Investigation
Quiz
Cellular Respiration Lab: Respirometer Lab
Cellular Respiration Lab: Yeast Fermentation
Cellular Respiration: Lecture/Discussion
AP Biology
HW discussion
 1. The citric acid cycle does not require
oxygen. Why does cellular respiration
stop in the absence of oxygen?
AP Biology
HW discussion
 2. Why can't cells store large quantities
of ATP? Consider both the chemical
stability and the cell's osmotic potential
in your answer.
AP Biology
HW discussion
 3. Given that cells cannot store ATP for
long periods of time, how do they store
energy?
AP Biology
HW discussion
 4. Suppose it takes 1,000 g of glucose
to grow 10 g of an anaerobic bacterium,
how many grams of glucose would it
take to grow 10 g of that same
bacterium if it was respiring
aerobically? (Hint: This is a ratio and
proportion problem.)
AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
Stage 1:
Glycolysis
AP Biology
2007-2008
But can’t stop there!
G3P
DHAP
NAD+
raw materials  products
Pi
+
NADH
NAD
NADH
Pi
1,3-BPG
NAD+
Pi
+
NADH
NAD
1,3-BPG
NADH
7
ADP
Glycolysis
6
Pi
ADP
ATP
ATP
3-Phosphoglycerate
(3PG)
3-Phosphoglycerate
(3PG)
2-Phosphoglycerate
(2PG)
2-Phosphoglycerate
(2PG)
glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD+  2 pyruvate + 2ATP
+ 2NADH
8
 Going to run out of NAD+


9
H2O
without regenerating NAD+,
energy production would stop! Phosphoenolpyruvate
(PEP)
another molecule must accept HADP
10
from NADH
ATP
 so
AP Biology
NAD+ is freed up for another round
Pyruvate
H2O
Phosphoenolpyruvate
(PEP)
ADP
ATP
Pyruvate
How is NADH recycled to NAD+?
Another molecule
must accept H
from NADH
H2O
O2
recycle
NADH
with oxygen
without oxygen
aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
“fermentation”
pyruvate
NAD+
NADH
acetyl-CoA
CO2
NADH
NAD+
lactate
acetaldehyde
NADH
NAD+
lactic acid
fermentation
which path you
use depends on
AP Biology
who
you are…
Krebs
cycle
ethanol
alcohol
fermentation
Fermentation (anaerobic)
 Bacteria, yeast
pyruvate  ethanol + CO2
3C
NADH
2C
NAD+
 beer, wine, bread
1C
back to glycolysis
 Animals, some fungi
pyruvate  lactic acid
3C
NADH

AP Biology
3C
NAD+back to glycolysis
cheese, anaerobic exercise (no O2)
Alcohol Fermentation
pyruvate  ethanol + CO2
3C
NADH
2C
NAD+ back to glycolysis
 Dead end process
 at ~12% ethanol,
kills yeast
 can’t reverse the
reaction
Count the
carbons!
AP Biology
1C
bacteria
yeast
recycle
NADH
Lactic Acid Fermentation
pyruvate  lactic acid

3C
NADH
3C
NAD+ back to glycolysis
 Reversible process
 once O2 is available,
lactate is converted
back to pyruvate by
the liver
Count the
carbons!
AP Biology
O2
animals
some fungi
recycle
NADH
Pyruvate is a branching point
Pyruvate
O2
O2
fermentation
anaerobic
respiration
mitochondria
Krebs cycle
aerobic respiration
AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
Stage 2 & 3:
Oxidation of Pyruvate
Krebs Cycle
AP Biology
2006-2007
Cellular respiration
AP Biology
Cellular Respiration
Stage 4:
Electron Transport Chain
AP Biology
2006-2007
Cellular respiration
AP Biology
Electron Transport Chain
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
Intermembrane space
C
Q
NADH
dehydrogenase
cytochrome
bc complex
Mitochondrial matrix
AP Biology
cytochrome c
oxidase complex
Remember the Electron Carriers?
Glycolysis
glucose
Krebs cycle
G3P
2 NADH
Time to
break open
the piggybank!
AP Biology
8 NADH
2 FADH2
Electron Transport Chain
Building proton gradient!
NADH  NAD+ + H
e
p
intermembrane
space
H+
H+
H  e- + H+
C
e–
NADH H
FADH2
NAD+
NADH
dehydrogenase
inner
mitochondrial
membrane
e–
Q
AP Biology
H+
e–
H
FAD
2H+ +
cytochrome
bc complex
1
2
O2
H2O
cytochrome c
oxidase complex
mitochondrial
matrix
What powers the proton (H+) pumps?…
Stripping H from Electron Carriers
 Electron carriers pass electrons & H+ to ETC


H cleaved off NADH & FADH2
electrons stripped from H atoms  H+ (protons)
 electrons passed from one electron carrier to next in
mitochondrial membrane (ETC)
 flowing electrons = energy to do work

transport proteins in membrane pump H+ (protons)
across inner membrane to intermembrane space
H+
TA-DA!!
Moving electrons
do the work!
+
H
H+
+
H
H+
H+
+
H+ H+ H
+
H+ H H+
C
e–
NADH
AP Biology
+
H
H+
Q
e–
FADH2
FAD
NAD+
NADH
dehydrogenase
e–
2H+
cytochrome
bc complex
+
1
2
O2
H2O
cytochrome c
oxidase complex
ADP
+ Pi
ATP
H+
But what “pulls” the
electrons down the ETC?
H 2O
O2
AP Biology
electrons
flow downhill
to O2
oxidative phosphorylation
Electrons flow downhill
 Electrons move in steps from
carrier to carrier downhill to oxygen
each carrier more electronegative
 controlled oxidation
 controlled release of energy

make ATP
instead of
fire!
AP Biology
“proton-motive” force
We did it!
 Set up a H+


H+
H+
H+
gradient
Allow the protons
to flow through
ATP synthase
Synthesizes ATP
ADP + Pi  ATP
Are we
there yet?
AP Biology
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
ADP + Pi
ATP
H+
Chemiosmosis
 The diffusion of ions across a membrane

build up of proton gradient just so H+ could flow
through ATP synthase enzyme to build ATP
Chemiosmosis
links the Electron
Transport Chain
to ATP synthesis
So that’s
the point!
AP Biology
1961 | 1978
Peter Mitchell
 Proposed chemiosmotic hypothesis

revolutionary idea at the time
proton motive force
1920-1992
AP Biology
Pyruvate from
cytoplasm
Inner
+
mitochondrial H
membrane
H+
Intermembrane
space
Electron
transport
C system
Q
NADH
Acetyl-CoA
1. Electrons are harvested
and carried to the
transport system.
NADH
Krebs
cycle
e-
e-
FADH2
e-
2. Electrons
provide energy
to pump
protons across
the membrane.
e-
H2O
3. Oxygen joins
with protons to
form water.
1 O
2 +2
2H+
O2
H+
CO2
ATP
Mitochondrial
matrix
AP Biology
H+
ATP
ATP
4. Protons diffuse back in
down their concentration
gradient, driving the
synthesis of ATP.
H+
ATP
synthase
Cellular respiration
2 ATP
AP Biology
+
2 ATP
+
~36 ATP
Summary of cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2







 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~40 ATP
Where did the glucose come from?
Where did the O2 come from?
Where did the CO2 come from?
Where did the CO2 go?
Where did the H2O come from?
Where did the ATP come from?
What else is produced that is not listed
in this equation?
 Why do we breathe?
AP Biology
Taking it beyond…
 What is the final electron acceptor in
H+
H+
H+
C
Electron Transport Chain?
e–
NADH
O2
Q
e–
FADH2
FAD
NAD+
NADH
dehydrogenase
e–
2H+ +
cytochrome
bc complex
1
2
O2
H2O
cytochrome c
oxidase complex
 So what happens if O2 unavailable?
 ETC backs up
nothing to pull electrons down chain
 NADH & FADH2 can’t unload H

AP Biology
 ATP production ceases
 cells run out of energy
 and you die!
What’s the
point?
The point
is to make
ATP!
ATP
AP Biology
2006-2007
Do Now (Quiz)
 1. Which H+ ion has just passed through the inner mitochondrial





membrane by diffusion?
A) hydrogen ion A
B) hydrogen ion B
C) hydrogen ion C
D) hydrogen ion D
E) hydrogen ion E
AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
 As a scientist employed by the FDA, you've been asked to
sit on a panel to evaluate a pharmaceutical company's
application for approval of a new weight loss drug called
Fat Away. The company has submitted a report
summarizing the results of their animal and human testing.
In the report, it was noted that Fat Away works by affecting
the electron transport chain. It decreases the synthesis of
ATP by making the mitochondrial membrane permeable to
H+ which allows H+ to leak from the mitochondrial matrix to
the intermembrane space. This effect leads to weight loss.
AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
 2. Fat Away prevents ATP from being made by





A) blocking access of H+ to ATP synthetase.
B) glycolysis from occurring.
C) preventing the conversion of NADH to NAD+.
D) lowering body temperature.
E) slowing down the Krebs cycle.
AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
 3. To obtain energy from starch and glycogen, the body





must begin by
A) hydrolyzing the starch to glucose and the glycogen to
amino acids.
B) hydrolyzing both starch and glycogen to glucose.
C) converting both starch and glycogen to fatty acids.
D) removing nitrogen atoms from both molecules.
E) removing one glucose at a time with a condensation
reaction.
AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
4. Which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is
false?
 A) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system
because it does not require oxygen.
 B) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system
because it is not located in a membrane-bound organelle.
 C) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system
because it occurs universally.
 D) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system
because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP
synthesis.
 E) Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system
because glucose is the universal substrate for glycolysis.

AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
 5. A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria





are missing from skeletal muscle cells. However, the
muscles still function. Physicians find that
A) the muscles contain large amounts of lactate following
even mild physical exercise.
B) the muscles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide
following even mild physical exercise.
C) the muscles require extremely high levels of oxygen to
function.
D) the muscle cells cannot split glucose to pyruvate.
E) the muscles require extremely large amounts of carbon
dioxide to function.

AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
 6. The function of the enzyme ATP synthase is to...
 A) accept a proton from inside the cell membrane as it




accepts electrons.
B) utilize the energy of the proton motive force to convert
ADP to ATP.
C) produce reduced coenzymes like NADH.
D) transfer hydrogen to the electron transport chain.
E) shuttle electrons from NADH to a terminal electron
acceptor.

AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
 7. Electrons enter the electron transport chain when NADH
transfers them there along with protons in the form of
hydrogen.

 A) True
 B) False

AP Biology
Do Now (Quiz)
 8. The electron transport chain consists of a series of
membrane-bound carriers that shuttle protons and
electrons to NADH.

 A) True
 B) False

AP Biology
Lab: Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast
AP Biology
Lorenzo’s Oil
AP Biology
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