3.3 The Periodic Table

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Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements
3.3
The Periodic Table
Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
1
Groups and Periods
On the periodic table,
• elements are arranged according to similar
properties.
• groups contain elements with similar properties in
vertical columns.
• periods are horizontal rows of elements.
2
Groups and Periods
Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
3
Periodic Table
4
Group Numbers
Group Numbers
• use the letter A for the representative elements (1A to
8A) and the letter B for the transition elements.
• also use numbers 1-18 to the columns from left to right.
5
Names of Some Representative
Elements
6
Alkali Metals
Group 1A (1), the alkali metals, includes lithium,
sodium, and potassium.
Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
7
Halogens
Group 7A (17),
the halogens,
includes chlorine,
bromine, and
iodine.
Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
8
Learning Check
Identify the element described by the following:
A. Group 7A (17), Period 4
1) Br
2) Cl
3) Mn
B. Group 2A (2), Period 3
1) beryllium
2) boron
3) magnesium
C. Group 5A (15), Period 2
1) phosphorus 2) arsenic
3) nitrogen
9
Solution
A. Group 7A (17), Period 4
1) Br
B. Group 2A (2), Period 3
3) magnesium
C. Group 5A (15), Period 2
3) nitrogen
10
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
The heavy zigzag line separates metals and
nonmetals.
• Metals are located to the left.
• Nonmetals are located to the right.
• Metalloids are located along the heavy zigzag
line between the metals and nonmetals.
11
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
on the Periodic Table
12
Properties of Metals, Nonmetals,
and Metalloids
Metals
• are shiny and ductile.
• are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Nonmetals
• are dull, brittle, and poor conductors.
• are good insulators.
Metalloids
• are better conductors than nonmetals, but not
as good as metals.
• are used as semiconductors and insulators.
13
Comparing a Metal, Metalloid, and
Nonmetal
14
Learning Check
Identify each of the following elements as
1) metal, 2) nonmetal, or 3) metalloid.
A. sodium
B. chlorine
C. silicon
D. iron
E. carbon
____
____
____
____
____
15
Solution
Identify each of the following elements as
1) metal, 2) nonmetal, or 3) metalloid.
A. sodium
B. chlorine
C. silicon
D. iron
E. carbon
1 metal
2 nonmetal
3 metalloid
1 metal
2 nonmetal
16
Learning Check
Match the elements to the description.
A. Metals in Group 4A (14)
1) Sn, Pb
2) C, Si
3) C, Si, Ge, Sn
B. Nonmetals in Group 5A (15)
1) As, Sb, Bi
2) N, P
3) N, P, As, Sb
C. Metalloids in Group 4A (14)
1) C, Si, Ge,
2) Si, Ge
3) Si, Ge, Sn, Pb
17
Solution
Match the elements to the description.
A. Metals in Group 4A (14)
1) Sn, Pb
B. Nonmetals in Group 5A (15)
2) N, P
C. Metalloids in Group 4A (14)
2) Si, Ge
18
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