Chapter 7 Lecture Improving Your Nutrition © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Outcomes • Describe obstacles to a healthy diet during the college years and a few ways to overcome them. • Identify the main nutrients in food and their roles in the body. • Discuss the role of portion size, food labels, food groups, and whole foods in maintaining a balanced diet. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Outcomes continued • Describe the special dietary needs of elite athletes versus everyday exercisers. • List some special nutritional needs of women, children, adults over 50, and vegetarians, and examine your own specific nutritional needs. • Assess your current diet and create a behavior change plan for improved nutrition. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition Concepts • Nutrients – Chemical compounds in food that are crucial to growth and function; include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals • Nutrition – The study of how people consume and use nutrients in food • A good diet can: – Help sustain desirable body mass and weight – Alleviate feelings of stress and depression – Act as preventive medicine against disease and infection © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Why College Years Are a Nutritional Challenge • Most students have less-than-optimal eating habits. • College life presents obstacles to good nutrition. – Time and money pressures – Lack of home-cooking facilities – Poor personal habits and attitudes about food – Emotional stresses © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparing Eating Habits © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are the Main Nutrients in Food? • Essential Nutrients – What we need to obtain from food for normal body functioning – Water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals – Measures: calories, Calories, and kilocalories • Energy released by the body is measured in calories (lowercase). • A larger measure used by nutritionists is kilocalories (kcal) or Calories (uppercase). • 1 Calorie or kilocalorie = 1,000 calories • In common usage, "calories" refers to food energy in general. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Six Groups of Essential Nutrients © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Proteins • • • • Biological molecules composed of amino acids The "building blocks" of bodily structure and function Functional proteins perform crucial bodily tasks. Nutritionists recommend getting about 10% of daily calories from protein. • Protein needs for most people are met in a typical diet; higher amounts are needed only if fighting off serious infection. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Complementary Proteins © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Determining Daily Protein Requirements © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbohydrates • A class of nutrients containing sugars and starches and supplying most of the energy for daily activity • Carbohydrates may be simple or complex. – Simple: • Deliver energy in quickly usable forms • Common in whole, unprocessed foods – Complex: • Deliver "timed-release" energy • Found in grains, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and root plants © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Simple Sugar vs. Complex Carbohydrate © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbohydrates continued • Fiber – Indigestible carbohydrates that speed the passage of partially digested food through the digestive tract – Helps control appetite and body weight by creating a feeling of fullness without adding calories • Insoluble fiber speeds the passage of foods and reduces bile acids and certain bacterial enzymes. • Soluble fiber attaches to water molecules and helps lower blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Carbohydrates continued • Glycemic Index of Foods – Measures how foods raise blood sugar levels – Glycemic load: glycemic index plus portion size – Can help you plan a healthy diet • "Low-Carb" Foods – Highly processed foods and the quantity most people eat are the real culprit; most "low-carb" foods are highly processed. – Whole-grain foods are packed with healthful nutrients and fiber. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Ditching Sugar 1. What can you do to avoid overconsumption of sugar? 2. Why is added sugar unhealthy? What diseases can occur due to consuming high amounts of added sugar? 3. What are some of the replacement (counterconditioning) tactics that can help cut back on our "want" of added sugar? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. High-Fiber Diet 1. If you had to give nutrition advice to the general public, what foods would you recommend for increasing fiber intake? 2. Average fiber intake for Americans is much lower than recommended levels. What are the reasons Americans consume lower than recommended amounts of fiber in their daily diet? 3. How might one's living environment, cultural practices, socioeconomic status, and education level limit their consumption of fiber rich foods? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Fats • "Fats" is the common term for lipids, a class of molecules that includes fats and oils. • At room temperature, most fats are solid and oils are liquid. • Chains of fats and oils are called fatty acids; they occur in the body in the form of triglycerides. • Essential fatty acids are those that we cannot construct in our cells; therefore, they must be consumed in our diet. • Different kinds of fats: – Saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, and trans fats (partially hydrogenated) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Triglycerides and Fatty Acids © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Fats continued • Generally, lipids high in saturated fats are unhealthy, and those high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are healthier. • Trans fats can be even worse than saturated fats for health. • Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids: – Two essential fatty acids – Polyunsaturated oils are high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Fats continued • A Healthy Plan for Fats in Your Diet – Check food labels for fat and saturated fat levels. – Beware of "low-fat" food claims; these foods are not necessarily healthy. – Reduce consumption of saturated and trans fats. – Choose foods higher in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Vitamins • Vitamins are organic compounds we need in small amounts to promote growth and overall health. • Some vitamins can be toxic in high doses. • Water-soluble vitamins dissolve only in water. • Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve only in fat. • Because they're not stored in the body, watersoluble vitamins must be replenished regularly. • A balanced diet supplies most vitamin needs; some people benefit from supplements, such as those with special needs or those who don't eat sufficient fruits and vegetables. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Vitamins © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Vitamins continued © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Vitamins continued © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Minerals • Minerals are micronutrients that support key bodily functions and help us absorb vitamins. • Major minerals (macrominerals) are needed in larger amounts. • Trace minerals (microminerals) are needed in smaller amounts. • Three minerals—sodium, calcium, and iron—play crucial roles, so excesses or deficiencies in them can cause serious health concerns. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Selected Minerals © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Selected Minerals continued © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guide to Selected Minerals continued © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Water • Water helps maintain the proper salt and pH balance, and helps transport substances within the body. • Without sufficient water, most people get quickly dehydrated. Several days without water can result in shock and death. • Individual water needs vary by age, body size, diet, exercise level, overall health, environmental temperature, and humidity. • "Energy drinks" should not be long-term substitutes for consuming water. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet? • Follow Guidelines for Good Nutrition – Resources include the government's nutritional advice to the public published as the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. – Read and understand food labels. – Determine your individual calorie needs. – Understand portion sizes and adjust your intake to fit your needs. – Use food guides and other dietary tools. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Understanding Food Labels © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutrition Keys © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Daily Reference Values © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Portion Control © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. www.ChooseMyPlate.gov © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet? continued • Acquire Skills to Improve Your Nutrition – Reading food labels – Keeping a food diary – Using diet analysis software © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet? continued • Adopt the Whole Foods Habit – Nutrient-dense foods – High-volume, low-calorie foods – High-fiber foods – Antioxidant-rich foods – Phytochemicals – Foods containing folate © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparing Sandwiches © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparing Calorie Density in Common Foods © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Grain Labels Do Not Reflect the "Whole" Truth 1. How can we raise consumer awareness that there is a discrepancy between the marketing of grain products and the actual contents of grain products for consumption? 2. How can companies be held to a better standard to be more honest regarding the contents of products? 3. Provide an argument for the need for the FDA to define whole grains. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Antioxidants © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Do I Need Special Nutrition for Exercise? • Most Exercisers – Can follow general nutritional guidelines – Best source of energy is carbohydrates – Include some proteins to assist in strength training and endurance • Elite Athletes – Need higher intake of protein, fats, carbohydrates, fluids, and some supplements © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Metabolic Fuels Used during Exercise © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Do I Have Special Nutritional Needs? • Women have extra nutrient needs at certain ages. • Children need key nutrients for proper growth. • Adults over age 50 have changing needs for vitamins and minerals. • Vegetarians must monitor their nutrient intake and make a special effort to eat a variety of daily foods. • People with diabetes must reduce their consumption of carbohydrates. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Healthy Meals for Vegetarians © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Food Safety • Be aware of cleanliness and expiration dates in stores and restaurants. • Use proper storage and handling techniques: – Keep hands and surfaces clean. – Separate raw and cooked foods. – Scrub and rinse produce thoroughly. – Heat cooked foods sufficiently to kill germs. – Refrigerate perishable foods. – Be careful with common sources of food-borne illness including raw eggs, meat, poultry, and fish; unwashed or outdated beans or sprouts; and unpasteurized milk and juices. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. FDA Proposes New Food Safety Rules 1. How might the new food regulations impact the health of the consumer? 2. Why do you think food was not previously tested prior to leaving fields? 3. If foods are tested prior to the food being shipped, packaged, or processed after leaving fields and farms, what will be the economic impact? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition • Assess Your Current Diet – Record what you eat via a manual food diary or dietary software. – Identify your patterns of eating. Are they boredom- or stress-induced? • Review Your Behavior Change Skills – Look at your motivation. – Identify barriers to a better diet. – Commit to learning about better nutrition. – Choose a target behavior. – Identify where you stand in the typical stages of change. – Look to the example of a role model. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition continued • Get Set to Apply Nutritional Skills – Examine food guides to compare your daily servings of various food groups with the amounts that nutritionists recommend. – Read food labels more often, and watch for those nutrients you've identified as problematic in your own diet. – Recognize proper portion sizes and note when the helping you are served is too big. – Use www.ChooseMyPlate.gov or other kinds of diet software to get an individual analysis of the daily calories and nutrients you consume. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition continued • Create a Nutrition Plan – Begin planning your own program using Lab 7.3. As you work through the lab, write down your own notes and observations. – Keep track of calories for your new plan. – After two weeks, discuss the plan and your results with your fitness/health instructor, and revise your plan if necessary. – For several weeks, continue tracking your daily diet, either manually or using www.ChooseMyPlate.gov. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.