Fats continued

Chapter 7 Lecture
Improving Your
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Learning Outcomes
• Describe obstacles to a healthy diet during the
college years and a few ways to overcome them.
• Identify the main nutrients in food and their roles
in the body.
• Discuss the role of portion size, food labels, food
groups, and whole foods in maintaining a
balanced diet.
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Learning Outcomes continued
• Describe the special dietary needs of elite
athletes versus everyday exercisers.
• List some special nutritional needs of women,
children, adults over 50, and vegetarians, and
examine your own specific nutritional needs.
• Assess your current diet and create a behavior
change plan for improved nutrition.
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Nutrition Concepts
• Nutrients
– Chemical compounds in food that are crucial
to growth and function; include proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals
• Nutrition
– The study of how people consume and use
nutrients in food
• A good diet can:
– Help sustain desirable body mass and weight
– Alleviate feelings of stress and depression
– Act as preventive medicine against disease
and infection
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Why College Years Are a Nutritional
• Most students have less-than-optimal eating
• College life presents obstacles to good nutrition.
– Time and money pressures
– Lack of home-cooking facilities
– Poor personal habits and attitudes about food
– Emotional stresses
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Comparing Eating Habits
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What Are the Main Nutrients in Food?
• Essential Nutrients
– What we need to obtain from food for normal
body functioning
– Water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,
vitamins, and minerals
– Measures: calories, Calories, and kilocalories
• Energy released by the body is measured in
calories (lowercase).
• A larger measure used by nutritionists is
kilocalories (kcal) or Calories (uppercase).
• 1 Calorie or kilocalorie = 1,000 calories
• In common usage, "calories" refers to food energy
in general.
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Six Groups of Essential Nutrients
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Biological molecules composed of amino acids
The "building blocks" of bodily structure and function
Functional proteins perform crucial bodily tasks.
Nutritionists recommend getting about 10% of daily
calories from protein.
• Protein needs for most people are met in a typical diet;
higher amounts are needed only if fighting off serious
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Complementary Proteins
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Determining Daily Protein Requirements
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• A class of nutrients containing sugars and
starches and supplying most of the energy for
daily activity
• Carbohydrates may be simple or complex.
– Simple:
• Deliver energy in quickly usable forms
• Common in whole, unprocessed foods
– Complex:
• Deliver "timed-release" energy
• Found in grains, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and
root plants
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Simple Sugar vs. Complex Carbohydrate
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Carbohydrates continued
• Fiber
– Indigestible carbohydrates that speed the
passage of partially digested food through the
digestive tract
– Helps control appetite and body weight by
creating a feeling of fullness without adding
• Insoluble fiber speeds the passage of foods and
reduces bile acids and certain bacterial enzymes.
• Soluble fiber attaches to water molecules and
helps lower blood cholesterol and the risk of
cardiovascular disease.
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Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains
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Carbohydrates continued
• Glycemic Index of Foods
– Measures how foods raise blood sugar levels
– Glycemic load: glycemic index plus portion
– Can help you plan a healthy diet
• "Low-Carb" Foods
– Highly processed foods and the quantity
most people eat are the real culprit; most
"low-carb" foods are highly processed.
– Whole-grain foods are packed with healthful
nutrients and fiber.
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Ditching Sugar
1. What can you do to avoid overconsumption of sugar?
2. Why is added sugar unhealthy? What diseases
can occur due to consuming high amounts of
added sugar?
3. What are some of the replacement
(counterconditioning) tactics that can help cut
back on our "want" of added sugar?
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High-Fiber Diet
1. If you had to give nutrition advice to the
general public, what foods would you
recommend for increasing fiber intake?
2. Average fiber intake for Americans is much lower
than recommended levels. What are the reasons
Americans consume lower than recommended
amounts of fiber in their daily diet?
3. How might one's living environment, cultural
practices, socioeconomic status, and education
level limit their consumption of fiber rich foods?
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• "Fats" is the common term for lipids, a class of molecules
that includes fats and oils.
• At room temperature, most fats are solid and oils are liquid.
• Chains of fats and oils are called fatty acids; they occur in
the body in the form of triglycerides.
• Essential fatty acids are those that we cannot construct in
our cells; therefore, they must be consumed in our diet.
• Different kinds of fats:
– Saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated, and trans fats (partially hydrogenated)
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Triglycerides and Fatty Acids
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Fats continued
• Generally, lipids high in saturated fats are
unhealthy, and those high in monounsaturated
and polyunsaturated fats are healthier.
• Trans fats can be even worse than saturated
fats for health.
• Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids:
– Two essential fatty acids
– Polyunsaturated oils are high in omega-3 and
omega-6 fatty acids
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Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
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Fats continued
• A Healthy Plan for Fats in Your Diet
– Check food labels for fat and saturated fat
– Beware of "low-fat" food claims; these foods
are not necessarily healthy.
– Reduce consumption of saturated and trans
– Choose foods higher in monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated fats.
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• Vitamins are organic compounds we need in small
amounts to promote growth and overall health.
• Some vitamins can be toxic in high doses.
• Water-soluble vitamins dissolve only in water.
• Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve only in fat.
• Because they're not stored in the body, watersoluble vitamins must be replenished regularly.
• A balanced diet supplies most vitamin needs;
some people benefit from supplements, such as
those with special needs or those who don't eat
sufficient fruits and vegetables.
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Guide to Vitamins
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Guide to Vitamins continued
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Guide to Vitamins continued
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• Minerals are micronutrients that support key
bodily functions and help us absorb vitamins.
• Major minerals (macrominerals) are needed in
larger amounts.
• Trace minerals (microminerals) are needed in
smaller amounts.
• Three minerals—sodium, calcium, and iron—play
crucial roles, so excesses or deficiencies in them
can cause serious health concerns.
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Guide to Selected Minerals
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Guide to Selected Minerals continued
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Guide to Selected Minerals continued
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• Water helps maintain the proper salt and pH
balance, and helps transport substances within
the body.
• Without sufficient water, most people get quickly
dehydrated. Several days without water can
result in shock and death.
• Individual water needs vary by age, body size,
diet, exercise level, overall health, environmental
temperature, and humidity.
• "Energy drinks" should not be long-term
substitutes for consuming water.
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How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet?
• Follow Guidelines for Good Nutrition
– Resources include the government's
nutritional advice to the public published as
the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
– Read and understand food labels.
– Determine your individual calorie needs.
– Understand portion sizes and adjust your
intake to fit your needs.
– Use food guides and other dietary tools.
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Understanding Food Labels
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Nutrition Keys
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Daily Reference Values
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Portion Control
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How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet?
• Acquire Skills to Improve Your Nutrition
– Reading food labels
– Keeping a food diary
– Using diet analysis software
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How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet?
• Adopt the Whole Foods Habit
– Nutrient-dense foods
– High-volume, low-calorie foods
– High-fiber foods
– Antioxidant-rich foods
– Phytochemicals
– Foods containing folate
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Comparing Sandwiches
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Comparing Calorie Density in Common
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Grain Labels Do Not Reflect the
"Whole" Truth
1. How can we raise consumer awareness
that there is a discrepancy between the
marketing of grain products and the actual
contents of grain products for consumption?
2. How can companies be held to a better
standard to be more honest regarding the
contents of products?
3. Provide an argument for the need for the FDA
to define whole grains.
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Do I Need Special Nutrition for Exercise?
• Most Exercisers
– Can follow general nutritional guidelines
– Best source of energy is carbohydrates
– Include some proteins to assist in strength
training and endurance
• Elite Athletes
– Need higher intake of protein, fats,
carbohydrates, fluids, and some supplements
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Metabolic Fuels Used during Exercise
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Do I Have Special Nutritional Needs?
• Women have extra nutrient needs at certain
• Children need key nutrients for proper growth.
• Adults over age 50 have changing needs for
vitamins and minerals.
• Vegetarians must monitor their nutrient intake
and make a special effort to eat a variety of daily
• People with diabetes must reduce their
consumption of carbohydrates.
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Healthy Meals for Vegetarians
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Food Safety
• Be aware of cleanliness and expiration dates in stores
and restaurants.
• Use proper storage and handling techniques:
– Keep hands and surfaces clean.
– Separate raw and cooked foods.
– Scrub and rinse produce thoroughly.
– Heat cooked foods sufficiently to kill germs.
– Refrigerate perishable foods.
– Be careful with common sources of food-borne illness
including raw eggs, meat, poultry, and fish;
unwashed or outdated beans or sprouts; and
unpasteurized milk and juices.
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FDA Proposes New Food Safety
1. How might the new food regulations
impact the health of the consumer?
2. Why do you think food was not previously
tested prior to leaving fields?
3. If foods are tested prior to the food being
shipped, packaged, or processed after leaving
fields and farms, what will be the economic
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Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition
• Assess Your Current Diet
– Record what you eat via a manual food diary or
dietary software.
– Identify your patterns of eating. Are they boredom- or
• Review Your Behavior Change Skills
– Look at your motivation.
– Identify barriers to a better diet.
– Commit to learning about better nutrition.
– Choose a target behavior.
– Identify where you stand in the typical stages of
– Look to the example of a role model.
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Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition
• Get Set to Apply Nutritional Skills
– Examine food guides to compare your daily
servings of various food groups with the
amounts that nutritionists recommend.
– Read food labels more often, and watch for
those nutrients you've identified as problematic
in your own diet.
– Recognize proper portion sizes and note when
the helping you are served is too big.
– Use www.ChooseMyPlate.gov or other kinds of
diet software to get an individual analysis of the
daily calories and nutrients you consume.
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Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition
• Create a Nutrition Plan
– Begin planning your own program using Lab
7.3. As you work through the lab, write down
your own notes and observations.
– Keep track of calories for your new plan.
– After two weeks, discuss the plan and your
results with your fitness/health instructor, and
revise your plan if necessary.
– For several weeks, continue tracking your
daily diet, either manually or using
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